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DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 

SUPPLEMENT 

VOL. II. 
Chippendale Hoste 



'"■-■nst 




DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



EDITED BY 

SIDNEY LEE 



SUPPLEMENT 

VOL. II. 

Chippendale Hoste 



l<^i-^c;f 




LONDON 
SMITH, ELDER, & CO., 15 WATERLOO PLACE 

1901 

[Ali rights reserveal 



^ 



LIST OF WEITEES 



IN THE SECOND VOLUME OP THE SUPPLEMENT. 



A. A The Rev. Canon Ainger. 

G. A-N. . . . George Aitchison, R.A. 

G. A. A. . . G. A. AiTKEN. 

A. J. A. . . Sir Alexander Arbdthnot, 
K.C.S.L 

W. A Sir Walter Armstrong. 

J. B. A. . . J. B. Atlay. 

R. B The Rev. Ronald Bayne. 

T. B Thomas Bayne. 

T. H. B. . . Professor T. Hudson Beare. 

F. E. B. . . F. E. Beddard, F.R.S. 

H. C. B. . . The Rev. Professor Beeching. 

H. B-e. . . . H. Beveridge. 

T. G. B. . . The Rev. Canon Bonney, F.R.S. 

T. B. B. . . T. B. Browning. 

A. R. B. . . The Rev. A. R. Buckland. 

E. I. C. . . . E. Irving Carlyle. 

W. C-R. . . William Carr. 

J. L. C. . . . J. L. Caw. 

E. C-E. . . . Sir Ernest Clarke, F.S.A. 

A. M. G. . . Miss A. M. Clerke. 

J. C The Rev. Professor Cooper, 

D.D. 

T. C Thompson Cooper, F.S.A. 

J. S. C. . . . J. S. Cotton. 

W. P. C. . . W. p. Courtney. 

L. C Lionel Cust, F.S.A. 

H. D Henry Davey. 



CD. ... 


. Campbell Dodgson. 


R. K. D. . 


. Professor R. K. Douoias. 


J. A. D. . 


. J. A. Doyle. 


S. R. D. . 


. The Rev. Canon Driveb, D.D. 


F. G. E. . 


. F. G. Edwards. 


Herbert Exon. The Right Rev. the Bishop 




of Exeter. 


C. L. F. . 


. C. Litton Falkiner. 


C. H. F. . 


. C. H. Firth. 


J. D. F. . 


. The Hon. J. D. Fitzgerald, K.a 


R. G 


. Richard Garnett, LL.D., CB. 


A. G. . . . 


. The Rev. At.kxander Gordon. 


C. A. H. . 


. C. Alexander Harris, C.M.G. 


P. J. H. . 


. P. J. Hartog. 


T. F. H. . 


. T. F. Henderson. 


T. H-N. . . 


. Thomas Hodgkin, D.C.L. 


T. E. H. . 


. Professor T. E. Holland, 




D.CL. 


J. H-R. . . 


. James Hooper. 


C. E. H. . 


. C. E. Hughes. 


W. H 


. The Rev. Wn.TjAM Hunt. 


T. B. J. . 


. The Rev. T. B. Johnstone. 


R. P. K. . 


. Professor R. P. Karkaru. 


J. K. ... 


. Joseph Knight, F.S.A. 


J. K. L. . 


. Professor J. K. Laughton. 


E. L 


. Miss Elizabeth Lee. 


S. L. ... 


. Sidney Lee. 


E. M. L. . 


. Colonel E. M. Lloyd, R.E. 



vi List of Writers to Volume II. — Supplement. 



8. J. L. . . 
B. V. L. . 
J. R. M. . 
A. A. M. . 
E. H. M. . 
H. E. M. . 



c. 


M 


N. 


M 


R. N 


G. Le G. N. 


P. 


N 


F. 


M. CD. . 


8. P. 0. . . 


A. 


C. O'S. . 


H. 


W. P. . . 


A. 


P. P. . . 


B. 


P 


D'A. P 


G. 


W. P. . . 


E. 


R 


F. 


R. 


C. 


H. R. . . 



. Sidney J. Low. 

. E. V. Lucas. 

. J. R. Macdonald. 

. Professor A. A. Macdonell. 

. £. H. Marshall. 

. The Right Hon. Sir Herbert 
Maxwell, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 

The latb Cosmo Monkhouse. 

Norman Moore, M.D. 

Mrs. Newmarch. 

G. Le Grys Norgate. 

Philip Norman, F.S.A. 

F. M. O'Donoghue. 
Captain S. P. Oliver. 
A. C. O'Sullivan, M.B. 
Herbert Paul. 
A. F. Pollard. 
Miss Bertha Porter. 
D'Arcy Power, F.R.C.S. 

G. W. Prothero, Litt.D., LL.D. 
Ernest Radford. 
Fraser Rae. 
C. H. Read, F.S.A. 



W. p. R. . 


. The Hon. W. P. Reeves. 


J. M. R. . 


. J. M. Rigg. 


T. S. . . . 


. Thomas Seccombe. 


H. M. S-r. 


. The Rev. Canon H. Maxwell 




Spooner. 


H. S-N. . . 


. Sib Herbeht Stephen, Bart. 


G. S-h. . . 


. George Stbonach. 


T. B. S. . 


. The Very Rev. T. B. Strong, 




Dean op Christ Church, 




Oxford. 


c. w. s. . 


. C. W. Sutton. 


J. R. T.. . 


. J. R. Tanner. 


H. R. T. . 


. H. E. Tedder, F.S.A. 


D. Ll. T.. 


. D. Lleufer Thomas. 


R. H. V. . 


. Colonel R. H. Vetch, R.E., C.B. 


A. W. W. 


. Dr. a. W. Ward, Master of 




Peteehouse, Cambridge. 


P. W 


. Paul Waterhouse. 


W. W. W. 


. Major W. W. Webb, M.D., 




F.S.A. 


S. W. . . . 


. Stephen Wheeler. 


B. W. . . . 


. Benjamin Williamson, F.R.S., 




D.CL. 


B. B. W. . 


. B. B. Woodward. 



A full Index to the Dictionary, including the Supplement, is 
preparation. The names of articles appearing both in the substantive 
work and in the Supplement will be set forth there in a single alphabet 
with precise references to volume and page. 



^ 



The following are some of the chief articles 
Dean Church, by the Rev. Prof. Beaching. 
Lord Randolph Churchill, by Mr. Sidney 

J. Low. 
Sir Andrew Clark, Physician, by Dr. 

Norman Moore. 
Lord Coleridge, Lord Chief Justice, by 

Sir Herbert Stephen, Bart. 
WiLKiE Collins, by Mr. Thomas Seccombe 
Bishop Creighton, by Dr. G. W. Prothero. 
Charles Lutwidgb Dodgson (Lewis 

Carroll), by Mr. E. V. Lucas. 
George du Mauri er, Artist and Novelist, 

by the Rev. Canon Ainger. 
Sir John Erichsen, Surgeon, by Mr. D'Arcy 

Power. 
Helen Faucit, Lady Martin, by Mr. Joseph 

Knight, F.S.A. 
Sir William Flower, Zoologist, by Mr. F. E. 

Beddard, F.R.S 
Sir Robert Fowler, Lord Mayor of London, 

by Dr. Thomas Hodgkin. 
Sir Edward Frankland, Chemist, by Mr. 

P. J. Hartog. 



in this volume : 

Sir Augustus Wollaston Franks, by Mr. 
C. H. Read, F.S.A. 

Edward Augustus Freeman, by the Rev. 
William Hunt. 

James Anthony Froude, by Mr. A. F. 
Pollard. 

Sir Douglas Galton, by Colonel R. H. 
Vetch, R.E., C.B. 

Sir John Gilbert, R.A., by Mr. Campbell 
Dodgson. 

William Ewart Gladstone, by Mr. Her- 
bert Paul. 

Sir George Grey, by the Hon. W. Pember 
Reeves. 

Sir William Robert Grove, Man of Science, 
and Judge, by Mr. J. M. Rigg. 

Lord Hannen, by Sir Herbert Stephen, 
Bart. 

Sir John Hawkshaw, Engineer, by Pro- 
fessor Hudson Beare. 

Lord Herschell, Lord Chancellor, by Mr. 
J. n. Rigg. 

Professor Hort, by the Bishop of Exeter. 



ol. 2 Supplement. 



DICTIONARY 

OF 

NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



SUPPLEMENT 



Chippendale 



Chippendale 



CHIPPENDALE, WILLIAM HENRY 

(1801-1888), actor, the son of an actor at 
the Haymarket and elsewhere, was born in 
Somers Town, London, on 14 Aug. 1801, and 
received some education at the high school, 
Edinburgh, in which city his father made 
his first appearance on 25 July 1814 as 
Polonius. Chippendale was placed with 
James Ballantyne to learn printing, and as- 
serted, in error or oblivion, that he ' read ' 
some of the AVaverley manuscripts. He was 
subsequently apprenticed to John Ballan- 
tyne the auctioneer. He claimed to have 
played the Page to Stephen Kemble's Fal- 
staff, and taken other boyish parts. In 1819 
he made at Montrose, as David in the * Rivals' 
his first professional appearance, and then 
became a strolling player. On 11 Jan. 1823, 
as Chippendale from Carlisle, he was at the 
Caledonian theatre, Edinburgh, playing 
Johnny Howie in * Gilderoy.' Glasgow, Car- 
lisle, the Lincoln, York, and Worcester cir- 
cuits, and Manchester, Birmingham, Bath, 
and Bristol saw him in leading business in 
comedy. In Manchester he first enacted Sir 
Peter Teazle. In 1836 he went to America, 
where he remained at the Park theatre. New 
York, for seventeen years. His d^but in Lon- 
don was nominally made at the Haymarket 
on 28 March 1853 as Sir Anthony Absolute. 
He had, however, some twenty years earlier 
plaj'ed at the Victoria the Lord Mayor in 
' Richard III ' as a substitute for his father. 
At the Haymarket he took the lead in courtly 
comedy. He was on 27 April 1853 the first 
Lord Betterton in R. Sullivan's * Elopement 
in High Life.' Many new parts in pieces now 

VOL. II. — 8T7P. 



consigned to oblivion followed. On 23 Feb. 
1860 he was first Colepepper in the ' Over- 
land Route.' As Abel Murcott in 'Our 
American Cousin' he made a great hit. He 
was on 14 Jan. 1869 the first Dorrison in 
Robertson's * Home,' and on 25 Oct. the first 
Marmaduke Vavasour in Tom Taylor's * New 
Men and Old Acres.' His chief service to 
the Haymarket was rendered in so-called 
classical comedy, in which he to some extent 
replaced Farren. His parts in this included, 
in addition to those named — Sir Francis Gripe 
in the 'Busybody,' Sullen in the 'Beaux' 
Stratagem,' Malvolio, Adam, Sir Harcourt 
Courtly, Hardcastle, Old Mirabel in the ' In- 
constant,' Lord Duberly in the * Heir at 
Law,' Lord Priory in ' Wives as they were 
and Maids as they are,' Old Domton in ' Road 
to Ruin,' and Sir Walter Fondlove in the 
' Love Chase.' His original parts comprised 
also Ingot in 'David Garrick,' Dr. Vivian 
in ' A Lesson for Life,' and Gervais Dumont 
in 'A Hero of Romance.' In September 
1874 he supported (Sir) Henry Irving at the 
Lyceum as Polonius. In this character he 
took a farewell benefit at the same house on 
24 Feb. 1879. He subsequently acted in the 
country until his intellect began to fail. He 
died on 3 Jan. 1888, and was buried at High- 
gate cemetery. He ripened into an excellent 
actor, principally in old men, and was a 
mainstay of the Haymarket. He married 
thrice, and had twenty-three children, most 
of whom predeceased him. 

Mrs. Mary Jane Chippendale (1837 ?- 
1888), his third wife, whose maiden name 
was Seaman, was born in Salisbury, played 



Chitty 



Chitty 



in the country, and made, at the Theatre 
Royal, Manchester, her first recognised ap- 
pearance, playing Mrs. Wellington de Boots 
in * Everybody's Friend.' As Miss Snowdon 
in 1863 she made at the Haymarket, as Mrs. 
Maiaprop, her first appearance in London, 
and three years afterwards married William 
Henry Chippendale. She was at the Court 
Theatre in 1875, and at the Lyceum in 1878 ; 
took a company to Australia ; on her return 
succeeded at the Lyceum Mrs. Stirling as 
Martha in * Faust,' and accompanied Irving 
to America. She died on 26 May 1888 at 
Peckham Road, Camberwell, and was buried 
in Finchley cemetery. A pretty, buxom ac- 
tress, she won acceptance as Dowager Lady 
Duberly in ♦ Heir at Law,' Widow Green, 
Emilia, Mrs. Hardcastle, and so forth. 

[Personal knowledge; Blograph, i. 139-45; 
Pascoe's Dramjitic List; Scott and Howard's 
Blnnchard; Dibdin's Edinburgh Stage; Era, 
7 Jan. and 2 June 1888; Era Almanack ; Sun- 
day Times, various years.] J. K. 

CHITTY, Sir JOSEPH WILLIAM 
(1828-1899), judge, second son of Thomas 
Chitty [q. v.], special pleader, was born 
in Calthorpe Street, Gray's Inn Road, in 
1828. He was educated at Eton and the 
university of Oxford, where he matriculated 
from Balliol College on 23 March 1847, 
graduated B.A. (first class in literce humani- 
orefi) in 1851, was elected Vinerian scholar 
and fellow of Exeter in 1852, and proceeded 
M.A. in 1855. No less distinguished as an 
athlete than as a scholar, in three successive 
years (1850-2) he stroked the Oxford boat 
to victory, and twice lie kept the Oxford 
wicket, being in the latter year (1849) 
captain of the team at Lord's. On 15 Nov. 
1851 he was admitted student at Lincoln's 
Inn, where he was called to the bar on 
30 April 1856, and elected bencher on 2 Nov. 
1876, having taken silk in the preceding 
year, and treasurer in 1895. Chitty prac- 
tised from the first exclusively in the court 
of chancery, in which his success was both 
speedy and sustained. On taking silk he 
confined himself to the rolls court, where 
he was soon the leader par excellence, and 
is said to have sometimes made as much as 
13,000/. a year. More important was the 
discipline which during these years he 
received from so great a master of equity 
as Sir George Jessel, whose vast knowledge 
and keen dialectic rendered pleading before 
him a task of no ordinary difficulty. To 
Jessel Chitty was persona gratissima both 
in and out of court, and the partiality of 
the judge was based on respect for the 
powers of the advocate. The pace, how- 
ever, at which business proceeded in the 



rolls court was unfavourable to the deve- 
lopment of oratorical power ; and in parlia- 
ment, to which he was returned in the 
liberal interest for Oxford at the general 
election of April 1880, Chitty would pro- 
bably never have made a considerable figure. 
On the detachment of the original jurisdic- 
tion from the mastership of the rolls, his 
parliamentary career was cut short by his 
elevation to the bench. He was gazetted 
justice of the high court, chancery division, 
on 6 Sept. 1881, thus virtually succeeding 
Jessel as judge of first instance, and was 
knighted on 7 Dec. following. As a judge 
he proved not unworthy of his great prede- 
cessor. During his long practice at the 
rolls court his mind had become a veritable 
storehouse of case law, and on the bench 
he showed that he possessed the firm grasp 
of principle and the fine faculty of dis- 
crimination, without which precedents are 
a hindrance rather than a help in the 
administration of justice. Appeals from 
his judgments were rare and seldom success- 
ful, and the work which he did in interpreting 
the Settled Land Act of 1882 (45 & 46 
Vict., c. 38) and its amending acts is of 
permanent value. His chief fault was a 
propensity to digress into meandering dis- 
cussion with counsel, which gained him the 
sobriquet of Mr. Justice Chatty. 

His bonhomie was imperturbable, but 
none knew better how to expose the hollow- 
ness of an argument or rebuke excessive 
prolixity. Two sallies of Chitty's wit sur- 
vive : an apt quotation, \fiat justitia, mat 
ccelmn^ a propos of a sudden descent of 
plaster from the ceiling, and a tolerable 
epigram, ' truth will sometimes leak out even 
through an affidavit.' On circuit he dis- 
played an unexpected familiarity with the 
common law, and a remarkable capacity for 
adapting himself to novel conditions. 

On the retirement of Sir Edward Kay 
[q. V. Suppl.] Chitty was advanced (12 Jan. 
1897) to the vacant seat among the lords- 
justices of appeal. He was also nominated 
judge under the Benefices Act of 1898. These 
appointments, however, came too late to 
enable him to add materially to his reputa- 
tion. His constitution proved to be less 
vigorous than had been supposed; and an 
attack of influenza terminated in his death 
at his residence, 38 Queen's Gate Gardens, 
Hyde Park, on 15 Feb. 1899. His remains 
were interred on 18 Feb. in Brookwood 
cemetery. 

Chitty married, on 7 Sept. 1858, Clara 
Jessie, daughter of Lord-chief-baron Pollock 
[see Pollock, Sik Jonatha.n Frederick], 
by whom he left issue. 



Christie 



Christie 



For nearly a quarter of a century (1857- 
1881) Chitty acted as umpire at tlie inter- 
university bout race. lie was a member, 
and for ten years (18(37-77) major, of tbe 
Inns of Court volunteer corps. In later life 
he amused himself with carpentering- and 
cabinet making. lie was also a skilful execu- 
tant on more than one musical instrument. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. and Mon at tho Bar; 
Oxford Uonours Kogister; Trehernp's Kecord 
of the University Boat Race; Gent. Mag. 18.58, 
ii. 414: Truth. 14 Sept. 1H82; Pump Court, 
1883; Vanity Fair, 28 March 1886. 10 July 
1886; The World, 28 March 1888; Mon and 
Women of tho Time, 1899 ; Abbott and Camp- 
bell's Lift' and Letters of .Towett, i. 214 ; Sir 
Algernon West's Recollections, i. 61 ; Burke's 
Peerage, 1896 ; Times, 16, 17. and 20 Feb. 1899 ; 
Ann. Reg. 1899, ii. 133; Law Journ. 23 Feb. 
1878, 16 .Ian. 1897, 18 Feb. 1899 ; Law Times, 
18 Feb. 1899; Solicitor's .Tourn. 18 Feb. 1899 ; 
Law Quart. Review, xv. 128; Law Mag. and 
Rev. 5th ser. xxv. 238.] J. M. R. 

CHRISTIE, RICHARD COPLEY 
(1830-1901), scholar and bibliophile, born on 
22 July 1830 at Lenton, Nottinghamshire, 
was the second son of Lorenzo Christie of 
Edale, Derbyshire, a mill-owner much re- 
spected in Manchester, and his wife Ann, a 
daughter of Isaac Bayley of Lenton Sands. 
In April 1849 he entered as an undergra- 
duate at Lincoln College, Oxford, where 
Mark Pattison [q. v.] was then establishing 
his ascendency. Towards him Christie was 
drawn by common literary interests and by 
a close agreement between their ideas as to 
the higher purposes of academical life ; they 
became intimate friends in later years, and 
after the rector's death Christie contributed 
a biographical notice of him to this * Dic- 
tionary.' His own Oxford days came to an 
end in 1853, when he graduated B. A ., taking 
a first class in law and history. Hallam, 
the historian, was one of his examiners. In 
1855 he proceeded M.A. Having resolved 
upon a legal career, he was on 21 Nov. 
1854 admitted a student of Lincoln's Inn 
(Lincoln's Inn Records, ii. 26G) ; but almost 
immediately he was induced to settle at 
Manchester, and devote himself for a time 
to educational work. In this year the trustees 
of the newly founded Owens College had 
to select the first body of professors of that 
institution, which from small and tentative 
beginnings was gradually to grow into the 
largest of the university colleges of the 
Victorian type. As was inevitable in the 
case of a foundation intended to supply the 
instruction usually given in the English 
universities, Owens College opened with 
more chairs than teachers, and Christie, 



wlio had been appointcrl professor of ancient 
and modern history, was in the followinpr 
year also chosen for the Faulkner professor- 
ship of political economy and commercial 
science [seo Faulkner, John]. To these, 
modestly remunerated, chairs was in 1855 
added a third, that of jurisprudence and law ; 
and, pluralist as he wa.s, Christie found him- 
self further called upon to bear an active 
share in the teaching of the evening classes 
of the college, for many years one of its 
most important departments, and even for 
a time to hold an additional class at the 
Working Men's College in the Mechanics' 
Institution. In the deliberations which 
aimed at increasing the public usefulness of 
the Owens College, and which in fact for 
many a year largely turned on the question 
of how to assure its existence, Christie from 
the first took a leading part, distinguishing 
himself by resourcefulness as well as judg- 
ment. One of the most satisfactory inci- 
dents in the earlier internal history of the 
college, the institution of the associateship, 
was due to his suggestion. As a teacher 
he was, according to general consent, suc- 
cessful ; he can at no time have excelled in 
delivery, but he was invariably clear in 
statement and polished in expression, and he 
had at command that incisive kind of wit 
which as a tradition endears itself to stu- 
dents. 

In June 1857 Christie had been called to 
the bar from Lincoln's Inn, and he at once 
commenced practice at Manchester as an 
equity draughtsman and conveyancer, and 
in the chancery court of the county palatine 
of Lancaster. His practice continuously 
grew, till at the time of his retirement in 
1877 he was the leader of the Manchester 
equity bar. He was a good draughtsman 
and clear-headed lawyer, and professionally 
a model of honour and propriety. After the 
procedure had been altered he was less effec- 
tive as an examiner of witnesses in court. 
Pupils found his chambers an admirable 
school of training. With his practice, which 
was of a high class, the importance of his 
personal position at Manchester steadily rose. 
In 1861 he married Mary Helen, daughter of 
Samuel Fletcher of Broomfield near Man- 
chester, who from first to last closely asso- 
ciated herself with her husband's interests 
and beneficence. In their hospitable house 
on Cheetham Hill, and afterwards at Prest- 
wich, his library had already begun to be a 
source of pride and pleasure to him, and in 
his vacations he was quietly pursuing his 
literary and bibliographical researches in 
France and elsewhere. Gradually the pres- 
sure of his Owens College duties, as super- 

B 2 



Christie 



Christie 



added to his professional engagements, be- 
came excessive, and he found himself com- 
pelled to resign in succession the several 
chairs held by him. In 1866 he vacated 
that of political economy, in which he was 
succeeded by William Stanley Jevons [q. v.] ; 
in the same year he resigned that of history ; 
and, finally, in 1869 that of jurisprudence 
and law. In the present Owens College 
the subjects originally committed to him are 
taught by five professors and as many lec- 
turers and assistant lecturers. 

Christie's interest in the progress and 
prosperity of Owens College was in no degree 
relaxed by his ceasing to be a member of its 
teaching body. In 1870 the movement which 
had long been in preparation for the rehous- 
ing of the college in commodious buildings 
on a new site, and for the reconstitution of 
its system of government on broader and 
more suitable lines, took definite shape ; and 
an extension committee was formed for 
carrying out these objects, of which Thomas 
Ashton, for many years one of the foremost 
public men at Manchester, became the chair- 
man and the guiding spirit. With him and 
the principal of the college, Dr. Joseph Gouge 
Greenwood [q. v. Suppl.], Professor (now Sir 
Henry) Roscoe, and the other chief suppor- 
ters of the movement, Christie worked in 
unbroken harmony, and there was no ad- 
viser whose counsel, whether in legal or in 
other matters, was more confidently followed. 
In the Owens College Extension Act of 
1870 he was named one of the governors of 
the reconstituted college, a position which 
he was prevailed upon to hold to the last, 
and at the same date he became a member 
of the executive body, the college council, 
on which he retained his seat till 1886. In 
these capacities he actively participated in 
all the chief measures which attested the 
development of the college during the quarter 
of a century ensuing — the incorporation with 
the college of the Royal Manchester School 
of Medicine, and the erection and subsequent 
enlargement of the buildings of its medical 
school ; the reorganisation and extension of 
several others of its departments, including 
the school of law ; and the efforts which in 
1880 resulted in the grant of a charter to 
the Victoria University, with the Owens 
College as its first and for a time only col- 
lege. Christie was elected a member of the 
first university court, and sat there till 1896. 
For the first seven years of the existence of 
the new university he was also a member of 
its council. In 1895 the university, on the 
occasion of the visit of Earl Spencer, its 
recently elected chancellor, conferred on 
Christie the honorary degree of LL.D. 



In January 1872 the bishop of Manches- 
ter [see Eraser, Jambs] conferred upon 
Christie the chancellorship of his diocese, an 
appointment which much gratified him and 
his friends. The duties of his office were 
performed by him with his usual care, and 
his decisions invariably met with ready ac- 
ceptance. He was at the same time suc- 
cessful in considerably reducing the cost of 
proceedings in his court. He held the chan- 
cellorship till January 1894. 

In 1879 Christie, who had two years be- 
fore retired from the practice of his profes- 
sion, left Manchester to reside at Darley 
Dale in Derbyshire. He afterwards lived 
for a time at Glen wood, Virginia Water, 
and then, after a temporary residence at 
Roehampton, finally settled down at Ribs- 
den, Windlesham, a charming house on the 
farther side of Bagshot heath, formerly- 
owned by Henry Cadogan Rothery [q. v.], 
to which he added, under his own directions, 
admirable accommodation for his library. 
In 1887, when he had for some years ceased 
to have his abode at Manchester, he found 
himself placed in a position of altogether 
exceptional responsibility towards the com- 
munity in which the best part of his life had 
been spent — a position so used by him that 
he will be enduringly remembered as one of 
the chief benefactors of that city. By the 
will of Sir Joseph Whit worth [q. v.], who 
died in this year, Christie was appointed 
one of the three legatees to whom was be- 
queathed a residuary estate of more than 
half a million , in equal shares for their own 
use, ' they being each of them aware of the 
objects ' to which these funds would have 
been applied by the testator, had he matured 
the plans that had occupied him so long. 
(For a statement as to the appropriations 
actually made by Christie and his fellow 
legatees, see Whitworth, Sir Joseph.) Of 
existing institutions the Owens College was 
judged by the legatees to have a primary 
claim upon their munificence ; and sums 
amounting (apart from that expended on 
the purchase of an estate to be held by the 
college for hospital purposes) to more than 
one fifth of the total at their disposal were 
devoted by them to the various departments 
of the college. These donations were made 
by the legatees in common ; in 1897, how- 
ever, Christie personally assigned a sum ex- 
ceeding 50,000/. out of the final share of the 
residuum falling to him, for the erection of 
a Whitworth Hall, which should complete 
the front quadrangle of the Owens College, 
and satisfy the requirements for ceremonial 
purposes of college and university. The 
hall was opened after Christie's death, on 



Christie 



Christie 



the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of 
the founchitiou of the collej^e. Already in 
1893 Christie had himself offered to the col- 
lege a specially characteristic gift at his own 
cost. This was the beautiful Christie library, 
vfhich, erected by the architect of the col- 
lege, Mr. Alfred Waterhouse, R.A., at a cost 
of over 21,000/., was opened by the Duke of 
Devonshire, as president of the college, on 
22 June 1898. 

Christie was only able to see the progress 
of the building of this library in its earlier 
stages. After ceasing to reside at Manches- 
ter, he had for some time been a frequent 
visitor there. In 1887 he had been appointed 
chairman of the AVhitworth company, and 
he held this post till 1897. From 1890 to 
1895 he was president of the Whitworth 
Institute. He was much interested in the 
medical and other charities of Manchester, 
and the Cancer Pavilion and Home, of whose 
committee he was chairman from 1890 to 
1893, while he retained the presidency of the 
institution till his death, owed much to his 
munificence and care. Of a difierent na- 
ture was an office which he held from 1883 
to the time of his death. This was the 
chairmanship of the Chetham Society, in 
which he had succeeded James Crossley 
[q.v.], and to which he gave much attention, 
as may be seen from the reports, for which 
he was annually responsible. He was suc- 
cessful in securing new contributors to the 
society's publications. His own contributions 
included a volume of considerable local inte- 
rest on ' The Old Church and School Libraries 
of Lancashire' (1885), and part ii. of vol. ii. 
of the ' Diary and Coi-respondence of Dr. John 
Worthington,' 1886 (the previous portions 
had been edited by James Crossley), together 
with a bibliography of Worthington (1888). 

Christie's literary reputation had some 
years before this been established almost 
suddenly by a publication his studies for 
which, as his friends were aware, had oc- 
cupied him for several years, but which took 
the reading world by surprise. ' Etienne 
Dolet, the Martyr of the llenaissance,' which 
appeared in 1880, was the result of long 
labour and indefatigable research (the latter 
carried on more especially at Lyons), and 
formed a contribution of enduring value to 
the history of Renaissance learning. The 
work was translated into French by Pro- 
fessor C. Stryienski, under the superintend- 
ence of the author, who thus gave the trans- 
lation the character of a revised edition of 
the original (1886). Christie, however, lived 
to publish in 1899 a second English edition, 
for which he had in the interval collected 
much new material. The second edition, 



while filling flome lacuna and correcting 
some oversights in the first, left wholly un- 
modified those fearless expressions of liberal 
thought and feeling which were eminently 
characteristic of the writer. 

According to his own statement Christie 
had looked forward to putting into form, 
now that at last literary leisure seemed at 
his command, the materials he had collected 
for a series of essays on personalities of 
special interest to him in the history of the 
llenascence. Two of these, on Pomponatus 
and Clenardus, appeared in the * Quarterly 
Review ' in 1898 ; a paper on Giordano 
Bruno was published in 'Macmillan's Maga- 
zine ' in 1885, and one on Vanini in the 
' English Historical Review' in 1895. Un- 
fortunately, not long after he had settled in 
Surrey, his health began to fail, and con- 
secutive literary labour gradually became 
difficult and then impossible. Among his 
publications not already mentioned were an 
edition, with translation, of the * Annales 
Cestrienses ' for the Record Society of Lan- 
cashire and Cheshire, of which society he 
was for many years president (1887), and 
' The Letters of Sir Thomas Copley to Queen 
Elizabeth and her Ministers ' (Roxburghe 
Club, 1897). He wrote for the ' Quarterly Re- 
view ' articles on * Biographical Dictionaries' 
(1884), * The Forgeriesof the Abbe Fourmont' 
(1885), and on * The Dictionary of National 
Biography ' (1887), and contributed to this 
'Dictionary' the following articles: Alex- 
ander, Hugh, Thomas, and William Christie, 
Anthony and Sir Thomas Copley, Mark 
Pattison, and Florence Volusene. He also 
wrote the article on * The Scaligers ' in the 
ninth edition of the * Encyclopfedia Britan- 
nica,' and was a frequent contributor to the 
' Spectator ' and to * Notes and Queries.* 
Among his bibliographical publications were 
' The Marquis de Morante, his Library and 
its Catalogue' (1883), 'Catalogues of the 
Library of the Due de la Valliere ' (1886), 
' Elzevir Bibliography ; ' ' Works and Aims 
of the Library Association ' (presidential 
address, 1889); 'Special Bibliographies' 
(1893) ; ' Chronology of the Early Aldines ' 
(in * Bibliographica,' 1895) ; ' An Incunabu- 
lum of Brescia '(1898). 

In the Library Association of the United 
Kingdom Christie took a very active inte- 
rest ; he was a vice-president of the Biblio- 
graphical Society, and for many years a use- 
ful member of the London Library commit- 
tee. At the Royal Holloway College, near 
Egham, of which he was a governor from 
1892 till 1899, and to whose afiairs he dur- 
ing those years gave assiduous attention, he 
was chairman of the library committee, and 



Christie 



Church 



took special interest in its work. His own 
library, of about 75,000 volumes, destined 
for Owens College, remained to the last the 
object of his affectionate solicitude. Of its 
choicer portions, arranged according to prin- 
ters, the most notable was the collection, 
unequalled as to completeness, of the issues 
of Dolet's press; it also contained a large 
number of Aldines, about six hundred vo- 
lumes printed by Sebastian Gryphius of 
Lyons, on whom he contemplated writing, 
and was rich in bibliographical works. It 
also included an unrivalled series of editions 
of Horace, to acquire which had been one of 
the amusements of Christie's life ; and a 
large and in some respects exceptional choice 
of Renaissance literature, more especially of 
the productions of French writers and scho- 
lars of the period, and of Erasmiana. Chris- 
tie's knowledge of his own books was both 
close and full ; he was at the same time re- 
markably liberal in allowing the use of his 
treasures to others, and to the last ready to 
place the resources of his knowledge at the 
service of those engaged in literary composi- 
tion or inquiry. 

In October 1899 the freedom of the city 
of Manchester was conferred upon him and 
his surviving fellow legatee under Sir Joseph 
Whitworth's will, Mr. R. D. Darbishire. Ill- 
health prevented Christie's attendance on 
the occasion, and the lord mayor and town 
clerk of Manchester subsequently travelled 
to Ribsden in order to enable him to sign 
the roll. During the last two years of his 
life he was virtually confined to his couch. 
He bore the trial of a painful and incurable 
illness with an unaftected composure which 
it was impossible to witness without admira- 
tion, and his mind remained perfectly un- 
clouded. He died at Ribsden on 9 Jan. 1901, 
and his remains, after cremation at Woking, 
were buried in the churchyard of Valley 
End, near Sunningdale. His wife survived 
him. By his will he left his collection of 
books to the Owens College, with ample pro- 
vision for the maintenance of the Christie 
Library there. He also left legacies to the 
Royal HoUoway College for the foundation 
of a scholarship and prizes, to the Library 
Association of the United Kingdom, and to 
various medical and other charities. 

A portrait of Christie by Mr. T. B. Ken- 
nington is in the Christie Library at the 
Owens College, Manchester, where it was 
placed by his friends shortly before his death. 
[Obituary notices in the Manchester Guardian, 
10 Jan., the Athenreum, 19 Jan., and the Owens 
College Union Magazine, Feb. 1901 ; private 
information and personal knowledge.] 

A. W. W. 



CHURCH, RICHARD WILLIAM 

(1815-1890), dean of St. PauVs, born at 
Lisbon on 25 April 1815, was eldest of three 
sons of John Dearman Church, a merchant, 
by his wife Bromley Caroline Metzener, and 
grandson of Matthew Church, a member of 
the Society of Friends, whose second son 
was General Sir Richard Church [q. v.] 
J. D. Church was baptised a member of the 
English church at the time of his marriage 
in 1814. His other children were Bromley, 
who entered the merchant service and died 
at sea in 1852, and Charles, born in 1822, 
now (1901) canon residentiary of Wells. 

In 1818 the family settled in Florence, 
and at eleven years old Richard went to a 
preparatory school at Leghorn, where he and 
his brother learnt to love the sea and every- 
thing connected with it. The life in Italy, 
which was to have a permanent influence on 
Church's tastes, came to an end in 1828 by 
his father's sudden death, and the family 
returned to England and settled in Bath. 
After a term at a school in Exeter Richard 
was sent to Redland, near Bristol, where he 
spent the next five years, working hard at 
his classics and becoming imbued with the 
evangelical principles of the place, and in 
spare moments haunting the old bookshops 
in Bristol. When the time came for him 
to go to Oxford, at Easter 1833, he was sent 
to Wadham because the tutors there were 
reputed evangelical. His introduction to 
the other school of religious thought came 
partly from ' The Christian Year,' published 
in 1827, and partly through his mother's se- 
cond marriage at this time with a widower, 
Thomas Crokat of Leghorn, whose daughter, 
Mary, married the next year George Moberly 
[q.v.], at that time fellow and tutor of Bal- 
liol. To an undergraduate of a shy temper, 
with no public school or university connec- 
tions, the friendship of so distinguished a man 
as Moberly was of great social value, while 
intellectually it counteracted the narrowing 
influence of Redland. Charles Marriott [q. v. J 
also seems to have taken him up, and in 1835 
he was introduced at Oriel to Keble and New- 
man. But he did not see much of the leaders 
of the Oxford movement until at the end of 
1836 he graduated B.A., coming out, much 
to his own astonishment, in the first class. 
For the next eighteen months he read hard 
for an Oriel fellowship, to which he was 
elected in 1838. Among the theological 
writers read in the meantime he notes espe- 
cially Bishop Butler and F. D. Maurice ; 
but he became at this time more definitely 
a disciple of Newman, attending regularly 
at the afternoon sermons at St. Mary's. 
The sermon on 'Ventures of Faith,' 



Church 



Church 



preached in 1836, was said by himself to 
have been * in some sort the turning point 
of his life.' During- this interval also he 
translated St. Cyril's catechetical lectures 
(1841) for Pusey^s * Library of the Fathers,' 
in which it formed the second volume. This 
first piece of literary work, as Churcli him- 
self admitted later, is a colourless perform- 
ance. 

Church's residence at Oriel as fellow threw 
him more than ever under the influence of 
ISewman, with whom he formed a fast friend- 
ship. Other intimate friends were Frederic 
Rogers (afterwards Lord Blachford) [q. v.] 
and James Bowling Mozley [q. v.], who were 
members of the tractarian party ; but Church's 
friendships were always wider than his theo- 
logical sympathies; with Arthur Penrhyn 
Stanley [q. v.1, for instance, notwithstanding 
the divergence of their views, he remained 
on terms of friendship to the last. He was 
ordained deacon at Christmas 1839 in St. 
Mary's, in company with Stanley, and in the 
same year was somewhat reluctantly obliged 
to take a vacant tutorship— a post which 
brought him into close and not very con- 
genial relations with the undergraduates. 
To make up for time thus diverted from 
study he stayed in Oxford to read during 
the long vacations. He surrendered the 
tutorship in 1842, in consequence of the sus- 
picion that fell upon all members of the 
tractarian party after the publication of 
Newman's tract No. 90 upon the articles. 
In 1844 Church was junior proctor, and in 
the convocation of 13 Feb. with his col- 
league, Henry Peter Guillemard of Trinity, 
vetoed the proposal to censure Tract 90. 
Characteristically, in his account of the pro- 
ceedings {The Oxford Movement, p. 382), 
Church gives no hint of his own share in the 
business, but a letter of the period to New- 
man makes plain that, though Guillemard as 
the senior proctor actually spoke the decisive 
words 7iohis procuratoribus nan placet, it was 
the junior proctor who had taken the initia- 
tive and influenced his colleague. An ad- 
dress signed by over five hundred members 
of the university was presented to the proc- 
tors, thanking them for the course they had 
taken. 

In 1845 Newman joined the church of 
Home, and for fifteen years the two friends 
neither met nor corresponded, though subse- 
quently there was a renewal ofthe old familiar 
relations. The effect of Newman's secession 
was for a time to break up the tractarian move- 
ment in Oxford, but a secondary result was 
to spread it more effectually through the 
country. A sign of a new era was the start- 
ing of the * Guardian ' newspaper by Church 



and a few friends — James Mozley, Thomas 
Henry Haddan[q.v.], Lord Blachford, Moun- 
tague Bernard [q. v.j, and others. Church 
presided over the reviews, contributing him- 
self largely, his historical interests being 
shown by reviews of such books as Carlyle's 
' Cromwell,' and his scientific interests \)y a 
notice of the ' Sequel to the Vestiges of Crea- 
tion,' which earned the commendation of Sir 
Richard Owen [q. v.], and by an article on 
Le Verrier's discovery of the planet Neptune, 
which drew an appreciatory letter from the 
great astronomer. These and other reviews, 
from the * Guardian ' and 'Saturday Review,' 
being for the most part original studies on the 
questions treated, have been collected into 
two volumes of ' Occasional Papers,' 1897. 
The remaining six years at Oxford were not 
eventful. The greater part of 1847 was spent 
by Church in foreign travel, and the essays 
he contributed on his return to the ' Christian 
Remembrancer' upon foreign politics and 
politicians proved that he had travelled with 
his eyes open. The essay on Dante was pub- 
lished in the 'Christian Remembrancer for 
January 1850. These papers were collected 
by his friends, when he left Oxford in 1853, 
into a volume of ' Essays and Reviews ' 
(1854). 

In the autumn of 1852 Church, who wished 
tomarry,resigned his fellowship and accepted 
the living of Whatley, a small parish of two 
hundred people, in Somerset, and proceeded 
to priest's orders at Christmas, taking up his 
residence at Whatley in the following 
January and marrying in July. The care of 
a small country village was at first strange 
to him, and pastoral work at Whatley was 
not made less difHcult by the fact that his pre- 
decessor had been non-resident ; but Church's 
high sense of duty made him devote himself 
unsparingly to the interests of his people, 
which very soon became his own interests, 
and he gradually won their confidence. Three 
series of his 'Village Sermons' have been 
published since his death (1892-7). Their 
tone reveals the earnest piety and sense of 
the reality of unseen things which distin- 
guish all his religious writings: but their 
form, owing to the endeavour to impress thft 
slow minds of a country congregation, (^ 
somewhat lengthy and cumbrous. They are 
said to have been listened to with attention. 
Probably not the least effective part of the 
sermon was the preacher's personality. At 
Whatley, Church contributed regularly to 
the 'Guardian' and the 'Saturday Review,' 
and occasionally to the 'Christian Remem- 
brancer.' In 1867 an essay upon Montaigne 
appeared as one of the * Oxford Essays.' 
I Much of his correspondence during this 



Church 



8 



Church 



period was addressed to Asa Gray, the Ame- 
rican botanist, with whom Church had con- 
tracted a warm friendship. They are inte- 
resting still from the notices they contain 
of such books as Darwin's * Origin of Species ' 
and the Oxford ' Essays and lieviews,' and, 
again, of such events as the appointment of 
Dr. Temple to the bishopric of Exeter, show- 
ing the fair mind, as far as possible removed 
from panic, which Church always brought to 
the discussion of crying questions. He was 
appointed select preacher at Oxford in 1868, 
and the next year accepted the post of chap- 
lain to Moberly, when he became bishop of 
Salisbury, preachingthe consecration sermon. 
He was select preacher at Oxford for the 
second time in 1876-8 and again in 1881-2. 
In politics Church, though he describes 
himself as * conservative in spirit,' was long 
a follower of Gladstone. For Gladstone's 
character and talents he had great admira- 
tion, though not without a clear perception 
of his weak points, and Gladstone's adoption 
of home rule in 1886 ultimately alienated 
Church's political sympathies. In 1869 
Church defended Gladstone's Irish church 
policy, and in the same year he declined an j 
offer by the crown of a canonry at Worcester, j 
from a feeling that it might be considered as 
payment for his defence of the minister ; and 
he thought it important that it should seem 
possible for high churchmen to support Glad- 
stone's policy disinterestedly. Also he thought 
he saw signs of a return of * the old spirit of 
preferment-seeking' among the clergy which 
needed a rebuke. In August 1871 he accepted 
the deanery of St. Paul's, offered to him by 
Gladstone on the death of Henry Longueville 
Mansel [q. v.] A letter (dated 31 Dec. 1882) 
to Asa Gray puts beyond doubt that Gladstone 
wished to make Church archbishop of Canter- 
burv on the death of Archbishop Tait [q. v.] 
The work that engrossed the new dean at 
St. Paul's for the first years after his appoint- 
ment was the negotiation with the ecclesias- 
tical commissioners in regard to the cathe- 
dral endowment. In this work he was 
fortunate in having the help of so able a 
financier as the treasurer. Canon Gregory, 
who eventually succeeded him as dean. His 
own interest was more clearly shown in the 
advances made towards a more dignified 
worship, and a greater use of the cathedral 
for nublic services. Under his auspices also 
a scneme for the decoration of the cathedral 
interior was elaborated, with which public 
opinion has more than once come into con- 
flict. His removal to London brought him 
into greater prominence as a leading church- 
man of the high-church party, and he was 
now constantly appealed to for advice and 



help on questions of the day. The Public 
Worship liegulation Act of 1874 found in 
him a resolute opponent, although he had 
little sympathy with excess of ritualistic zeal. 
He considered the act ' a misuse of law, 
such as has before now been known in his- 
tory, and a policy of injustice towards an 
unpopular party,' and he thought the con- 
duct of the episcopal bench timid and time- 
serving. In 1881 he put out an address 
to the archbishop, which was very largely 
and influentially signed, urging ' toleration 
and forbearance in dealing with questions of 
ritual.' He also republished his essay from 
the ' Christian Remembrancer ' (1850) on 
' The Relation between Church and State.' 
AVhen the royal commission was appointed 
in that year to inquire into the constitution 
and working of ecclesiastical courts he was 
offered a seat upon it, but declined on the 
ground of ill-health. Six years later, when 
Bell Cox of Liverpool was prosecuted, he 
wrote a strong letter of remonstrance to 
Archbishop Benson. 

In January 1888 Church lost his only son, 
Frederick, a young man of great promise, 
author of a translation of Dante's Latin 
treatise ' De Monarchia ' (1878), and a little 
book on the * Trial and Death of Socrates ' 
(1886). After that other losses followed 
quickly one upon another of such old friends 
as Asa Gray, Bishop Lightfoot, Lord Blach- 
ford, Cardinal Newman, and the dean re- 
tired more and more from public life. His 
strength was now rapidly failing. The last 
time he appeared in his cathedral was to 
read the sentences of committal to the grave 
over Dr. Liddon, his colleague of nineteen 
years. He died at Dover on 9 Dec. 1890. 
He lived to welcome Archbishop Benson's 
judgment in the bishop of Lincoln's case, 
which he pronounced ' the most courageous 
thing that has come from Lambeth for two 
hundred years.' At the time of his death 
he was putting the last touches to his ' His- 
tory of the Oxford Movement' (London, 
1891, 8vo), a brilliant account of its origin 
and progress up to Newman's secession. He 
was buried by his desire in the churchyard 
at Whatley. On 5 July 1863, at Sparkford 
in Somerset, Church married Helen Frances, 
daughter of Henry Bennett, rector and squire 
of Sparkford. By her he had four children, 
of whom the eldest daughter, Helen Bea- 
trice, married in 1883 the Very Rev. Francis 
Paget, dean of Christ Church and after- 
wards bishop of Oxford, and died on 22 Nov. 
1900. A portrait of Church by Mr. E. Miller 
was lent by Dr. Paget to the Victorian ex- 
hibition of 1891-2. 

Dean Church had not a few points in com- 



Church 



Churchill 



mon with two of bis mo8t distinguisbed pre- 
decessors at St. Paul's. Like Colet be 
* studied to bo quiet.' The motto of tbo one 
migbt well have been tbe motto of tbeotber, 
*Si vis divinus esse, late ut deus.' 13otb 
were raised to liirrb place against tbeir incli- 
nation. On another side, in bis passionate 
Eiety, be suggests Donne, and, like Donne, 
e was remarkable as a writer of prose, 
tbougb tbe style was of quite another cha- 
racter. The early tractarians set mucb store 
by reservt! and reality, whicb are two sides 
of the same austere love of truth, and alike 
in tem])er and in style Churcb was a tracta- 
rian. In a letter (21 Sept. 1887) to a corre- 
spondent wbo consulted him on tbe cultiva- 
tion of style, be says tbe only training in 
style be bad recognised in himself was watch- 
ing against tbe temptation of* unreal ' and 
'fine' w^ords; and be adds that be owed it 
to Newman, if be could write at all simply 
and witb a wisb to be real. Tbe in- 
fluence of Newman is easily traceable in tbe 
candour and lucidity of bis writing, but it 
lacks Newman's flexibility and ease. Church's 
best work as a "writer was a series of critical 
studies, tbe chief being upon Anselm 
(1843, expanded 1870), Dante (1850), Spen- 
ser in tbe * Englisb Men of Letters ' series 
(1879), and Bacon in tbe same series (1884). 
As a critic bis characteristic note is one of 
moderation and Avide sympathy. Tbe son 
of a merchant of business interests in many 
countries, by a lady of German extraction, 
bimself born at Lisbon and bred at Florence, 
be was bj' nature cosmopolitan ; and bis 
Quaker blood further assisted in freeing him 
from many prejudices habitual in religious 
Englishmen of bis generation. He was 
gifted witb considerable historical insight 
and imagination, and such studies as those 
on the early Ottomans and the court of Leo X 
are admirable specimens of their class. In 
theology his powder lay in the treatment of j 
moral rather than doctrinal or philosophical 
questions. His book on Anselm ignores the i 
philosophical treatises, though be made an 
excellent edition of the first book of Hooker's ' 
'Ecclesiastical Polity' (1868), and with Dr. 
Paget revised Keble's edition of the whole 
(1888). He was perhaps the most impres- j 
sive preacher of bis generation : the only one 1 
who suggested to his hearers tbe presence of 
a prophetic gift. His sermons before the 
universities or at St Paul's were almost 
alwavs upon moral and social questions. 
Their titles are as follows: ' The Gifts of 
Civilisation' (1880), ' Human Life and its 
Conditions ' (1878) ; ' Discipline of tbe Chris- 
tian Character ' (1885). A further volume 
of Cathedral and L^niversity Sermons was 



published postbumously (1892). The moft 
interesting feature of these sermons is the 
serious attempt they make to distinguish be- 
tween tbe advantages of civilisation and 
culture, whicb are recognised at their full 
value, and tbe peculiar benefits of Chris- 
tianity. A volume (1893) called 'I'ascbal 
and other Sermons ' contains excellent 
studies of the • Pens^es,' Bishop Butler, and 
Bishop Andre wes. They are all tbe work of 
a mind with a large and clear outlook and 
great delicacy of perception and discrimina- 
tion. 

[Life and Letters of Dean Church, edited by 
his daughter, M. C. Church, 1895; obituary 
notices in Times and Guardian, December 1890 ; 
Craik's English Pn^se Writers ; private infor- 
mation.] H. C. B. 

CHURCHILL, RANDOLPH HENRY 

SPENCER, commonly known as Lord 
Randolph Churchill (1849-1895), states- 
man, was the third son of John Winston 
Churchill, seventh duke of Marlborough 
[q. v.], by Lady Frances Anne Emily, daugh- 
ter of Charles William Vane Stewart, third 
marquis of Londonderry [q. v.] His eldest 
brother, George Charles (1844-1892), became 
the eighth dune of Marlborough ; the second 
brother, Frederick, died young in 1850. 
Randolph Churchill was born at Blenheim 
Palace on 13 Feb. 1849. After some in- 
struction at home be was sent in 1857 to 
Mr. Tabor's preparatory school at Cheam, 
whence he was removed in January 1863 
to Eton. During his first year be was an 
inmate of the house of the Rev. W. A. 
Carter, subsequently exchanging to that of 
Mr. Frewen, where be remained till he left 
Eton in July 1865. His tutor during tbe 
latter part of this period was the Rev. Ed- 
mond Warre, who became bead-master in 
1884. During his comparatively brief career 
at Eton he bore the character of a high- 
spirited boy, not very amenable to discipline, 
and rather frequently in difficulties witb the 
school authorities. Among bis slightly older 
contemporaries at the college were Mr. Arthur 
Balfour and Lord Rosebery, tbe latter of 
whom, after Lord Randolph's death, de- 
scribed him as his * lifelong friend.' After 
leaving Eton he spent some time with tutors 
at Ischl in Austria and elsewhere. On 
21 Oct. 1867 Lord Randolph matriculated 
at Merton College, Oxford. At tbe univer- 
sity, as at Eton, be cannot be said to have 
made any conspicuous mark, and was scarcely 
recognised by his contemporaries as an under- 
graduate likely to attain future eminence. 
His friends, though some of them became 
distinguished in later life, were not num- 



Churchill 



lO 



Churchill 



bered among the intellectual leaders of Ox- 
ford society, and he exhibited no special 
interest in public affairs. Long afterwards, 
in 1888, he accepted an invitation to speak 
at the Oxford Union, and in the course of his 
address he expressed his regret that he had 
not joined the society and attended its 
debates during his residence as an under- 
graduate. Nor did he seek distinction in 
those athletic recreations which are most 
honoured at our universities and public 
schools ; he was no oarsman, cricketer, or 
football player. He was, however, a keen 
sportsman. He hunted a good deal, kept a 
pack of harriers, and took an active part in 
the college 'grinds,' or steeple-chase meetings. 
He was also one of the founders of the 3Iyr- 
midons Club, a coterie of Merton men who 
met at intervals for dinner and conversation. 
Though he was not averse from society and 
amusement at Oxford, there is no foundation 
for the statement that his university career 
was one of idleness, dissipation, and disorder. 
Some stories to this effect were maliciously 
circulated in the newspapers in connection 
with an incident with which his name was 
connected. A slight collision with the police 
occurred after an undergraduate gathering, 
and Lord Randolph was brought before the 
magistrates and charged with assaulting a 
constable. He always maintained that an 
error had been committed, and that he was 
merely an innocent bystander who had taken 
no share in the fracas. As a whole his con- 
duct while at Oxford was creditable. The 
late bishop of London, Dr. Mandell Creighton 
[q. V. Suppl.], who was his tutor at Merton, 
informed the present writer that he saw 
nothing to censure in the behaviour of Lord 
Randolph Churchill during his residence at 
the college, and that he was much impressed 
by his pupil's ability and mental alertness. 
He read for honours in jurisprudence and 
modem history. The legal subjects prescribed 
for the examination were distasteful to him, 
but he was deeply interested in the study of 
history. He obtained a second class in the 
honour school of 'jurisprudentia et historia 
moderna ' in Michaelmas term, 1870. There 
were only three names in the first class on 
this occasion, and among those who appeared 
with Lord Randolph Churchill in the second 
class were Mr. A. H. D. Acland (afterwards 
vice-president of the committee of coun- 
cil on education), the Earl of Donoughmore, 
and Mr. A. J. Stuart-Wortley. Writing to 
Dr. Creighton in 1883 Lord Randolph said : 
' It has always been pleasant to me to think 
that the historical studies which I too lightly 
carried on under your guidance have been 
of immense value to me in calculating and 



carrying out actions which to many appear 
erratic' (see this letter and a communication 
from the bishop of London in T. H. S. Escott's 
Randolph Spencer Churchill, ch. iii.) His 
favourite author was Gibbon. He was in- 
timately acquainted with the ' Decline and 
P'all,' and it is said that he knew by heart 
long passages from the great history. While 
in residence at Oxford in 1868 he published 
a letter protesting against some attacks which 
had been made upon his father's conduct as 
a local landowner in connection with the 
parliamentary election at Woodstock. Leav- 
ing the university in 1870 he did not im- 
mediately turn his attention to politics. 
During a considerable part of the next four 
years he resided at Blenheim, where he de- 
voted much of his time to his pack of harriers, 
which he hunted himself. He had some 
idea of entering the diplomatic service or 
the army, and was regarded at this period 
rather as a young man of pleasure and fashion 
than of affairs. He was frequently in Paris, 
and it was at the British embassy in that 
city that he was married to Jennie, daughter 
of Mr. Leonard Jerome of New York, U.S.A., 
on 15 April 1874. 

His political career began the same year. 
In the general election of 1874 he came for- 
ward in the conservative interest as a candi- 
date for the Marlborough family borough of 
Woodstock (4 Feb.) In his election address, 
which was not otherwise remarkable, he 
referred to a subject in which he continued 
to display the liveliest interest throughout 
his public life. After stating that he would 
oppose any large reduction of naval and 
military establishments, he added : * An 
economical policy migfht, however, be con- 
sistently pursued, and the efficiency of our 
forces by land and sea completely secured 
without the enormous charges now laid 
upon the country.' He was elected by 569 
votes against 404 recorded for his liberal 
opponent, Mr. George Brodrick, fellow — 
afterwards warden — of his old college, Mer- 
ton. He took his seat in the House of 
Commons as a supporter of Disraeli's new 
administration. His maiden speech was de- 
livered on 22 May. It dealt with a local 
question in which he was interested as mem- 
ber for Woodstock — the proposal for establish- 
ing Great Western Railway works at Ox- 
ford. The effort attracted no particular 
attention, though so experienced a parliamen- 
tarian as Sir William Harcourt considered 
that it showed promise and paid a compli- 
ment to the young member. In the session 
of 1875 Lord Randolph again proved that he 
was mindful of his local obligations by de- 
fending those minute and decadent borough 



Churchill 



II 



Churchill 



constituencies of which Woodstock was a 
notable example. The speech was lively 
and vigorous, and held out hopes which 
were not immediately fulfilled. For the 
first four years of the parliament of 1874 
Lord lUndolph's attendance in the House of 
Commons was irregular. Much of his time 
was occupied in prolonged visits to Dublin, 
where his fatlier, tiie Duke of Marlborough, 
for whom he always cherished a deep and 
sincere affection, was then residing as lord- 
lieutenant of Ireland. In these visits, and 
in conversations with the able and states- 
manlike duke and the kindly and humane 
duchess, whose Irish distress fund he assisted 
to administer, Lord Randolph acquired the 
intimate knowledge of Ireland and the 
shrewd understanding of the Irish character 
which he subsequently exhibited in his 
transactions with the nationalist members 
in 1884 and 1885, and in the home-rule 
campaign of 1886. It was not till the ses- 
sion of 1878 that he became a conspicuous 
parliamentary figure, when he suddenly 
pushed himself to the front by adopting 
an audaciously independent attitude. On 
7 March 1878 he attracted general attention 
by a furious onslaught upon some of his own 
leaders, the respectable, though not brilliant, 
subordinate members of the Disraeli go- 
vernment, whom he subsequently described 
as the * old gang.' He selected for special 
attack George Sclater-Booth (afterwards 
Lord Basing) [q.v.], the president of the local 
government board, vituperating him, in a 
style that afterwards became characteristic, 
as the owner of one of those ' double-barrelled 
names ' which, he said, were always a badge 
of intellectual mediocrity. In supporting 
the opposit ion amendments to Sclater-Booth's 
county government bill, Lord Randolph 
maintained that he was giving utterance to 
'the last wail of the departing tory party' 
in protest against ' this most radical and 
democratic measure, this crowning dishonour 
of tory principles.' So far was he from the 
tory democracy of later days that he seemed 
disposed at this period to regard himself as 
the champion of the rigid and orthodox con- 
servatism which, as he represented, was in 
danger of betrayal from the weakness of its 
ministerial chiefs. His antagonism, how- 
ever, to the 'old gang' does not seem to 
have extended to the prime minister, and 
his difference with the front bench was at 
this time limited to domestic questions. He 
made no attack on Lord Beaconsfi eld's foreign 
and Indian policy, and steadily supported 
the ministry by his vote in the various divi- 
sions on external affairs during the last year 
of the administration. In his election address 



in 1880 he declared that he wm •trongly in 

favour of the foreign policy of the gorem- 
ment. ' I believe,* he said, ' that the safety 
of this empire can only be secured by a firm 
adherence on the part of the country to the 
course pursued by the present advisers of 
the crown.' The addresH contained a note- 
worthy statement on Irish policy. 'The 
party led by Mr. l'arn(*ll, which has for its 
object the disintegration of the United 
Kingdom, must be resisted at all costs. At 
the same time 1 do not see how the internal 
peace of Irehmd can be permanently secured 
without a judicious reconsideration of the 
laws affecting the tenure of land.' 

Returned for Woodstock for the second 
time in April 1880 he speedily made his 
mark in the new parliament. The condi- 
tion of the conservatives in the House of 
Commons supplied him with an opportunity 
of which he took advantage with a boldness 
and an ability that soon rendered him one of 
the most prominent actors on the political 
stage. The crushing defeat at the polls in 
the general election of 1880, following a 
long period of office, had disorganised the 
conservative opposition. The rank and file 
were discouraged, and the leaders did little 
to raise their spirits. Lord Beaconsfield, 
w^eighed down by ill-health, had practically 
retired. Lord Salisbury was still almost 
unknown to the masses, and Sir Stafford 
Northcote, the leader of the conservatives 
I in the commons, was too much inclined to 
temporise and conciliate to satisfy the 
younger and more ardent spirits of the party, 
it was in these circumstances that Randolph 
Churchill came forward, as the self-appointed 
exponent of a toryism more resolute and 
aggressive than that which the official 
leaders mildly asserted against the serried 
ranks of the liberals, headed as the latter 
were by such formidable champions as Glad- 
stone, Mr. Chamberlain, and Sir William 
Harcourt. In these attacks he was aided 
by a very small band of faithful henchmen, 
who acted together with so much constancy 
that they received, as early as the first session 
of this parliament, the nickname of the 
' Fourth Party.' The regular members of 
the group were Lord Randolph Churchill. Sir 
Henry Drummond Wolff', and Mr. (after- 
wards Sir John) Gorst. Mr. Arthur Bal- 
four sometimes joined them, and they ob- 
tained the occasional cohesion of Earl Percy 
and one or two other members. The fourth 
party made its power felt at the verv be- 
ginning of the session, when they toolc up 
the case of Charles Bradlaugh [q. v. Suppl.j, 
the agnostic member for Northampton. Sir 
Stafford Northcote was disposed to accept 



Churchill 



12 



Churchill 



the Gladstonian view with regard to the ad- 
mission of this gentleman. Lord Randolph, 
prompted by his two colleagues, gave vigo- 
rous expression to the angry conservative 
sentiment on this subject, and provoked so 
violent an outcry against the alleged profa- 
nation of the parliamentary oath that Sir 
Staflbrd Northcote was compelled to aban- 
don his attitude of compromise. What- 
ever may be said on the merits of the em- 
bittered controversy which arose over Brad- 
laugh's seat, it showed at least that the 
fourth party had correctly gauged the tem- 
per of the House of Commons, since the line 
they adopted was that which was supported 
by the majority of the chamber, even against 
the influence of the government. In other 
matters Lord Randolph Churchill displayed 
great activity during this session. He threw 
himself into the discussion of the ministerial 
policy for Ireland, and assailed the Irish 
compensation for disturbance bill with much 
vehemence. He described the measure as 
* the first step in a social war ; an attempt to 
raise the masses against the propertied 
classes.' He also took part in the debates 
on the budget, and indeed on most of the 
matters brought before the house. The 
oratorical activity of the fourth party was 
prodigious, and it was stated by the Mar- 
Quis of Ilartington that their ' leader ' had 
delivered no less than seventy-four speeches 
between the opening of the session in April 
and 20 Aug. Their efforts had done much 
to develop the rising art of party obstruction, 
and had partially wrecked the ministerial 
programme of legislation. By the autumn 
of 1880 Lord Randolph had decisively esta- 
blished his position, though he was not as 
yet taken quite seriously by the party chiefs 
or the newspapers, 'the rise of a small 
body of conservative free-lances below the 
gangway,' said the ' Times ' in its review of 
the session on 7 Sept. 1880, 'of whom Lord 
Randolph Churchill and Mr. Gorst are the 
chiefs, 18 a curious incident, and has ori- 
ginated the half-serious nickname of the 
"Fourth Party."' But in the ensuing re- 
cess the young orator deepened the impres- 
sion which he had already made, and showed 
that he was a politician who had to be 
reckoned with. At Preston on 21 Dec. 1880 
he delivered an address on the Irish ques- 
tion. It was ' the first of Lord Randolph's 
speeches which had the great advantage of 
being reported verbatim in any metropolitan 
newspaper' (Jennings, Speeches of Lord 
Jiandolph Churchill, i. 11), and it ' at once 
attracted great and general attention, for 
the dangers inherent in the increasing growth 
of the Pamellite party had never before been 



so irresistibly brought home to the public 
mind.' Lord Randolph, from his association 
with the government of Ireland during his 
father's viceroyalty, was able to elucidate the 
position of affairs with much knowledge and, 
as events proved, with foresight and sagacity. 
He declared that the refusal of Gladstone's 
government to renew Lord Beaconsfield's 
Peace Preservation Act would inevitably 
lead to a new era of coercion. He pro- 
phesied that this coercion would be a failure, 
and that in the result the union would be 
in jeopardy. In this speech, as in his Wood- 
stock election address, he struck the note 
which, through some occasional variations 
due to the temporary exigencies of party 
tactics, may be said to have dominated his 
opinions on Irish politics. He cannot fairly 
be charged with any wavering on the central 
question of the union. But, while asserting 
that no compromise with home rule could 
be admitted, he also contended that in the 
administration of Ireland conciliation should 
be pushed to its furthest limits, that coercion 
by itself could never remedy the evils of the 
country, and that a large measure of local 
self-government should be accorded to the 
Irish people. In a great speech at Man- 
chester on 1 Dec. 1881, when an audience of 
over twelve thousand persons assembled to 
hear him, he insisted that 'the first and 
highest duty of a government is to prevent 
revolution rather than to suppress it, to 
sustain law rather than to revive it, to pre- 
serve order rather than to restore it.' 

It was as a determined opponent of re- 
peal that Lord Randolph fiercely attacked 
the so-called ' Kilmainham Treaty ' and the 
alliance between Gladstonians and Parnellites 
in 1883 and 1884. Speaking at Blackpool 
on 24 Jan. 1884, he said : ' Mr. Gladstone 
has a weakness for effecting his objects by 
acts of parliament ; the Irish a slight pre- 
ference for more rapid and violent action. 
A little difference as to method, you see, 
but a precisely similar result. These two 
parties are now at this moment preparing to 
meet parliament with a demand for a repeal 
of the union.' It was often urged as a re- 
proach against the speaker that, in spite of 
these declarations, he cultivated the closest 
relations with the Parnellite members dur- 
ing 1884 and 1885, and used the utmost 
efforts to detach them from the liberals, 
and to secure their support for the opposi- 
tion. Liberal critics, and some of the 
nationalists themselves, asserted that in his 
frequent private conversations with the 
Parnellite members he had given them to 
understand that he would be prepared, in 
certain circumstances, to support a scheme 



Churchill 



13 



Churchill 



of home rule. But no satisfactory evidence 
has ever been adduced in support of this 
allegation. As a party-manager Lord Ran- 
dolph was habitually careless of the means 
he used to obtain votes. Knowing that 
Parnellite support was valuable to the con- 
servatives in the House of Commons, he 
was doubtless prepared to bargain for it ; 
and he was always in favour of making large 
concessions to Irish feeling. But at no 
time did he publicly exhibit any want of 
fidelity to the act of union ; and though he 
may have unconsciously misled some of the 
nationalists in 1884 by vague or inaccurate 
language, it is very unlikely that he ever 
went the length of pledging himself to sup- 
port a scheme of repeal. 

In these years Ireland only occupied one 
part of Churchill's multifarious political 
activity. He was still a * free-lance ' of 
the tory party, and was equally busy in 
assailing the actions of the Gladstonian 
ministry, in reviving conservative spirit 
among the mass of the electors, and in pro- 
secuting his campaign against the official 1 
leaders of the opposition in the House of 
Commons. His attacks were characterised by { 
more vigour than good taste. Derisive, and 
even vulgar, nicknames were hurled at Wil- 
liam Henry Smith [q. v.] and Mr. (now Vis- 
count) Cross, and the kindly tolerance of Sir 
Stafford Northcote was mercilessly abused. 
The * masterly inactivity ' of the conservatives 
after the death of Lord Beaconsfield seemed 
to him sheer weakness. In November 1882 
he was already so well known and popular in 
the north of England that a deputation was 
sent from Manchester urging him to become 
a candidate for that constituency at the next 
general election. In declining the invitation 
he complained of the want of energy which 
the tory chiefs had shown. * The constitu- 
tional function of an opposition,' he said, 
* is to oppose, and not to support, the govern- 
ment ; and that function has, during the 
three sessions of this parliament, been sys- 
tematically neglected.' He maintained that 
the dual leadership, under which the party 
had been left, was a fatal source of weak- 
ness ; and in a letter to the * Times ' 
(31 March 1883) he came forward as an 
emphatic advocate of the claim of Lord 
Salisbury to direct the policy of the oppo- 
sition, and heaped scorn on * the malignant 
efforts of envious mediocrity ' to retard or 
prevent the recognition by the party of * the 
one man who is capable, not only of over- 
turning, but also of replacing, Mr. Gladstone.' 
He followed this statement with an article 
entitled 'Elijah's Mantle 'in the ' Fortnightly 
Review ' for May 1883, in which the parlia- 



mentary tactics of the conservatires were 
severely criticised. The writer argued that 
it would be a great advantage for the oppo- 
sition to have its leader in the House of 
Lords. The obvious aim of Lord liandolph 
was to get Lord Salisbury recognised aa 
the chief of the whole party, in which ca«e, 
by the supersession of Sir Stafford Northcote, 
tiie way would presently be cleared for him- 
self as leader of the conservatives in the 
Commons. He illustrated his theory as to 
the duty of an opposition bv the persistency 
of his attacks on the liberal administration. 
Gladstone's home and foreign policy was 
assailed with the same unsparing determina- 
tion, and with the same emphatic and often 
exaggerated phraseology, with which Lord 
Randolph criticised the conduct of Irish 
affairs. He took a strong line on the 
Egyptian and Soudan questions, denouncing 
Gladstone, in one of his most extravagant 
outbursts, as * the Moloch of Midlothian,' 
who had shed streams of blood only to re- 
store the Khedive Tewfik, ' one of the most 
despicable wretches v,'ho ever occupied an 
eastern throne.' His choicest collection of 
adjectives was reserved for the prime mini- 
ster ; but he bestowed his invective with 
almost equal energy upon some of the other 
liberal leaders, and particularly upon Mr. 
Chamberlain and John Bright [q. v. Suppl.l 
Meanwhile he was fostering the revival 
of conservatism among the working classes 
in two ways. In the first place he and his 
efficient lieutenant, Mr. Gorst, improved the 
party organisation by promoting the esta- 
blishment of conservative clubs, and by 
establishing and popularising the primrose 
league. Speaking to the midland conserva- 
tive club at Birmingham in 1884, he com- 
mended ' the peculiar form of organisation 
which is known as the Caucus,' and advised 
tories to take a lesson from their opponents 
by adopting their methods. At a. primrose 
league gathering on lo April 1885, however, 
he said : 'For my part I prefer the primrose 
league to the caucus, and I will back the 
primrose league against the caucus.' But 
in addition to strengthening the conserva- 
tive machinery he endeavoured to widen the 
basis of conservative principles. In a series 
of speeches, delivered chiefly to largo 
audiences in the great towns of the north 
and the midlands, he endeavoured to show 
that toryism, so far from being the poli- 
tical creed of an exclusive class, was in 
essentials as truly 'democratic' as that of 
the radicals, if not indeed more so. The 
doctrines of Lord Randolph Churchill's 
' Tory Democracy ' were never reduced by 
him to a system, nor has he anywhere given 



Churchill 



14 



Churchill 



a completely coherent and harmonious 
account of them. But generally it may be 
said that the fundamental object is conveyed 
in his own phrase : ' Trust the people.' * I 
have long tried,' he said in the Birmingham 
speech of April 1884, ' to make that my 
motto; but I know, and will not conceal, 
that there are still a few in our party who 
have the lesson yet to learn, and who have 
yet to understand that the tory party of to- 
day is no longer identified with that small 
and narrow class which is connected with 
the ownership of land. . . . Trust the people 
and they will trust you.' Briefly, it may 
be said that while the democratic toryism 
claimed to differ from radicalism in its 
jealous regard for the throne, the church, 
the House of Lords, and the constitution, it 
asserted at least an equal interest in political 
and social reform. 

By the winter of 1883 Lord Randolph 
Churchill's incessant activity, the audacity 
of his controversial sword-play in the House 
of Commons, the bold independence of his 
attitude towards the chiefs of his own 
party, and the effectiveness of his plat- 
form speeches, had made him one of the 
virtual, though unacknowledged, leaders of 
the opposition. The party managers were 
still disinclined to admit him to their inner 
councils ; but they could not counteract 
his influence over large numbers of middle- 
class conservatives, particularly in the great 
urban constituencies. In the autumn of 
1883 he took part in the conference of the 
National Union of Conservative Associa- 
tions, held at Birmingham, and established 
a close connection with some of the influ- 
ential provincial politicians who belonged 
to that body. The antagonism between Lord 
Randolph Churchill and the official con- 
servative leaders came to a head in the 
spring of 1884, and was fought out partly 
at the meetings of the National Union, 
and partly on the floor of the House of 
Commons over the franchise bill introduced 
by the liberal government. On the first 
night of the debate on the bill (29 Feb. 
1884) Lord Randolph severely criticised it, 
and condemned the proposal of the govern- 
ment to swamp the electorate by the addi- 
tion of some two millions of poor and grossly 
i^orant voters. But as the discussion con- 
tinued he developed a line much more in 
consonance with his * democratic ' theories, 
and one which brought him into antagonism 
with a section of his own party. Sir Staf- 
ford Northcote, and those who agreed with 
his views, were on the whole inclined to 
accept the bill, while insisting on conditions 
which would have tended to maintain the 



existing system of representation in the pro- 
spective scheme of redistribution. Churchill, 
however, seemed more disposed to favour 
the establishment of single-seat electoral 
districts, believing that toryism would be 
no loser by them, and that by this method 
of representing local minorities seats would 
be gained even in the centres of dominant 
radicalism — a calculation which was subse- 
quently justified by events. There was 
also a division of opinion on the subject of 
Ireland. The Carlton Club conservatives 
objected to the immediate extension of the 
new franchise to that country. Lord Ran- 
dolph held that Ireland should be included 
in the provisions of the bill. His friends said 
that this was merely consistent with tory 
democracy, his enemies that he was angling 
for the Irish vote. He, however, supported 
the general body of his party in the conten- 
tion that it was unfair to pass the franchise 
bill into law without a disclosure, by the 
government, of the principles on which 
redistribution would be based, and with- 
out guarantees that the balance between 
urban and rural electors would be equitably 
maintained. On 28 April, on the motion 
for going into committee, he made a strong 
attack on the liberal ' gerry manderers,' whom 
he charged with an intention to manipulate 
the new constituencies in their own party 
interests. On 1 May Mr. Chaplin's amend- 
ment, intended to prevent the extension of 
the bill to Ireland, openly revealed the divi- 
sions among the conservatives. Mr. Gorst, 
as Lord Randolph Churchill's lieutenant, 
repudiated the amendment, which was with- 
drawn, after an admission from Lord George 
Hamilton that the opposition was not 
united on the subject. The real question at 
issue in the party was whether or not Lord 
Randolph and his followers were to be per- 
mitted a controlling voice in the direction 
of its affairs, and whether the whiggish con- 
servatism of Sir Stafford Northcote, or the 
progressive toryism of the younger man, was 
to prevail. The dispute was made public 
by the crisis in the National Union of Con- 
servative Associations. On 15 Feb. Lord 
Randolph, by a narrow majority, had been 
elected chairman of the council. This was 
a blow to the conservative parliamentary 
leaders, who had done their best to secure 
the election of a rival candidate. Lord 
Randolph followed his victory by obtaining 
the appointment of an executive committee, 
consisting of himself, Mr. Gorst, Sir H. 
Drummond Wolff, and one or two others. 
This committee refused to recognise the 
authority of the ' central committee ' of the 
conservative party, which included Lord 



Churchill 



»5 



Churchill 



Salisbury, Sir Stafford Northcote, Edward 
Stanho])e, and Mr. Arthur Ualfour. A 
severo strupjjle took place in tlio association, 
wliero Lord Jvandolph was denounced for 
his open adoption of radical views on lease- 
hold enfranchisement, and for his endeavour 
to introduce the methods of the Jiirming^ham 
caucus into the conservative organisations. 
A resolution was carried in the council of the 
association which Lord llandolph rejj^arded 
as a vote of confidence in the central com- 
mittee. He immediately resigned the chair- 
manship ('3 May), and a letter, addressed by 
him to Lord Salisbury, appeared in the 
* Standard,' in which he contended vigorously, 
and with much plainness of speech, for * that 
popular form of representative organisation 
which had contributed so greatly to the 
triumph of the liberal party in 1880.' As for 
the caucus, it may be, he said,* a name of evil 
sound and omen in the ears of aristocratic 
and privileged classes, but it is undeniably 
the only form of political organisation which 
can collect, guide, and control for common 
objects large masses of electors.' This bold 
defiance of 'effete wire-pulling' and secret 
influence, and the threat to appeal to the 
general body of conservatives in the country, 
were to a large extent successful. On 
7 3Iay Edward Stanhope [q. v.], speaking 
for the consen^ative front-bench, accepted 
the principle of popular and representa- 
tive party organisation. On 8 May the 
chairmen of the conservative associations in 
some of the largest constituencies in Eng- 
land and Scotland held a meeting, and re- 
quested Lord Randolph to withdraw his 
resignation of the chairmanship, which he 
consented to do, on the understanding that 
the main points for which he contended 
should be adopted. This recognition of his 
position by the party leaders was followed 
by his appearance at the meeting of the con- 
servative party at the Carlton Club (9 May), 
where he spoke immediately after Sir Staf- 
ford Northcote, and generally supported his 
views on the proposed vote of censure. The 
partial reconciliation, however, did not pre- 
vent him, ten days later, from opposing 
Mr. Brodrick's amendment to the franchise 
bill, which aimed at excluding Ireland. 
On this, and on Colonel Stanley's amend- 
ment for postponing the operation of the 
measure till a new redistribution or boundary 
bill should become law, his attitude pro- 
voked from Mr. Balfour the observation that 
if the noble lord had endeavoured to place 
himself in accord with the majority of his 
party, he had not succeeded in his object. 
On 23 July the annual conference of the 
National Union of Conservative Associa- 



tions assembled at Shefiield under the pnti- 

dency of Randolph Churchill. The contest 

between the two sections was renewed over 

the election of members of the council for 

the ensuing year. The result was again a 

success for the chairman, twenty-two out of 

the thirty candidates recommended by him 

being selected. This further proof of his 

influence in the constituencies led to a final 

adjustment of the dispute. The question of 

I the National Union was settled by a compro- 

I mise. At a meeting of the council on 

! 31 July, Churchill resigned the chairman- 

' ship, and moved the election of Sir Michael 

I Hicks-Beach as chairman for the ensuing 

j year. Mr. Gorst, Mr. J3alfour, and Mr. 

Akers-Douglas were chosen vice-chairmen. 

As a public demonstration that the quarrel 

i was at an end, and that Lord Randolph was 

' officially accepted as one of the party leaders, 

I he appeared on the same platform with Lord 

j Salisbury at a great conservative meeting at 

j Manchester (9 Aug.) 

I In the recess agitation he took an active 
I part, strongly supporting the action of the 
j House of Lords in adopting Lord Caims's 
amendment to the franchise bill. He declared 
his confidence that the nation ' would award 
the palm, and the honour, and the victory 
to those who, conscious of the immeasurable 
responsibilities attaching to an hereditary 
house, have dauntlessly defended, against an 
arbitrary minister, the ancient liberties of 
our race.' He also insisted on the unity of 
the opposition. ' Tory disunion,' he said in 
his Manchester speech, with his usual auda- 
city of assertion, ' is a phantom and a fiction, 
the ridiculous figment of a disordered and 
dissipated liberal imagination.' His plat- 
form campaign ended at Carlisle on 8 Oct., 
when he concluded his address with a de- 
scription of the liberals as * clouds without 
water, blown about by the wind ; wandering 
stars, whose helplessness would compel the 
English people to turn to the united and his- 
toric party, which can alone re-establish your 
social and imperial interests, and can alone 
proceed safely, steadily, and surely along the 
broad path of social progress and reform.' 

Before the close of the autumn session of 
1884, in which the franchise bill was passed, 
Churchill started for a tour of some months in 
India. He left England towards the end of 
November and landed at Bombay, where he 
was the guest of Sir James Fergusson, the 
governor. He visited the other Indian 
capitals and most of the chief towns of the 
peninsula, occupying himself to some extent 
with sport, and at the same time studying 
the political situation of the country. He 
was enthusiastically welcomed by some of 



Churchill 



i6 



Churchill 



the native Indian reformers, who hoped to 
find in him an advocate of their claims for 
local self-government. He seems also to have 
made a favourable impression on the official 
world. With his usual quickness in acquir- 
ing information, he obtained from this short 
visit a considerable insight into the pro- 
blems of our eastern administration. In an 
address delivered to the Cambridge Carlton 
Club in June 1885, soon after his return, he 
referred to the difficulties of Indian govern- 
ment in some sentences that touched a 
higher level of eloquence and philosophic 
statesmanship than perhaps any other pas- 
sage of his published speeches. 

Lord Randolph's Indian experiences, such 
as they were, speedily became of practical 
value to him. When Gladstone's govern- 
ment broke down, in the summer of 1885, 
and was defeated on Childers's budget on 
8 June, the member for Woodstock had 
some excuse for the passionate excitement 
he displayed. 'He jumped on the green 
bench where he had been sitting, and stand- 
ing there, or rather dancing there, he waved 
his hat madly round and round his head, 
and cheered in tones of stentorian exulta- 
tion.' He was certainly entitled to take 
much of the credit for the victory to himself; 
for no man had done more to weaken the 
liberals in parliament or to rouse the spirit 
of the conservatives in the country. His 
claim to a place in the new cabinet could not 
be ignored ; and when the ministry was formed 
it was seen that the concessions made by Lord 
Salisbury to the leader of the ' fourth party ' 
were of the most substantial kind. Sir Staf- 
ford Northcote was removed to the upper 
house ; Sir Michael Hicks-Beach was made 
chancellor of the exchequer and leader of the 
House of Commons, and Lord Randolph be- 
came secretary of state for India. 

His career at the India office lasted only 
from 24 June 1885 to 1 Feb. 1886. But dur- 
ing those few months the young minister 
showed that he possessed other qualities 
besides those of the dashing parliamentary 
gladiator and an astute party organiser. The 
breadth and comprehensiveness of his views, 
his grasp of detail, and his resolute industry, 
astonished the officials of his department. 
According to all competent testimony he was 
an admirable administrator, who might, 
with ampler opportunities, have taken a high 
place among those statesmen who have been 
responsible for the affiiirs of our eastern 
empire. As it was he accomplished some 
important work. He assisted m bringing to 
a satisfactory conclusion the critical nego- 
tiations with Russia over the Afghan fron- 
tier, and obtained from parliament the vote 



of credit required to place the Indian de- 
fences in order. On 6 Aug. he introduced 
the Indian budget in a speech which in- 
cluded a virulent attack upon Lord Ripon, 
the late viceroy, who was charged with 
gross want of foresight, with negligence, 
and incapacity. It was alleged that while 
Russia was steadily advancing the Indian 
army had been reduced, the strategic defence 
of the frontier neglected, and ' Lord Ripon 
slept, lulled by the languor of the land of the 
lotus.' The financial statement was, how- 
ever, set forth lucidly, and the speaker's 
general reflections showed that he had taken 
a large survey of Indian policy both ex- 
ternal and domestic. His tenure of the 
Indian secretaryship was rendered histori- 
cally notable by the short Burmese cam- 
paign and the acquisition of King Theebaw's 
dominions. To a large extent this enter- 
prise was Lord Randolph's work. He saw 
that the rule of the mad despot Theebaw 
had become impossible, and he boldly and 
rapidly decided that the annexation of Burma 
was the only possible solution of the dif- 
ficulty. His energy was reflected in the 
swiftness with which the operations were 
carried out. In November he gave the order 
to advance ; on 1 Dec. Lord Dufierin an- 
nounced that the conquest was completed ; 
and on the 31st of the same month the 
secretary for India sent out his despatch, 
detailing what had happened and authorising 
the annexation. He devoted attention also 
to the economic development of the penin- 
sula. The formation of the Indian Midland 
Railway was carried through by him in 
spite of strenuous and influential opposition. 
He had promised to move for a parliamentary 
committee in the session of 1881 to inquire 
into the whole subject of the administration 
of India ; but he quitted office too soon to 
take any steps for the fulfilment of this 
pledge. 

- Besides attending sedulously to the duties 
of his department, Lord Randolph, both 
during the remainder of the session of 1885 
and in the ensuing contest at the polls, 
spoke frequently on the Irish question. This 
portion of his career has been often and 
severely criticised. The debt which the 
conservatives had incurred to the Irish 
party for assisting to overthrow the Glad- 
stone administration had to be discharged. 
Lord Randolph did his share in the liquida- 
tion by joining the Parnellites in a furious 
attack on Lord Spencer and tlie Irish 
executive generally, in connection "with cer- 
tain atrocious agrarian murders which had 
taken place at Maamtrasna. He also made 
it his special business to defend the refusal 



Churchill 



17 



Churchill 



of the government to renew the Crimes Act. 
This omission has been explained frequently 
enough, both at the time and since, as being 
due to an unwritten compact between the 
Parnellites and the conservatives. But so 
far as Lord Uandolph was concerned — and 
it was to him that tlie discredit, if such there 
was, of this alliance chiefly attached — it is to 
be observed tliat he had opposed the prolonga- 
tion of the coercive system even while Glad- 
stone was still in olHce. In his speech at the 
St. Stephen's Club on 20 May 1885, delivered 
before the fall of the liberal ministry, he de- 
clared against the renewal of the Crimes 
Act for the same reasons as those he subse- 
quently urged — namely, that the condition 
of Ireland had so far improved that crime 
could be dealt with by the ordinary law, and 
that it was absurd and inconsistent to 
bestow exceptional powers upon the execu- 
tive immediately after the parliamentary 
franchise had been conferred upon the mass 
of the Irish people. 

In the general election of November 1885 
Lord Kandolph's connection with Woodstock 
came to a close owing to its disfranchise- 
ment. For some time past he had been 
closely interested in the politics of Birming- 
ham. The conservatives of the midland capi- 
tal early appreciated his abilities. Their 
toryism was always of an advanced and 
decidedly democratic character, and the local 
leaders of the party, eager to shake off the 
radical predominance, which at that time 
was unbroken, made advances to him. In 
1883, the year of John Bright's jubilee, when 
radicalism was supposed to have reached its 
zenith in Birmingham, Lord Randolph took 
part in the conference of the National Union 
of Conservative Associations held in that 
city. On 13 Oct. of the following year a 
political garden party was held at Aston 
Park, at which Lord Randolph and other 
leading conservatives were present. A riot 
occurred, instigated, in part at least, by 
some of the persons connected with local 
radical organisations. The incident led to 
some angry discussions in the House of 
Commons, in the course of which Lord 
Randolph accused Mr. Chamberlain of being 
partly responsible for the disorder. In the 
early part of 1884 Churchill was invited by 
the Birmingham Conservative Association 
to contest the representation of the borough, 
with Colonel Burnaby as the other conser- 
vative candidate. Lord Randolph accepted 
the invitation, 'and the consciousness that 
he was to be pitted against Bright at the 
polls seems to have lent a sharper edge to 
the satirical vehemence with which he as- 
sailed the veteran radical orator in the 

VOL. II. — SUP. 



House of Commons. Before the election of 

1885 Colonel fiurnabyhad been killed on the 
battle-field and the R'nlistribution Act had 
divided Birmingham into seven constituen- 
cies. Lord Randolph opposed Bright in the 
central division, and was defeated after a 
sharp contest by 4,9 '9 votes against 4,2 UJ. 
The result was really a ' moral victory ' for 
the conservative candidate, considering 
Bright's long services and great personal 
popularity in Birmingham. The following 
day (25 Nov.) Lord Randolph was returned 
for South Paddington by a majority of 
1,706. 

The Salisbury administration came to an 
end in January 1886 by the defection of the 
Irish members in consequence of Gladstone's 
adoption of home rule. On 26 Jan. 1886 
the government was defeated on Mr. Jesse 
CoUings's amendment to the address by a 
combination of liberals and nationalists, and 
the resignation of Lord Salisbury and his 
colleagues was announced on 1 Feb. Glad- 
stone returned to office, and for the next few 
months all other public questions were for- 
gotten in the agitation over the home-rule 
bill. In the fierce campaign, in and out of 
parliament, which lasted through the spring 
and summer of 1886, Lord Randolph took a 
prominent part. On 23 Feb. he addressed a 
great audience in Belfast, and roused much 
enthusiasm by a stirring appeal to Ulster 
sentiment and tradition. At Manchester 
on 3 March he advocated a coalition among 
those who were opposed to home rule, and 
suggested that * unionists ' should be the 
general name adopted by ' the party of the 
union,' while their opponents should be known 
as ' separatists.' He added that if the dis- 
sentient liberals should be able to form a 
ministry oftheir own the conservatives would 
support them, and that if their leaders were 
willing to enter a coalition cabinet those 
conservatives * with whom the whigs did not 
wish to serve ' would cheerfully stand aside. 
In the House of Commons he spoke during 
the first few days after the introduction of 
the home-rule bill, which he described as a 
' desperate and insane ' measure. After the 
rejection of Gladstone's bill by the House of 
Commons he used even stronger language, 
both in his platform speeches and his address 
to the electors of South Paddington, with 
regard to the scheme and its author. * The 
caprice of an individual,' he said, * was 
elevated to the dignity of an act of the 
people by the boundless egoism of the prime 
minister ; ' and he declared that an attempt 
was being made to destroy the constitution 
merely * to gratify the ambition of an old 
man in a hurry.^ He was re-elected for 

c 



Churchill 



i8 



Churchill 



South Paddington on 2 July by 2,576 votes 
to 769. He returned to parliament at the 
head of a triumphant unionist majority, 
whose victory he had materially assisted to 
secure. In the electioneering campaign he 
had been somewhat less active than Lord 
Hartington, Mr. Chamberlain, Mr. Goschen, 
and other unionist liberals. But in the con- 
servative camp proper there was no leader, 
except Lord Salisbury, who could now be 
compared with him in influence and reputa- 
tion, and perhaps not one who surpassed 
him in popularity with the rank and file of 
the party in the constituencies. His per- 
sonality had fascinated the masses, who ad- 
mired his courage, his ready wit, and the 
brilliant audacity with which he dealt his 
blows at the loftiest crests, whether those 
of friends or adversaries. Moreover, it was 
perceived by this time that there was a fund 
of intellectual power and a genuine depth of 
conviction behind his erratic insolence and 
reckless rhetoric. Discerning judges re- 
cognised that the former swashbuckler of 
the * fourth party ' had statesmanlike ideas 
and penetrating insight. Accordingly, when 
the general election of July 1886 overthrew 
Gladstone, and Lord Salisbury was sent for 
by the queen on 22 July, Lord Randolph 
was offered and accepted the second place 
in the ministry, the chancellorship of the 
exchequer and the leadership of the House 
of Commons. Parliament was opened on 
19 Aug., and on the same night, in answer 
to Gladstone, the new leader made a detailed 
statement of the ministerial policy, particu- 
larly in regard to Ireland. In this speech, 
and in the course of the other Irish debates 
of the short session, Churchill insisted on 
the unalterable determination of his party 
to maintain the union inviolate. He pro- 
mised, however, a general inquiry into Irish 
administration, and dwelt on the necessity 
for developing local government ' in all parts 
of the United Kingdom.' It was an attitude 
which was somewhat resented by extreme 
unionists, who suspected Lord Randolph of 
a desire to coquet with the nationalist vote ; 
but it was thoroughly consistent with his 
general view of Irish policy. He had steadily 
asserted that, though repeal was inadmis- 
sible, Irish nationalism should be conciliated 
as far as possible by the extension of local 
self-government. 

But Lord Randolph carried his progressive 
toryism into other fields. In the recess he 
delivered a speech at Dartford on 2 Oct., in 
which he gave a description of conservative 
policy that excited much adverse comment, 
both from radicals, who said that Lord Ran- 
dolph was trying to ' dish ' them by stealing 



their principles, and from many conserva- 
tives who complained that the chancellor of 
the exchequer was little better than a radi- 
cal himself. Nevertheless several of the mea- 
sures which he then advocated were destined 
to be officially adopted by the conservative 
party in the course of the next few years 
and carried into eft'ect. The ' Dartford pro- 
gramme,' vigorously defended and reasserted 
three weeks later in a speech at Bradford, 
included local government reform in Great 
Britain and Ireland, bills for providing agri- 
cultural labourers with allotments and small 
holdings, the sal6 of glebe lands, and legisla- 
tion on railway rates, tithes, land transfer, 
and Irish land purchase. ' Politics,' said its 
author, ' is not a science of the past. You 
must use the past as a lever with which to 
manufacture the future.' 

As leader of the House of Commons in the 
autumn session of 1886 Lord Randolph vin- 
dicated the judgment of his admirers and 
disconcerted those who thought him petu- 
lant and shallow. He displayed tact, ability, 
and good temper, and exhibited that mix- 
ture of firmness and conciliation which the 
house respects above most qualities. Some 
curiosity was entertained as to what kind of 
financial administrator he would make. It 
was not destined to be gratified, for Lord 
Randolph never introduced a budget. 

On 23 Dec. 1886 the 'Times' announced 
that the chancellor of the exchequer had 
placed his resignation in the hands of the 
prime minister. The step was wholly unex- 
pected by the general public, and caused in- 
tense interest and surprise. The retiring 
minister's colleagues were perhaps less asto- 
nished. All through the autumn there had 
been a certain amount of friction in the 
cabinet. Lord Randolph, though he could 
keep his feelings under restraint in the 
House of Commons, was not always able to 
control a high-strung and irritable tempe- 
rament in his private intercourse with asso- 
ciates, some of whom he regarded with very 
little respect. On the other side, those 
members of the cabinet who had scarcely 
forgiven the gibes and insults of the ' fourth 
party ' day, were displeased with the ' ad- 
vanced' sentiments of the Dartford and 
Bradford speeches, and the overbearing 
manners of a comparatively youthful col- 
league. The chancellor of the exchequer is 
said to have talked of resignation more than 
once in the course of the autumn. 

The final rupture was precipitated by a 
difference of opinion on a specific question 
of policy. Lord Randolph, as guardian of 
the public purse, objected to the demands of 
the ministers responsible for the army and 



Churchill 



19 



Churchill 



navy. On 20 Dec. 1886 he wrote to Lord 
Salisbury saying that the total of .'U ,000,000/. 
for the two services ' is very much in excess 
of what I can consent to.' ' I know,' he 
added, ' that on this subject I cannot look 
for any sympathy or effective support from 
you, and I am certain that I shall find no 
supporters in the cabinet.' Under the cir- 
cumstances, as he did not 'want to be 
wranglin«T and quarrelling in the cabinet,' 
he requested permission to give up his office 
and retire from the government. Lord 
Salisbury replied two days later, expressing 
his full concurrence with the views of Lord 
George Hamilton and W. H. Smith as to 
the necessity for increased expenditure on 
the coaling stations, military ports, and 
mercantile harbours, and declining to take 
the responsibility of refusing the supplies 
demanded by the heads of the war office 
and the admiralty. The prime minister 
concluded by accepting the resignation of 
the chancellor of the exchequer with ' pro- 
found regret,' and with the caustic observa- 
tion that 'no one knows better than you 
how injurious to the public interests at this 
juncture your withdrawal from the govern- 
ment may be.' In his subsequent explana- 
tion in the House of Commons (27 Jan. 
1887) Lord Randolph complained that Lord 
SalislDury offered him no opportunity for re- 
consideration, nor did he endeavour to adjust 
the differences between the chancellor of the 
exchequer and the other two ministers. 
Filled with the sense of his own command- 
ing position in the conservative ranks, Lord 
Randolph probably imagined that he would 
be implored to withdraw his resignation. 
But the terms of his letter of 20 Dec. were 
such that Lord Salisbury was bound to 
permit the retirement of his subordinate, 
unless he was prepared to modify the entire 
foreign and military policy of the govern- 
ment. At any rate, on receiving the pre- 
mier's letter of the 22nd, Lord Randolph 
perceived that the step he had taken could 
not be retraced. He spent the evening 
with Lady Randolph at a theatre, and at 
midnight went down to the office of the 
' Times ' and communicated the news of his 
resignation to the conductors of that jour- 
nal. Earlier in the day he had sent a reply 
to Lord Salisbury, which, however, did not 
reach the prime minister till the following 
morning, and by that time the resignation 
of the chancellor of the exchequer had been 
made known to the world. In this commu- 
nication he abandoned the curt brevity of 
his former note and endeavoured to vindi- 
cate his action on general principles. * The 
great question of public expenditure,' he 



I wrote, ' is not so technical or departmental 

as might be supposed by a superficial critic. 
1 Foreign policy and free expenditure upon 
armaments act and react upon one anotner. 
i . . . A wise foreign policy will extricate 
England from continental struggles, and 
keep her outside German, Russian, French, 
or Austrian disputes. I have for some time 
1 observed a tendency in the government atti- 
tude to pursue a different line of action, 
I which I have not been able to modify or 
; check. This tendency is certain to be accen- 
tuated if large estimates are presented to 
and voted by parliament. The possession 
; of a very sharp sword ofiers a temptation 
i which becomes irresistible to demonstrate 
the efficiency of the weapon in a practical 
manner. I remember the vulnerable and 
; scatteredcharacterof the empire, the univer- 
sality of our commerce, the peaceful ten- 
dencies of our democratic electorate, and the 
hard times, the pressure of competition, and 
the high taxation now imposed ; and with 
these factors vividly before me I decline to 
I be a party to encouraging the military and 
militant circle of the war office and admi- 
: ralty to join in the high and desperate 
I stakes which other nations seem to be forced 
I to risk. ... A careful and continuous exa- 
mination and study of national finance, of 
the startling growth of expendituie, of na- 
tional taxation, resources, and endurance, 
has brought me to the conclusion, from 
which nothing can turn me, that it is only 
the sacrifice of a chancellor of the exchequer 
upon the altar of thrift and economy which 
can rouse the people to take stock of their 
i leaders, their position, and their future.' 
; Whatever collateral and personal motives 
may have influenced Lord Randolph's con- 
i duct at this juncture, there can be little 
' doubt that in these passages he expressed 
his genuine convictions. His anxiety for 
economical administration and careful finance 
had been declared for several years past. In 
t his election address at Birmingham in 1885 he 
I urged that it should be part ot the policy of 
[ the tory party so * to utilise the powers of 
the House of Commons as either to effect 
financial retrenchment and departmental 
reform or else to make sure that the present 
expenditure of the people's money is justifiable 
and thrifty.' In a speech at Blackpool on 
24 Jan. 1884 he denounced the extrava- 
i gance of both parties, and advocated a 
; searching inquiry into the administration 
' of the army, which he condemned as waste- 
i ful and inefficient. If such an investigation 
were held, ' we should find,' he said, * that 
we spend annually from sixteen to eighteen 
millions on our array. Germany, Austria, 



Churchill 



20 



Churchill 



and France do not spend more; but we 
should find that while these powers have 
great armies we have no armies at all. "We 
have regiments of various sorts ; but if by an 
army you mean a perfect fighting machine, 
fully equipped in all its parts, and ready to 
take the field at the shortest notice, then we 
have not got an army or anything approaching 
it ; and yet we spend over fifteen millions on 
it annually. You now have to consider 
whether it is worth while going on spend- 
ing such an enormous sum of money for a 
thing which you do not possess.' With 
these strong views on economy he had a 
deep distrust of an adventurous foreign 
policy. Though he professed profound ad- 
miration for Lord Beaconsfield, he had 
little sympathy with that statesman's im- 
perialism. The mission of Britain, as a 
great ' world-power,' and the mistress of a 
vast empire beyond the seas, does not seem 
to have appealed keenly to his imagination. 
But his belief in the old liberal axiom of 
* peace, retrenchment, and reform ' was 
quite sincere, and he had a vivid conception 
of the dangers which would arise if they 
were disregarded. He defended his views 
in detail in the House of Commons on 
31 Jan., and in a speech to his constituents 
on 2 April. In these addresses he main- 
tained that he had not opposed necessary 
expenditure on the defences of the country, 
but that he wished to reform the wasteful 
and extravagant administration of the public 
departments. A sane and sober external 
policy, he urged, would save us from * throw- 
ing ourselves hysterically into the embraces 
of engineers or lying down pusillanimously 
in a cemetery of earthworks.' He contended 
that he had saved the country nearly a 
million and a half sterling by resisting the 
excessive demands of the military depart- 
ments, and that further reductions, refused 
to him, were allowed to his successor. He 
suggested that printed summaries of esti- 
mates should be circulated among members 
before being read to the House of Commons, 
and that a select committee should be ap- 
pointed to examine the naval and military 
estimates. The suggestions were subse- 
quently carried out, and Lord Randolph 
became the first chairman of the committee. 
If Churchill entertained any expectation 
that the shock of his resignation would bring 
down the ministry and enable him to return 
to office as the actual chief of a conservative 
cabinet, he was disappointed. Mr. Goschen, 
whom, according to a story current at the 
time, Lord Randolph declared he had ' for- 
gotten,' joined the ministry as chancellor of 
the exchequer, and W. H. Smith became 



leader of the House of Commons. Lord 
Randolph, however, made no attempt to 
revive the fourth party, or to harass the 
conservatives by damaging attacks in flank. 
During the whole existence of the ad- 
ministration he preserved the attitude of a 
candid, but not rancorous, commentator. He 
gave the government an independent support 
on most occasions, though he sometimes 
criticised them severely, particularly when 
dealing with Ireland and with naval and 
military administration. He remained 
staunch in his opposition to Irish home 
rule, and showed no symptom of entering 
into relations with the nationalists or miti- 
gating his hostility to Gladstone's bill of 
1886. Indeed he more than once warned 
the country that the union was in danger, 
not only through the designs of the home 
rulers, but because of the supineness, as he 
alleged, of the ministerial management of 
Irish affairs. ' The Union,' he said to a vast 
and enthusiastic audience at Nottingham in 
April 1887, ' is the life of the British empire, 
and it is worth fighting for.' But he con- 
tinued to urge, with a consistency which 
was more real than that of some of his 
hostile critics, that conciliatory measures 
should be adopted to satisfy the Irish 
demand for the control of local administra- 
tion. In the House of Commons in April 
1888 he strongly advocated ' simultaneity ' in 
dealing with the problem of county govern- 
ment, and asked that the unionist party 
should fulfil its pledge to ' legislate largely 
and liberally for the removal of Irish 
grievances.' He pointed out that in August 
1886, speaking as the official representative 
of the cabinet, he had been authorised to an- 
nounce remedial legislation on ' popular ' 
lines for Ireland. On this question it can- 
not be said that Lord Randolph ever 
wavered, or that there is any contradiction 
between his earlier and later utterances. In 
the debates on the Parnell inquiry he took 
a line of vehement hostility both to the 
' Times ' and the special commission ; and in 
March 1890 he delivered one of the most 
violent of his diatribes in angry criticism of 
the commissioners' report. 

Of his other speeches during these years 
the most important related to financial and 
economical reform. At Wolverhampton on 
3 June 1887 he entered upon an elaborate 
and very able analysis of the whole system 
of naval and military administration, based 
on a mass of facts drawn from official docu- 
ments of various kinds. He added that he 
had devised a comprehensive plan of depart- 
mental reform, and was prepared to lay it 
before the country. But other interests and 



Churchill 



ai 



Churchill 



the decline of his political energy prevented 
the realisation of this project. In March 
1888 he supported the appointment of a 
royal commission to inquire into the con- 
dition of the army ; and on the introduction 
of Mr. Goschen's naval defence scheme he 
stronjjly attacked the government proposals. 
Other mutters that occupied his attention 
from time to time were the Channel tunnel 
project, which he opposed on 26 June in a 
speech of much humour and lightness of 
touch, and temperance reform, which he 
dabbled with sufficiently to produce a 
licensing bill of his own in 1890. Labour 
questions and social reform had been part 
of his conservative programme since his first 
appearance as a tory democrat. At this 
period of his life he paid renewed attention 
to them, and in reply to a deputation of 
miners he promised his support to an eight 
hours bill. On 9 June 1888 he received the 
hon. LL.U. at Cambridge in company with 
the Duke of Clarence, the Earl of Ilosebery, 
the Earl of Selborne, Lord Acton, Lord 
R^iyleigh, and Mr. Goschen. In April 1889 
Bright died, and the Birmingham conserva- 
tives invited Lord Randolph to fill the 
vacancy in the representation of the city. 
The result was a controversy with Mr. 
Chamberlain as to the rival claims of con- 
servatives and liberal unionists in the mid- 
land capital. Finally the matter was referred 
to arbitration, and Lord Randolph acquiesced 
in the decision to leave the seat in possession 
of the other wing of the unionist coalition. 

His attendance in parliament was be- 
coming fitful and his devotion to public 
afi'airs diminishing. In the session of 1889 
he threatened the first lord of the admiralty 
with relentless opposition, and ' a long and 
heavy fight ' over his estimates. But by the 
time the committee stage was reached the 
champion of economy had gone to Norway, 
and the votes were got through with excep- 
tional ease. Lord Randolph was much oc- 
cupied in other ways during these years. 
He spent a good deal of the time, which in 
the first half of the decade he had devoted 
to politics, in sport, travel, and social re- 
creations. He had always been interested 
in racing; and between 1881 and 1891, but 
particularly during the.last four years of that 
period, he was well known on the turf. 
He and the Earl of Dunraven ran their 
horses together, and the partnership was on 
the whole successful. In 1888 Lord Ran- 
dolph and Lord Dunraven won the Fitzwil- 
liam Plate at Newmarket with St. Serge. In 
L'Abbesse de Jouarre, a filly said to have 
been bought by Lord Randolph on his own 
unaided judgment, they possessed an animal 



of remarkable quality, which won the New- 
market May Plate in 1888, the Oaks in 1889, 
and the Prince of Wales Handicap at San- 
down in 1890, and ran second for the Gold 
Vase at Ascot. Lord Randolph entered his 
own horses, and paid great attention to their 
training, lie was an excellent judge of horse- 
flesh, and he threw into his racing a good 
deal of the intensity which he brought to 
bear on most matters that really engaged 
his interest. 

In the spring of 1891 he started on a 
journey to South Africa. The expedition 
was undertaken partly for change and re- 
creation, and partly for the benefit of the 
traveller's health. A constitution con- 
genitally delicate, with a high-strung ner- 
vous system, had been severely tried by the 
strain to which it had been exposed for 
years. His political work had been per- 
formed with fiery energy ; and his activity 
in the House of Commons and on the plat- 
form was often supplemented by long spells 
of exhausting labour over blue-books and 
official publications. Nor had he ever taken 
much pains to conserve his mental and 
physical forces. He is credited with the 
characteristic saying that he had tried every 
kind of excitement from tip-cat to tiger- 
shooting. He was fond of society, and he 
and his accomplished wife were constant 
guests at country-house parties, and lead- 
ing personages in the fashionable gaieties 
of successive London seasons. But Lord Ran- 
dolph was also tempted to South Africa, as 
he said, by an interest in the country, and 
by the attraction * of seeking for gold one- 
self, of acquiring gold mines or shares in 
gold mines.' He left London towards the 
end of April 1891, and returned to England 
in December. He travelled through the 
Cape Colony to the Transvaal, visited Kim- 
berley and Johannesburg, and rode across 
Bechuanaland and Mashonaland, inspecting 
the reefs and gold mines, conversing with 
the principal officials, and shooting lions and 
antelopes as occasion offered. One result 
of his visit was to cause him to recant his 
former opinions on Gladstone's South African 
policy in 1881, which at the time he had 
violently assailed in the House of Commons 
and on the platform. 'Better and more pre- 
cise information,' he wrote, ' combined with 
cool reflection, leads me to the conclusion 
that, had the British government of that 
day taken advantage of its strong military 
position, and annihilated, as it could easily 
have done, the Boer forces, it would indeed 
have regained the Transvaal, but it might 
have lost Cape Colony.' Lord Randolph 
gave some account of his experiences and 



Churchill 



22 



Churchill 



impressions in a series of letters to tlie 
'Daily Graphic' newspaper. These were 
subsequently republished in a book with 
the title ' Men, Mines, and Animals in South 
Africa' (London, 1892). 

The journey appeared to have a highly 
beneficial eft'ect. He returned to politics 
with his old vigour. In the general election 
of 1892 he was re-elected for South Padding- 
ton without a contest. In the new parliament 
he abandoned his position of semi-isolation, 
took his seat on the front opposition bench, 
and was again accepted as one of the regular 
leaders of the conservatives. He bore a 
conspicuous share in the debates on Glad- 
stone's second home-rule bill, which he 
attacked with effect. He also opposed Mr. 
Asquith's Welsh church bill in the 1893 
session in a speech of considerable power. 
Always a favourite on the platform, he was 
welcomed back with effusion by the conser- 
vatives of the north and midlands, to whom 
he delivered a large number of speeches 
during the recess. But in spite of this 
access of brilliant energy, he was a doomed 
man. He had been suffering for some time 
from the incipient stages of general para- 
lysis, and the malady made rapid progress. 
In the session of 1894 his few attempts to 
speak in the House of Commons were failures. 
The painful change in his voice and man- 
ner, and his frequent lapses of memory, 
moved the sympathy of friends and foes. 
His last speech was on the Uganda railway 
vote in June 1894, and it was a tragic 
exhibition of physical and mental decay. 
A long sea-voyage was determined on as a 
final chance of arresting the disease from 
which he suffered. He left England in the 
summer, accompanied by Lady llandolph 
Churchill, on a trip round the world. But 
he grew rapidly worse after reaching Japan 
in September. From Madras the party 
returned with all possible speed to Eng- 
land, and arrived two days before Christmas 
1894 at 50 Grosvenor Square, the residence of 
Lord Randolph's mother,the Duchess of Marl- 
borough. The sick man lingered for a month, 
mostly in an unconscious condition, dying in 
the morning of 24 Jan. 1 895. He was buried 
on 28 Jan. in the churchyard of Bladon near 
Blenheim. 

llandolph Churchill's private character ex- 
hibited some of the contradictions of his public 
career. His personality, which fascinated 
men in masses, and attracted those whom he 
admitted to his intimacy, was often found 
repellent by casual acquaintances and by his 
political associates. The insolence of bear- 
ing, which excited so much resentment, 
particularly when displayed towards digni- 



fied and elderly colleagues, was sometimes 
said to be deliberately studied ; but it was 
probably the natural expression of a temper 
which was at once frank, egotistical, and 
unaccustomed to mental discipline. Yet 
Churchill, in spite of his quivering nerves 
and impatient temperament, could control 
himself when occasion demanded, as he 
showed during his brief tenure of the leader- 
ship of the House of Commons. Though he 
was constantly charged, especially by his 
conservative critics, with a taste for dis- 
creditable intrigue, he was one of the most 
indiscreetly outspoken of politicians, and he 
expressed his opinions and intentions with 
the utmost candour. 'An overpowering am- 
bition, fed by the consciousness of great 
abilities, and hampered by an unstable ner- 
vous system, would go far to explain both 
his qualities and his defects. His lack of 
culture was often exaggerated. His scholar- 
ship was scanty and superficial, and his 
speeches seldom contain literary allusions. 
But he had read more widely in English and 
French literature than was commonly 
believed, and his retentive memory and 
mastery of detail enabled him to make the 
most of such knowledge as he possessed. 

The acutenessof his political insight struck 
most persons who were brought into contact 
with him. It is only necessary to turn to 
the volumes of his speeches to recognise how 
often subsequent events have vindicated his 
foresight and penetrating judgment. Lord 
Iddesleigh, who had no reason to love him, 
called him the shrewdest member of the 
cabinet of 1885. 

Lord llandolph Churchill left two sons. 
The elder, Mr. Winston Spencer Churchill, 
after serving in the Malakand, Tirah, and 
Soudan campaigns as an officer in the 4th 
hussars, and acting as war correspondent in 
South Africa in 1899 and 1900 with the 
armies of General Buller and Lord Roberts, 
was elected member of parliament for Old- 
ham in October 1900. Lady Randolph 
Churchill survived her first husband, and 
married Mr. George Cornwallis W^est in 
July 1900. 

A portrait of Lord Randolph Churchill, 
by Edwin Long, R.A., is in the Constitu- 
tional Club, London. Another portrait, 
painted by Alfred Hartley in 1893, is in the 
possession of the Earl of Rosebery. A third 
portrait, a small one, painted by Edwin 
Ward in 1886, belongs to Lord Tweed- 
mouth. A marble bust is in the members' 
corridor of the House of Commons. 

[Hansard's Debates : Annual Register, 1880- 
1894; Times, 25 Jan. 1900; L. J. Jennings's 
Speeches of the Right Honourable Lord Ran- 



Clarence 



23 



Clark 



dolph Churchill, M.P., 2 vols. 1889; T. H. S. 
Escott'H Randolph Spencer Churchill, 181)5; Me- 
morittls, Personal and Political, of Roundoll 
Palmer, Earl of Solhorne, 1898; The Life, Let- 
ters, and Diaries of Sir Stafford Northcote, tlrst 
Earl of Iddesleigh, edited by Andrew Lang, 2 volx. 
1890; H. W. Lucy's Diary of Two I'arliametits, 
and a Diary of the Salisbury Parliament, 1892 ; 
Justin McCarthy's History of our own Times 
from 1880 to the Diamond Jubilee, 1899. No 
authoriUitive biography of Lord Rjvndolph Chur- 
chill has yet appeared, and his correspondence 
and private psxpers still (1901) remain unpub- 
lished. A severely critical study of him was 
published by John Beattie Crozier under the 
title of Lord Randolph Churchill : a Study of 
English Democracy, 1887-] S. J. L. 

CLARENCE and AVONDALE, Duke 

OF. [See Albert Victor, 1864-1892.] 

CLARK, Sir ANDREW, M.D. (1826- 
1893), tirst baronet, physician, born at Aber- 
deen on 28 Oct. 1826, was son of Andrew- 
Clark, * a medical man residing at Ednie in 
the parish of St. Fergus, Aberdeenshire ' 
(Joui-nal of Pathology, ii. 255). Ilis mother 
died at his birth, and his father when he 
was seven years old. He was educated at 
the Tay Square academy in Dundee, and 
became a serving-boy to Dr. Matthew Nimmo, 
a practitioner of that town, and afterwards 
an apprentice to a Dr. Webster. Soon after 
1839 he began to study as an extra acade- 
mical student in Edinburgh, and on 31 May 
1844 took the diploma of member of the 
Royal College of Surgeons of England. He 
then returned to Edinburgh and worked at 
medical studies, especially pathology, and on 
1 Sept. 1846 joined the medical service of 
the royal navy. He never served afloat, but 
was employed at Haslar till 1853, when he 
retired from the navy, and was appointed 
curator of the museum of the London Hos- 

Eital, and in 1 854 assistant physician to that 
ospital. In the same year he was admitted 
a member of the Royal College of Physicians 
of London, and graduated M.D. at the uni- 
versity of Aberdeen, a proceeding which then 
required no residence and little examination. 
He was elected a fellow of the College of 
Physicians in 1858, was Croonian lecturer 
in 1868, and Lumleian in 1885. He soon 
attained reputation as a teacher of medicine, 
and on 14 Aug. 1866 became physician to 
the London Hospital, and continued in otlice 
till 1886. 

In 1860 Clark became acquainted with 
Mrs. Gladstone, who used to visit the hos- 
pital, and through this introduction came to 
have medical charge of her husband, the 
distinguished statesman. Clark soon had 
many other celebrated patients, and acquired 



a larger practice than any other phv«»ician of 
his time. He began practice in Montague 
Street, Bloomsbury, but in 1867 moved to a 
large house at the north-west comer of 
Cavendish Snuare, where the rest of his life 
was spent. In 1883 he was created a baro- 
net, and on 4 June 1885 he was made F.K.S. 
On 26 March 1888 he wa.s elected presi- 
dent of the Royal College of Physicians, and 
held office till his death, lie was most 
regular in attendance on the onerous duties 
i of the otlice, and, in spite of his large prac- 
tice, sat on numerous committees. He pre- 
sented to the college a solid and handsome 
revolving bookcase, containing all the works 
likely to be useful to the censors in conduct- 
ing their examinations. He took part in 
every debate, and on one occasion in a com- 
mittee of fourteen, over which he presided, 
made thirty-eight distinct speeches, having 
at the beginning declared that it was desir- 
able that no one should speak more than 
once. He was, however, rather eager to 
seize every point than prolix in discussing 
it, and he was always just to his adversaries. 
His manner was natural and sympathetic, 
and every patient felt that Clark was anxious 
for his well-being. He wrote more elabo- 
rate directions as to regimen than had been 
the fashion since the time of Mayerne. They 
were marked by good sense, and, though 
copied by his inferiors in medicine, and 
sometimes laughed at by his equals, were 
generally useful to the patient and contri- 
butive to his cure. It was an accident of 
his kind intention and minute care tliat most 
of the hypochondriacs of the time spoke 
of him as their dearest friend. AVhen he 
became president of the College of Physi- 
cians those fellows who had criticised him 
before were constrained to admit that he 
was a high-souled man, devoted to medicine, 
jealous of the honour of physicians, and care- 
less of pecuniary gain. His generosity to 
persons in distress was universal and extra- 
ordinary. JMoral science, metaphysics, and 
theology were his favourite reading, and he 
was ready on all occasions to talk on these 
subjects. He was elected president of the 
Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society in 
1892, and presided over that body as well as 
the College of Physicians at the time of his 
death. He was attacked by cerebral haemor- 
rhage while talking with a friend in the 
morning of 19 Oct. 1893, and died on G Nov. 
at his house in Cavendish Square. Shortly 
before his death he had bought a country 
house near Hatfield in Hertfordshire, and 
was buried near it at Essenden. 

Clark was twice married: tirst, in 1851, 
to Seton Mary Percy, daughter of Captain 



Clark 



24 



Clark 



Forster, R.N. ; and, secondly, to Helen An- 
nette, daughter of Alphonso Doxat of Ley ton- 
stone ; and left a son. Surgeon-major James 
Richardson Andrew Clark, who succeeded 
to his baronetcy. 

Clark published no large book, but made 
many contributions to medical knowledge, 
besides numerous lectures and addresses. A 
complete list of his writings, including more 
than one hundred such pi^lications, has 
been made by Sheridan Dl!6pine, and is 
printed in the 'Journal of Pathology and 
Bacteriology,' 1894, ii. 265. His portrait 
was painted by Frank Holl, R.A., and by Mr. 
G. F. Watts, R.A. 

[W. S. Church's Memoir in Medico-Chirurgi- 
cal Transactions, vol. Ixxvii. 1894 ; S. Delepine's 
Memoir prefixed to list of papers; obituary 
notices in Lancet and British Medical Journal, 
11 Nov. 1893 ; personal knowledge.] N. M. 

CLARK, GEORGE THOMAS (1809- 
1898), engineer and archaeologist, was eldest 
son of George Clark (1777-1848), chaplain 
to the royal military asylum, Chelsea, by 
Clara, only surviving daughter of Thomas 
Dicey of Claybrook Hall, Leicestershire. 
Samuel Clarke, D.D. (1684-1757) [q. v.], was 
his great-grandfather. 

George Thomas was born in London on 
26 May 1809, and was educated at the 
Charterhouse. Adopting engineering as a 
profession, he was entrusted by Brunei with 
the construction of two divisions of the Great 
"Western Railway ; the Paddington terminus 
and the bridges at Basildon and Moulsford 
being his principal works (cf. Sekon, Hist, 
of G. W. R. p. 38). While thus engaged he 
compiled * A G uide-book to the Great Western 
Railway, containing some Account of the 
Construction of the Line, with Notices of 
the Objects best worth Attention upon its 
Course' (London, 1839). This, the first 
guide to the line, was published officially 
without his name, and dedicated to Brunei. 
A more detailed account, which he subse- 
quently wrote, of the geology and archaeo- 
logy of the country traversed by the rail- 
way, was published, with numerous illus- 
trations, as * The History and Description 
of the Great Western Railway' (London, 
1846, fol.) ; but the only name attached to 
it was that of the artist, John C. Bourne. 

About 1843 Clark went to India, where 
he was employed by the government to re- 

g)rt on the sewerage of the native town at 
ombay, and afterwards upon the extension 
of the salt works of the district. Here he 
advocated the construction of the first rail- 
way in India, that from Bombay to Tannah, 
afterwards merged in the Great Indian 



Peninsula Railway, for the promoters of 
which he also reported on the feasibility of 
an extension through one of the mountain 
passes of the Sahyadri or Western Ghauts. 
On account of the climate he declined an 
offer of the chief engineership of the new 
line and returned to England. In con- 
sequence of an article on sanitary reform 
which he contributed to the ' Westminster 
Review,' he w^as appointed a superintending 
inspector under the Public Health Act, 
1848, and reported on the sanitary condition 
of a large number of towns and districts, in 
many of w^hich local boards were formed 
through his instrumentality (see his nume- 
rous Reports to the board published in 
1849-51). His success as an inspector was 
recognised by his promotion to be one of the 
three commissioners which then constituted 
the general board of health. 

Towards the close of 1852 Clark, however, 
became trustee of the Dowlais estate and 
ironworks, under the will of Sir Josiah John 
Guest [q. v.] For some time previously the 
works had been carried on at a loss ; but 
having procured the necessary capital and 
induced Henry Austin Bruce (afterwards 
Lord Aberdare) [q.v. Suppl.] to share with 
him the responsibility of the trusteeship, 
Clark took up his residence at Dowlais and 
devoted all his energies to the development 
of the works and the redemption of the 
estate. As Bruce devoted himself to poli- 
tics, the whole responsibility of management 
devolved on Clark alone, whose rare capacity 
for administration was displayed no less by 
his rapid mastery of a complicated situation 
than by his wise selection of heads of depart- 
ments, chief among whom was his manager, 
William Menelaus. 

To Clark and Menelaus belongs the credit 
of being the first ironmasters to assist (Sir) 
Henry Bessemer [q. v. Suppl.] to perfect his 
process for making malleable iron direct from 
the ore. The inventor was invited to Dow- 
lais to conduct experiments, with the result 
that the first rail ever rolled without the 
intervention of the puddling process was pro- 
duced at Dowlais. The prompt adoption of 
Mushet's further invention enabled Dowlais 
to be first in the field in the production of 
steel rails, and to enjoy for some time the 
monopoly of that trade in Wales. The con- 
sequent expansion of the industry, and the 
difficulty of procuring an adequate supply 
of suitable ores at home, led Clark, in con- 
junction with the Consett Iron Company and 
Messrs. Krupp of Essen, to acquire an exten- 
sive tract of iron-ore deposits near Bilbao in 
Spain. To render the works independent of 
the vicissitudes of the coal trade he also 



Clark 



«s 



Clark 



purchased large coal areas, undeveloped for 
the most part, m Glnmorganshire. To save the 
inland transport he finally ])rocured the 
establi.shment, in 1888 91, of furnaces and 
mills in connection with J)owlais, on the 
seaboard at Carditl". He was induced by Lord 
Wimborne to continue his administration of 
the Dowlais undertakings down to tlie end of 
March 1897, though his trusteeship had ex- 
pired more than twenty years previously. 
Under his r6gime Dowlais became in effect a 
great training school which supplied to 
similar undertakings elsewhere a much 
larger number of managers and leading men 
than any other iron or steel works in the 
country. 

On the formation of the British Iron Trade 
Association in 1876, Clark was elected its 
first president, and his ' Inaugural Address ' 
(Newcastle-upon-Tyne) attracted much at- 
tention, provoking considerable controversy 
in the United States by reason of its 
trenchant exposure of protection. Few em- 
ployers of labour have ever studied the social 
well-being of their workers so earnestly as 
Clark. At his own expense he provided a 
hospital for the Dowlais workmen, while the 
Dowlais schools, the largest in the kingdom, 
owed their success almost entirely to his 
direction. He was an early supporter of the 
volunteer movement, and himself raised a 
battalion in the Dowlais district. He was 
chairman of every local authority in the 
place, and his manifold services in the work 
of local government are commemorated by a 
marble bust, the work of Joseph Edwards, 
placed in the board-room of the Merthyr 
poor-law guardians. He was sheriff of 
Glamorganshire in 1868. 

Clark's reputation, however, mainly rests 
on his archaeological work, and, to a lesser 
extent, on his historical research, though 
these were but the relaxations of an other- 
wise busy life. For quite half a century he 
was recognised as the highest authority on 
all mediaeval fortifications, and was the first 
to give a clear insight into the military and 
historical importance of the earthworks of 
this country, and especially to show the use 
made of the mound — * the hill of the burh' 
— in Norman times (Hartshorne). Before 
^oing to India he took a prominent part 
m the movement which brought about the 
foundation in 1843 of the Archreological 
Association (now the Royal Archaeological 
Institute), and, after his return, was con- 
stantly associated with its work for the 
rest of his life — contributing papers to its 
journal, attending its annual meetings, and 
acquiring a unique reputation as a field- 
lecturer, inasmuch as the castles visited were 



' called up to their first life by his massive 

vigour' (Freeman, English Towns and Du- 
trictSj p. /5). He was also one of three 
trustees of t ho ( /ambrian A rchfeo](^cal Asso- 
ciation. Commencing with an account of 
Caerphilly Castle as early as 1834, he con- 
tributed to the 'Transactions' of various 
societies, and to the * Builder,' a large 
number of articles dealing with his favourite 
subject. (For his communications to the 
Archceolof/ia Camhrensis, beginning in 1860, 
see the 'Index' to the first four series, 
1892.) In 1884 these were collected in his 
'Mediaeval Military Architecture in Eng- 
land ' (London, 2 vols. 8vo) — a work which 
is not likely to be superseded, though its in- 
formation may be supplemented with minor 
additions of detail. 

Next to his purely archaeological attain- 
ments should probably be ranked his know- 
ledge of heraldry and genealogy. He wrote 
the article on heraldry for the * Encyclopjedia 
Britannica,' while his privately printed pedi- 
gree of the Babington family has been de- 
scribed as ' perhaps unsurpassed for its di- 
mensions and grandeur of type.' 

His other works were for the most part 
elaborate contributions towards the history 
of his adopted county of Glamorgan, the 
following being the more important among 
them: 1. ' Thirteen Views of the Castle of 
St. Donat's, with a Notice of the Stradling 
Family,' Shrewsbury, 1871. 2. 'Some 
Account of Robert Mansel and of Admiral 
Sir Thomas Button,' Dowlais, 1883. 3. 
'The Land of Morgan, being a Contri- 
bution towards the History of the Lordship 
of Glamorgan,' London, 1883, 8vo. 4. ' Lim- 
bus Patrum Morganige et Glamorganiae. 
Being the Genealogies of the Older Families 
of the Lordships of Morgan and Glamorgan,' 
London, 1886, 8vo. Most of these pedi- 
grees had been published ' nearly a quarter 
of a century' previously in the 'Merthyr 
Guardian.' 5. ' Cartoo et Alia Munimenta 
quae ad Dominium de Glamorgan pertinent.' 
Sumptuously printed, for private circulation 
only, this great collection of Glamorgan 
charters extends to 2,300 quarto pages, 
making four volumes, of which the first was 
issued in 1885 from a private press at Dow- 
lais, and the other three (in 1890-1-3) 
from Cardift*. Clark also edited some de- 
votional works bv his father and his ancestor, 
Samuel Clarke (io99-1682)rq. v.],and wrote 
numerous articles on the history and an- 
tiquities of Glamorgan. 

Clark died on 31 Jan. 1898 at Tal-y-gam, 
near Llantrisant, where he had resided during 
his later years, and was buried there at St. 
Ann's Church, which he had built to the 



Clark 



26 



Clark 



memoryof his wife, Ann Price, second daugh- 
ter of Henry Lewis of Greenmeadow, near 
Cardiff, and coheiress of Wyndham Lewis. 
She was married to Clark on 3 April 1850, 
and died on 6 April 1885, leaving a son 
(Godfrey Lewis Clark) and a daughter. 

[Western Mail (Cardiff), 2 Feb. 1 898 ; Merthyr 
Express, 5 Feb. 1898; JBritish Trade Journal 
(2 April 1877), xv. 198 (with portrait); Journal 
of the Iron and Steel Institute, 1898, i. 313; 
Literature (12 Feb. 1898), i. 181 ; Mr A. Harts- 
horne in the Archaeological Journal for March 
1898; Burke's Landed Gentry, sub nom. Clark 
of Tal-y-garn; Nicholas's County Families of 
Wales, p. 625 ; Cardiff Welsh Libr. Cat. p. 1 16 ; 
Bye-gones, 1897-8, p. 294; information kindly 
communicated by his son, Godfrey L. Clark, 
esq., of Tal-y-garn, and Edward P. Martin, esq., 
of Dowlais.] D. Ll. T. 

CLARK, LATIMER (1822-1898), whose 
full name was Josiah Latimee Clark, en- 
gineer, whs born at Great Marlow, Bucking- 
hamshire, on 10 March 1822. 

His elder brother, Edwin Claek (1814- 
1894), after acting as mathematical master 
at Brook Green, and then as a surveyor in 
the west of England, came to London in 
1846 and formed the acquaintance of Robert 
Stephenson [q.v.] (see Times, 26 Oct. 1894). 
Stephenson appointed him superintending 
engineer of the Menai Straits bridge, which 
was opened on 5 March 1850, and in that 
year Clark published * The Britannia and 
Conway Tubular Bridges ' (2 vols. 8vo ; an 
atlas formed a third volume). In August 
1850 he became engineer to the Electric and 
International Telegraph Company, and three 
months later he took out his first patent 
(12 Nov.) for * electric telegraphs and appa- 
ratus connected therewith.' From that 
time he divided his time between electric 
and hydraulic engineering. On 4 Feb. 1856 
he took out a patent for 'suspending in- 
sulated electric telegraph wires,' but most 
of his patents (e.g. 19 Jan. 1857, 19 Sept. 
1865, 6 May 1870, 9 Jan. 1872, and 18 Feb. 
1873) were for improvements in dry docks 
and floating docks, in the methods of lifting 
ships out of the water for repairs, and foi* 
constructing piers. He was elected a mem- 
ber of the Institution of Civil Engineers on 
3 Dec. 1850, was awarded a Telford medal 
in 1866 for his paper ' On the Hydraulic 
Lift Graving Dock,' and a Watt medal in 
1868 for his papers on 'The Durability of 
Materials ' {Proc. Imt. Civil Em/ineers, x. 57, 
xxvi. 121, 138, xxviii. 161, 178). He con- 
tributed numerous papers to the ' Proceed- 
ings of the Institute of Civil Engineers,' and 
in 1878 published ' A Visit to South Ame- 
rica' (London, 8vo). He died at Cromwell 



House, Marlow, on 22 Oct. 1894 (Times, 
24 Oct. 1894). 

Latimer Clark began life as a chemist and 
spent some years with a firm of chemical 
manufacturers at Dublin; but in 1847 he 
commenced railway surveying, and in 1848 
was appointed assistant engineer under his 
brother to the Menai Straits bridge. He 
helped his brother in preparing his book on 
that bridge and contributed to it an account 
of the tides in the Menai Straits. In August 
1850 he became assistant engineer under his 
brother to the Electric and International 
Telegraph Company. Some ten years later 
he succeeded his brother as chief engineer to 
the company, and held this post until the 
various telegraphic systems were taken over 
by the government in 1870. Clark intro- 
duced several improvements in the tele- 
graph system, notably by coating the 
gutta percha enclosing underground wires 
with a solution which prevented its decay ; 
he also invented the insulator known as the 
' double-cap invert,' and the battery now 
known as the Clark cell {Phil. Trans. 1874, 
p. 1 ; American Journal of Science, cxxxviii. 
402; Preece and Siveweight, Electric 
Telegraphy, 1899, pp. 41, 433). He took 
out many patents for these inventions — the 
first on 29 Nov. 1856, four in 1858, and 
others in 1859, 19 Nov. 1866, 30 June 1870, 
and 14 Sept. 1871. In 1853 he proved that 
the rate of the electric current is constant 
and irrespective of pressure ; his experiments 
were repeated before Faraday (Faeaday, 
Experimental Hesearches, pp. 508-17), and 
in 1855 Clark published his results in a 
pamphlet on ' Experimental Investigation 
of the Laws which govern the Propagation 
of the Electric Current in Submarine Tele- 
graph Cables.' On 13 April 1858 he became 
an associate, and on 19 Nov. 1861 a member, 
of the Institution of Civil Engineers ; he was 
for some months engineer to the Atlantic 
Cable Company, and in 1860 served on the 
committee appointed by government to in- 
quire into the subject of submarine tele- 
graphy. 

In 1861 Clark entered into partnership 
with Sir Charles Tilston Bright [q. v. Suppl.], 
and their joint paper read at the Manchester 
meeting of the British Association in that 
year ' On the F'ormation of Standards of 
Electrical Quantity and Resistance ' {British 
Assoc. Reports, vol. xxxi. pt. ii. p. 37) led 
to the appointment of the committee which 
fixed the standards now in use. With 
Bright he invented in 1862 the method of 
covering submarine cables with asphalt, 
hemp, and silica, known as Bright & 
Clark's compound, and for eight years the 



Clark 



27 



Clarke 



firm was engaged in laying telegraph cables, 
principally in the east. On 26 Sept. 1868 
Bright & Chirk dissolved partnershij), and 
Claric formed with Henry Charles Forde 
(1827-1897) the firm stiU'known as Clark, 
Forde, & Taylor, of Great Winchester 
Street, E.C. This firm, mainly under Clark's 
direction, laid the triplicate cables between 
Suez, Aden, and Bombay, the duplicate 
cables between Madras and Penang, and 
between Singapore and Batavia. The firm 
also laid cables between Singapore and 
Nagasaki; England, Gibraltar, Malta, and 
the Levant ; Durban and Delagoa Bay ; five 
Atlantic cables beginning with that between 
Brest and Newfoundland in 1869 ; and the 
first South Atlantic cable from Pernambuco 
to St. Louis in Senegal. 

Clark was also interested in other forms 
of engineering. His earliest patent (28 Jan. 
1854) had been one for * conveying letters 
or parcels between places by the pressure of 
air and vacuum.' A similar patent was 
taken out on llJune 1857, and subsequently 
he constructed the 4ft. 6in. pneumatic tube 
between the General Post Office and Euston 
station. In 1874 he entered into partner- 
ship with John Standfield as an hydraulic 
and canal engineer ; the works of the firm 
were at Grays, Essex, and it constructed 
numerous floating docks, notably those at 
Vladivostock, Hamburg, Havana, Stettin, 
and North Shields. He was also senior 
partner in the firm of Latimer Clark, Muir- 
head, & Co., formed in 1875 to manufacture 
electrical apparatus and machinery. 

In 1870-1 Clark took a large part in 
founding the Society of Telegraph Engineers 
and Electricians (now the Institution of 
Electrical Engineers), and in 1874-5 he 
served as its fourth president. On 6 June 
1889 he was elected F.K.S., and he was also 
fellow of the Royal Astronomical and Geo- 
graphical Societies. To astronomy and 
photography he devoted much of his leisure ; 
he assisted Sir George Biddell Airy [q. v. 
Suppl.] in 1857 to devise a method of indi- 
cating Greenwich mean time throughout the 
country, and in 1853 he invented a camera 
for taking stereoscopic pictures with a single 
\er\s, {Journal of Photographic Soc. 21 May 
1853). 

Clark died, aged 76, on 30 Oct. 1898 [ 
at his residence, 31 The Grove, Boltons, i 
S.W., and was buried at the Kensington 
parochial cemetery, near Hanwell. He was ; 
twice married and left issue. A portrait j 
of him is reproduced in Bright's ' Life of 1 
Sir C. T. Bright ' (ii. 19). I 

Besides numerous papers contributed to 1 
the 'Proceedings of the Institution of Civil i 



Engineers ' and to other scientific periodicftlf, 
of which a list is given in the * Uoval Society's 
Catalogue,' Clark was author of the follow- 
ing independent works : 1. ' An Elementary 
Treatise on Electrical Measurement,' 1868, 
8vo ; translated into French (Paris, 1872) 
and into Italian (Genoa, 18741. 2. (with 
Robert Sabine) ' Electrical Tables and 
Formulae,' 1871, 8vo. 3. ' A Treatise on 
I the Transit Instrument,' 1882, 8vo (reissued 
1884 as* A Manual of the Transit Instru- 
ment'). 4. (with Herbert Sadler) 'The 
Star Guide,' 1886, 8vo. 5. 'Dictionary of 
Metric and other useful Measures,' 1891, 
8vo. 6. ' Memoir of Sir William Fothergill 
Cooke '[q. v.], 1895. 

[Proc. Inst. Civil Engineers, cxxxvil. 418-23; 
Journal Instit. Electrical Engineers, 1898 pp. 
64G-7, 1899 pp. 666-72; Times, I Nov.- 1898 ; 
Men of the Time,, ed. 1891 ; Who's Who, 1898 
(Suppl.) ; Smiles's Lives of the Engineers, iii. 
428, 431, 437; Celebrities of the Day, 1881 
(notice by J. T. Humphreys issued separately 
sameyear); Lists of the Royal Society; Ronalds's 
Cat. of Scientific Papers; Flemin:^ Jenkia's 
Scientific Papers, ii. 207-8, 230, 237 ; Index of 
Patentees, 18o2-88; E. B. Bright's Life of Sir 
C. T. Bright, 1899; Charles Bright's Submarine 
Telegraphy, 1898.] A. F. P. 

CLARKE, JOHN SLEEPER (1833- 
1899), actor, of English extraction, was bom 
in Baltimore, Maryland, on 3 Sept. 1833, 
educated for the American law, and entered 
the office of a Baltimore solicitor. He made 
his d6but on the stage in 1851 at the Howard 
Athenaeum, Boston, as Frank Harvey in 
* Paul Pry ; ' on 28 Aug. 1852, at the Chesnut 
Street theatre, Philadelphia, played Soto 
in * She would and she would not,' and be- 
came principal comedian at the Front Street 
theatre, Baltimore, and joint lessee of the 
Arch Street theatre in Philadelphia. In 1861 
he acted at the Winter Garden theatre. New 
York, of which, till its destruction in 1867, he 
was joint lessee. In 1865, with his brother- 
in-law, Edwin Booth, he purchased the Wal- 
nut Street theatre, Philadelphia, and in 1866 
he was for a short time lessee of the Boston 
theatre. He had also a share in other 
managements. His first appearance in London 
was made in October 1867 at the St. Jameses 
theatre as Major Wellington de Boots in 
Stirling Coyne's ' Everybody's Friend,' re- 
written for him and called* A Widow Hunt.' 
At the Princess's in February 1868 he was 
Salem Scudder in a revival of ' The Octoroon,* 
and later, at the Strand, was the first Young 
Go.^ling in * Fox versus Goose.' On 26 July 
1869 he was the first Babington Jones in John 
Brougham's ' Among the Breakers.' At the 
same house he also played Toodles, Dr. Pan- 



Clarke 



28 



Clarke 



gloss in the * Heir at Law,' and other parts. 
After reappearing in America he was again at 
the Strand as Dr. OUapod in the * Poor Gen- 
tleman,' following it up with Paul Pry and 
Robert Tyke in the ' School of Reform.' In 
November 187:? he opened the Charing Cross 
theatre, enacting Bob Acres in the ' Rivals,' 
and on 4 April 1874 he opened at the Holborn 
as Phineas Pettiephogge in Byron's ' Thumb- 
screw.' In the autumn of 1878 he assumed 
the management of the Haymarket, where 
he produced the * Crisis,' Albery's adaptation 
of ' Les Fourchambault.* AVills's ' Ellen, or 
Love's Cunning,' 14 April 1879, was a failure, 
and enjoyed no better fortune when re- 
written and produced on 12 June as ' Brag.' 
Clarke then transferred the theatre to the 
Bancrofts and appeared, 11 July 1885, at 
the Strand, which he purchased, as Cousin 
Johnny in a piece by Messrs. Rae and Nisbet 
80 named. After acting in country theatres 
he retired eventually in 1887, and never 
made a reappearance, though he often dis- 
cussed it. He died on 24 Sept. 1899 at his 
house in Surbiton-on-Thames, and was buried 
the Thursday following at Teddington. He 
married, in 1859, Asia Booth, daughter of 
Junius Brutus Booth and sister of Edwin 
Booth, and left two sons on the stage. A 
likeness appears in the ' Era ' for 30 Sept. 
1899. 

Clarke was an excellent actor inoldcomedy, 
in which his principal successes were made. 
He was a ' mugger ' of the Liston type, but 
had more intensity than his predecessor. His 
new creations were neither very successful 
nor very important. A portion of his method 
was due to American actors unknown in this 
country. 

[Personal knowledge ; Pascoe's Dramatic List; 
Scott and Howard's Blanchard ; Jeflfisrson's Auto- 
biography; Sunday Times, various years ; Cook's 
Nights at the Play,] J. K. j 

CLARKE, MARY VICTORIA COW- ! 
DEN- (1809-1898), miscellaneous writer and I 
compiler of a concordance to Shakespeare, \ 
the eldest daughter of eleven children of [ 
Vincent Novello [q. v.] and his wife, Mary 
Sabilla Hehl, was born at 240 Oxford Street, 
London, on 22 June 1809. She was called 
Victoria after her father's friend the Rev. 
Victor Fryer. During her early years she 
made at her father's house the acquaintance 
of many men distinguished in art and letters. 
Varley, Copley Fielding, Havell, and Cristall 
among artists, and Charles and Mary Lamb, 
Leigh Hunt, and Keats among writers, were 
included in the circle of her father's most 
intimate friends, and she acquired much of 
her taste for literature from Mary Lamb, 



who gave her lessons in Latin and poetical 
reading. She is mentioned as * Victoria ' in 
several of Lamb's letters to Vincent No- 
vello; and Leigh Hunt and the Lambs main- 
tained throughout their lives most affectio- 
nate relations with her and her husband. 
Her education was entrusted subsequently to 
the care of a M. Bonnefoy, who kept a school 
at Boulogne. On her return to England she 
acted for a short time as governess in a 
family named Purcell residing at Cranford, 
but she was compelled to abandon this em- 
ployment owing to ill-health. On 1 Nov. 
1826 she was affianced to Charles Cowden 
Clarke [q. v.], who had been for many years 
a close friend of the Novellos, and two years 
later, on 5 July 1828, they were married, 
spending their honeymoon at the 'Grey- 
hound ' at Enfield. The marriage was cele- 
brated by Lamb in a playful ' Serenata, for 
two Voices,' which he sent toVincent Novello 
in a letter dated 6 Nov. 1828. Charles and 
Mary Cowden-Clarke continued to live with 
the Novello family. 

Mrs. Cowden-Clarke had already published 
' My Arm Chair,' under the initials M. H., 
in Hone's ' Table Book ' in 1827. This con- 
tribution was followed by others of a similar 
nature and a paper on * The Assignats in 
currency at the time of the French Republic 
of 1792.' In 1829 she began her most im- 
portant work, ' The Complete Concordance to 
Shakespeare, being a Verbal Index to all the 
Passages in the Dramatic Works of the Poet.' 
The compilation occupied twelve years, a 
further four years being devoted to seeing it 
through the press. It originally appeared in 
eighteen monthly parts, 1844-5, and in the 
latter year was issued in one volume. Douglas 
Jerrold noticed it in * Punch,' breaking the 
rule then observed against reviews there 
(Notes and Queries, 6th ser. viii. 479, 8th 
ser. xi. 313). It was by far the most complete 
work of its kind Avhich had hitherto been 
produced, and was a remarkable advance on 
similar compilations by Samuel Ayscough 
[q. v.] in 1790 and by Francis Twiss [q. v.], 
1805-7. It was, however, superseded in 
1894 by John Bartlett's * New and Complete 
Concordance ' (Cambridge, Mass. U.S.A.) 

In November 1847 and January 1848 
Mrs. Cowden-Clarke played Mrs. Malaprop 
in three amateur productions of The Rivals.' 
These private theatricals led to an introduc- 
tion through Leigh Hunt to Charles Dickens, 
who persuaded her to perform in the amateur 
company which, under his direction, gave 
representations in London and several pro- 
vincial towns in aid of the establishment of a 
perpetual curatorship of Shakespeare's birth- 
place at Stratford-on-Avon {Recollections of 



Clarke 



29 



Claughton 



Writers, p. 298). Mrs. Cowden-Clarke's r61e8 
included Dame (Jiiickly in * The Merry Wives 
of Windsor' at the Ilaymarket, on 15 May 
1848, Tib in 'Every Man in his Humour,' 
and Mrs. Hillary in Keuney's * Love, Law, 
and Physic ' on 1 7 May. The repertoire also 
contained ' Animal Magnetism,' 'Two o'clock 
in the Morning,' and * Used Up,' and per- 
formances were given during June and July 
at Liverpool, Birmingham, Edinburgh, and 
Glasgow. In 1849 the Novellos moved to 
Nice, and their house, Craven Hill Cottage 
(9 Craven Hill, Bayswater), was taken by 
the Cowden-Clarkes. 

Meanwhile Mrs. Cowden-Clarke's pen was 
occupied in various essays in Shakespearean 
interpretation. A small volume entitled 

* Shakespeare Proverbs ; or, the Wise Saws 
of our wisest Poet collected into a Modern 
Instance,' appeared in 1848, and between 
1850 and 1852 was published, in three 
volumes, a series of fifteen tales under the 
general title of 'The Girlhood of Shake- 
speare's Heroines.' The tales have each sepa- 
rate title-pages and were dedicated among 
others to William Charles Macready, Charles 
Dickens, Douglas Jerrold, Leigh Hunt, and 
J. Payne Collier. From 1853 to 1856 Mrs. 
Cowden-Clarke edited * The Musical Times,' 
to which she induced Leigh Hunt to con- 
tribute. She herself wrote for the paper a 
long series of articles called ' Music among 
the Poets.' 

In 1856 the Cowden-Clarkes left England 
permanently for Italy. From that year to 
1861, the date of Vincent Novello's death, 
they lived at Nice, removing after 1861 to 
Genoa, where their house was named Villa 
Novello. While at Nice Mrs. Cowden-Clarke 
published ' World-noted W^omen, or Types of 
Womanly Attributes of all Lands and all 
Ages ' (New York, 1858). _ In 1860 she issued 

* Shakespeare's Works, edited with a scrupu- 
lous revision of the text ' (New York and 
London), and in 1864 ' The Life and Labours 
of Vincent Novello.' During the preceding 
year she and her husband began for Messrs. 
Cassell & Co. their annotated edition of 
Shakespeare's plays. This was published in 
weekly numbers, completed on 16 March 
1868, and was reissued in three volumes 
with illustrations by H. C. Selous. Im- 
mediately afterwards they started 'The 
Shakespeare Key, unlocking the Treasures of 
his Style, elucidating the Peculiarities of his 
Construction, and displaying the Beauties of 
his Expression ; forming a Companion to " The 
Complete Concordance to Shakespeare."' 
This, though finished in June 1872, was not 
published until 1879. During the next few 
years the 'Recollections of Writers' were 



contributed by Mrs. Cowden-Clarke and her 
husband to the 'Gentleman's Magazine/ 
Cliarles Cowden-Clarke died in his nine- 
tieth year on 13 March 1877, and in the 
following year his widow was in England 
superintending the publication in vohimo 
form of the ' Recollections.' The series, con- 
taining letters and memoirs of John Keats, 
Leigh Hunt, Douglas Jerrold, Charles 
Dickens, and Charles and 'Mary Lamb, ap- 
peared with a preface by Mrs. Cowden-Clarke 
in 1878. She was in England again in the 
summer of 1 881. In 1887 she commemorated 
the hundredth anniversary of her husband's 
; birth with a ' Centennial Biographic Sketch 
i of Charles Cowden-Clarke,' which was 
i printed privately, and in 1896 she published 
I a pleasantly written autobiography entitled 
i ' My Long Life.' She died at Villa Novello, 
I Genoa, on 12 Jan. 1898, in her eighty-ninth 
year. 

Apart from the works cited, and many 
I occasional contributions to newspapers and 
' magazines, Mrs. Cowden-Clarke published : 
! 1. Two stories in 'A Book of Stories for 
i Young People' (1848), the remaining con- 
tributions being by Mary Howitt and Mrs. 
S. C. Hall. 2. ' Kit Bam's Adventures ; or, 
t he Yarns of an Old Mariner,' 1849, illustrated 
by George Cruikshank. 3. ' The Iron Cousin ; 
or, Mutual Influence,' 1854, 2 vols. 4. ' The 
Song of a Drop o' Wather,' by Harry Wands- 
worth Shortfellow, 1856. 5. ' Trust and Re- 
mittance,' 1873. 6. 'ShortStories in Metrical 
Prose,' 1873, 7. ' A Rambling Story,' 1874, 
2 vols. 8. ' Verse Waifs,' 1883. 9. ' A Score 
of Sonnets to one object,' 1884. 10. ' Uncle 
Peep and I : a Child's Novel,' 1886. 11.' Me- 
morial Sonnets,' 1888. She prepared with 
her husband an illustrated volume, ' Many 
Happy Returns of the Day: a Birthday 
Book,' 1847 (other editions 1860 and 1869). 
She also translated from the French of Hec- 
tor Berlioz ' A Treatise upon Modem In- 
strumentation and Orchestration,' 1856. 

[Cowden-Clarke's Recollections of Writers, 
and My Long Life ; Allibone's Dictionary of 
Enghsh Literiiture; Times, 14 Jan. 1898 ; Life 
and Labours of Vincent Novello ; Men and 
Women of the Time, 14th ed. 1895; Musical 
Times, 1 Feb. 1898.] C. E. H. 

CLAUGHT0N,TH0MASLEGH(18a«* 

1892), bishop of St. Albans, son of Thomas 
Claughton, Al.P., and elder brother of Piers 
Calverley Claughton [q. v.], was born at 
Haydock Lodge, Winwick, Lancashire, on 
6 Nov. 1808. His mother was Maria, daugh- 
ter of Colonel Thomas Peter Legh, of Lyme 
Park, Cheshire. He was educated at Rugby 
and Trinity College, Oxford, where he was 



Claughton 



30 



Clay 



admitted in 1826, was scholar in 1827, fellow 
from 1832 to 1842, and tutor. He graduated 
B.A. with first class in literfe humaiiiores, in 
1831, and proceeded M.A. in 1833. In 1828 
his poem on ' Machina Vi Vaporis Tmpulsa ' 
gained the university prize for Latin verse ; 
in 1829 he won the Newdigate prize by a 
poem on ' Voyages of Discovery to the Polar 
llegions; ' and in 1832 bore oif the prize for 
a Latin essay on * De Stoicorum Discipline,.' 
He was public examiner in 1835, and select 
preacher to the university in 1841, 1860, 
1863, and 1868. From 1862 to 1867 he held 
the office of professor of poetry at Oxford, 
and wrote a fine inaugural ode on the instal- 
lation of Lord Derby as chancellor of the 
university in 1853. This is printed in 
Raines's ' Stanley Papers' (iii. 391). 

Claughton was ordained in 1834, but seems 
to have had no settled cure until 1841, when 
he was presented by Lord Ward (after- 
wards Earl of Dudley), whose tutor he had 
been, to the important vicarage of Kidder- 
minster. This populous parish he worked 
with remarkable energy for twenty-six years, 
and brought it to a high standard of ecclesi- 
astical and social activity. Besides organis- 
ing a large staff^almost a school — of curates, 
and establishing daily services and efficient 
parochial visitations, he fostered schools and 
additional churches, and carried out the re- 
storation of the fine old parish church. Of 
many local benevolent and educational in- 
stitutions he was either the founder or liberal 
supporter. He was a most effective if not 
eloquent preacher, and his services for the 
pulpit or platform were constantly called 
for all over the kingdom. 

In April 1867 he was nominated as bishop 
of Rochester on the recommendation of Lord 
Derby. The chief incidents which marked 
his comparatively uneventful occupancy of 
that see were his inhibition of the Rev. 
Arthur Tooth, vicar of St. James's, Hatcham, 
in 1877, and the creation in the same year 
of the new diocese of St. Albans, by separa- 
tion from that of Rochester. Claughton 
elected to be its first bishop, thus vacating 
his original see of Rochester, though retain- 
ing the residence of Danbury Palace, near 
Chelmsford, Essex. In 1890, owing to ad- 
vancing years, he resigned his bishopric, but 
still resided at Danbury Palace, where he 
died on 25 July 1892. He was buried in 
St. Albans cathedral. 

Claughton's sympathies were distinctly 
with the high church party, but he was 
never an extreme man. He was on terms 
of close intimacy with Charles Wordsworth 
[q. v.], bishop of St. Andrews, and with Bishop 
Samuel Wilberforce [q. v.], and was often 



the companion of the latter on his Scottish 
expeditions. 

He married, on 14 June 1842, the Hon. 
Julia Susanna Ward, daughter of the tenth 
Lord Ward, and had issue five sons and four 
daughters. His eldest daughter was mar- 
ried, in 1863, to the Hon. Augustus H. A. 
Anson, M.P., who died in 1877 ; she after- 
wards became, in 1881, the second wife of 
George Douglas Campbell, eighth duke of 
Argyll [q. v. SuppL] 

Claughton edited * Questions on the Col- 
lects, Epistles, and Gospels,' 2 vols. 1853-7. 
His other publications consisted of single 
sermons and charges, and an * Appeal to his 
Diocese from the Bishop of St. Albans in 
behalf of the Cathedral,' &c., 1878. 

[Gruardian, 27 July 1892 ; Manchester Gruar- 
dian, 26 July 1892 ; Life of Bishop Samuel Wil- 
berforce, by his son ; Charles Wordsworth's An- 
nals of my Early Life, 1891 ; Memoir of Walsham 
How, by his son, 1898; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 
1715-1886; Illustrated London News, 30 July 
1892 (portrait) ; Brit. Mus. Cat.; Recollections 
of G. D.Boyle, 1895, p. 247; Oxford English 
Poems, 8th edit. 1834.] C. W. S. 

CLAY, CHARLES (1801-1893), ovario- 
tomist, born on 27 Dec. 1801, was second 
son of Joseph Clay, a corn factor, of Arden 
Mills, Bredbury, near Stockport. He was 
an articled apprentice of Kinder Wood, 
a surgeon of much repute connected with 
the Manchester and Salford Lying-in Hos- 
pital (now St. Mary's Hospital), and from 
the practice of his master he acquired a 
familiarity with midwifery and the diseases 
of women which he afterwards turned to 
good account. He attended the practice of 
the Royal Infirmary at Manchester, and in 
1821 matriculated at the Edinburgh Univer- 
sity, though he took no degree. He qualified 
as licentiate of the Royal College of Surgeons 
of Edinburgh in 1823, and then settled at 
Ashton-under-Lyne, acting for a time as 
medical officer of health for Audenshaw. 

He moved to 101 Piccadilly, Manchester, 
in 1839, was admitted an extra-licentiate of 
the Royal College of Physicians of London 
in 1842, and on 13 Sept. in this year he re- 
moved successfully an ovarian tumour 
weighing thirty-six pounds. It is said that 
the operation was completed in ten minutes. 
It brought him immediate fame, and such 
practice that in 1848 he published a series 
of forty cases of abdominal section, of which 
thirty-three were performed for the removal 
of ovarian tumours. He was compelled 
about this time to relinquish the more ardu- 
ous duties of his profession, though he still 
continued to operate ; and in 1865 published 
a paper in the ' Lancet,' giving an account 



Clay 



of 111 cases of ovariotomv, seventy-seven of 
which had been successful. There appear 
to be no records of any further results, but 
Chiy wrote in 1S80 that he had performed 
nearly four hundred operations, though he 
does not say they were ovariotomies, nor 
does he enter into detail as to their nature. 
In 1846 he removed the nterus with a fibroid 
tumour, and thus anticipated Eugene Kcb- 
berl6 by nearly a quarter of a century. 

Clay also wrote in 1846 on the thera- 
peutic value of inspissated ox-gall. He was 
the first in this country to cure varicose 
veins with Vienna paste in the manner re- 
commended by Stanislas Laugier (1799- 
1872). He invented a speculum for the 
better performance of the operation of squint, 
and he reported the results of his treatment 
for vomiting during pregnancy, and by the 
administration of the mineral acids in dia- 
betes. He served the office of president of 
the Manchester Medical Society, and was at 
one time the senior medical officer and lec- 
turer on the principles and practice of mid- 
wifery at St. Mary's Hospital, Manchester. 

Early in life Clay was much interested in 
geology and archaeology, and spent much 
of his time in collecting fossils. He had 
a large collection of early works on mid- 
wifery and gynaecology, many of which 
he gave to the Manchester Medical Society 
and to the Obstetrical Society of London. 
He also gathered together upwards of a 
thousand editions of the Old and New Testa- 
ment, the collection being sold by Messrs. 
Sotheby in 1883. In 1871 he was president 
of the Manchester Numismatical Society. 
He wrote a work on the currency of the 
Isle of Man, from its earliest appearance to 
the time of its assimilation with the British 
coinage, and he formed a collection em- 
bracing every known coin in the kingdom 
of Man, which was sold for 1 00/. He also 
made one of the largest collections ever 
formed of the copper and silver coinage of 
the United States, which was afterwards 
purchased by the American government for 
800/. Early in his career Clay was the edi- 
tor of the ' Ashton Reformer.' 

Clay died at Poulton-le-Fylde,near Black- 
pool, on 19 Sept. 1893. He was twice mar- 
ried : first, in ] 823, to the eldest daughter 
of John Vaudrey, surgeon at his old home, 
Bredbury, near Stockport. He had three 
children by her, but they, with their mother, 
died before he left Ashton-under-Lyne in 
1839. He married, secondly, a daughter of 
Joseph Boreham of Haverhill, Suffolk. 

Clay may fairly be regarded as the father 
of ovariotomy as far as Europe is concerned ; 
indeed, Peaelee says of him {Ovarian Tu- 



Clay 

I mours, New York, 1872, p. 272), *ToDr. 

I Oharle.«» Clay of Manchester, however, more 
than to all other operators the credit belongs 
of Iiaving placed tlie operation of ovariotomy 
on a sure foundation.' Fehr calls him 'the 
original hero of the operation.' When Clay 
performed his first operation ovariotomv had 
been done by Ephraim McDowell (1771- 

I 1830) and others in America less than 
twenty times; about ten successful cases 
had been published by different provincial 
surgeons. John Lizars (1783-18«0) had 
met with such ill-success in Edinburgh that 
he had not persevered in his endeavours, 

I and no surgeon had performed the operation 
successfully in London. It showed, there- 
fore, a grasp of surgical principle, and an 
unusual boldness of thought and action for 
Charles Clay, then a general practitioner, 
without a hospital or other official position, 
to commence the systematic performance of 
a novel operation of such magnitude, dis- 
countenanced as it was by most of the lead- 
ing surgeons. Partly from these causes, 

' and partly from the fact that the published 

; accounts of the cases were said to be want- 

! ing in detail. Clay never influenced the 
opinion of the medical profession so widely 
as might have been expected from his know- 

I ledge, his ability, and his experience. He 
felt keenly this want of public recognition, 
which culminated in an unseemly wrangle 
in 1880. Clay has the further merit that 
he advocated the use of a long incision 
through the abdominal wall, a method 
which, though it was not quite novel, was 
held by his contemporaries to be incorrect. 
He was also the first (1843) to employ 
drainage in abdominal surgery, and he 
brought into use the term 'ovariotomy,' 
which, it is said, was suggested to him by 
Sir James Young Simpson [q. v.] 

Clay's works were: 1. 'The British Re- 
cord of Obstetric Medicine and Surgery for 

! 1848 and 1849,' Manchester, 1848-9, 8vo. 
Clay was himself the principal contributor 
to these two volumes, which contain many 
interesting articles, with translations of rare 
and valuable monographs upon obstetric 
medicine and surgery. The further issue 
was discontinued, as the venture proved un- 
successful financially. 2. 'The Results of 
all the Operations for the Extirpation of 
Diseased Ovaria by the large Incision from 
13 Sept. 1842 to the present Time,' Man- 
chester, 1848, 8vo. 3. 'The Complete 
Handbook of Obstetric Surgery,' London, 
1856, 12mo ; 3rd edit. London, 1874, 8vo. 
4. ' Geological Sketches and Observations 
on Fossil Vegetable Remains, &c., from the 
great South Lancashire Coal Field,' London, 



Clay 



32 



Clayton 



1839, 8vo. 5. ' History of the Currency of 
the Isle of Man,' 1849, 8vo. 6. ' Proceed- 
ings of the Manchester Numismatic Society, 
conducted and edited by Charles Clay, 
President of the Society,' 1871-2, 4to. 

[Contemporary Medical Men, by John Ley- 
land, Leicester, 1888; Brit. Med. Journ. 1880; 
obituary notices in the Lancet, 1893, ii. 815, 
and in the Transactions of the Obstetrical So- 
ciety of Loudon, 1894, xxxvi. 100; additional 
information kindly given by Dr. Lloyd Roberts 
of Manchester.] D'A. P. 

CLAY, FREDERICK (1839-1889), musi- 
cian, was born in the Rue Chaillot, Paris, 
on 3 Aug. 1839, though he himself gave 
1840 as the date of his birth. His father 
was James Clay [q. v.] Being originally in- 
tended for political life, he was for some 
years engaged in the treasury department, 
and was private secretary to Henry Bou- 
verie William Brand (afterwards Viscount 
Hampden) [q.v. Suppl.], patronage secretary 
to the treasury. From childhood he displayed 
musical talent ; his only teacher was Molique 
at Paris, except that for a short period he had 
lessons from Moritz Hauptmann of Leipzig. 
In 1859 he composed an operetta, 'The 
Pirate's Isle,' which was privately performed 
by amateurs, as was also a second operetta, 
*Out of Sight,' in 1860. The reception of 
these encouraged him to attempt a larger 
work, and he collaborated with Tom Taylor 
in * Court and Cottage,' which was publicly 
heard in 1862 with decided success ; but he 
did not relinquish his political career or be- 
come a professional musician until several 
years later. He formed a close friendship 
with Sir Arthur Sullivan [q.v. Suppl.], and 
their extemporised pianoforte duets were 
most successful. Clay's fourth work was an 
opera in one act, * Constance,' to a libretto by 
T. W. Robertson ; it was produced at Covent 
Garden on 23 Jan. 1865. Many songs were 
composed about this time, and a cantata, 

* The Knights of the Cross,' was published 
in 1866. He then returned to dramatic 
work, and T. German Reed produced his 

* Ages Ago,' written in collaboration with 
W. S. Gilbert, on 22 Nov. 1869 ; it was 
followed by * The Bold Recruit,' on 20 June 
1870, and * Happy Arcadia,' to a libretto by 
Gilbert, on 28 Oct. 1872. Clay also set the 
operettas 'The Gentleman in Black' (1870), 
^Cattarina' (1874), 'Princess Toto' and 'Don 
Quixote' (1875), besides composing inci- 
dental music for 'Twelfth Night' and Al- 
bery's ' Oriana,' and portions of ' The Black 
Crook ' and the spectacular piece ' Babil and 
Bijou.* Mr. W. Kuhe commissioned him to 
compose a cantata for the festivals then 
annually held in the Dome at Brighton. 



Clay accordingly set a libretto, constructed 
by W. G. Wills from Moore's ' Lalla Rookh,' 
and conducted the work on 13 Feb. 1877. 
Its success was so great that it was repeated 
at the festival of 1878, and is even yet occa- 
sionally performed. In the winter of 1877-8 
Clay visited America. He produced no other 
important composition until 1883, when he 
collaborated with Mr. G. R. Sims in a comic 
opera, ' The Merry Duchess,' performed at 
the Royalty Theatre on 23 May. His last 
work, a fairy spectacular opera, ' The Golden 
Ring,' also written in collaboration with Mr. 
G. R. Sims, was completed in the same year, 
and produced at the re-opening of the Al- 
hambra on 3 Dec, Clay conducting. Only 
a few hours later he was quite suddenly 
struck with paralysis while walking in Bow 
Street with Mr. Sims. Some necessary altera- 
tions in ' The Golden Ring ' were made by 
Sir Arthur Sullivan. Clay lingered for some 
years, and although there was a slight re- 
covery in 1889, he died on 24 Nov. of that 
year at Oxford House, Great Marlow. 

Clay's musical powers were lyrical rather 
than dramatic. His operas and operettas 
have not been retained on the repertory, but 
several of his songs are still favourites. They 
are, in construction as well as feeling, closely 
allied to the songs of his friend Sullivan, 
and have, like them, the rare power of satis- 
fying alike the performer, the connoisseur, 
and the uncultivated hearer. One of the 
very best, ' She wandered down the moun- 
tain side,' was specially successful. An- 
other of Clay's best songs, 'The Sands o' 
Dee,' has remained familiar. There are 
several effective numbers in ' Lalla Rookh/ 
including a tuneful quartet, ' Morn wanes, 
we must away,' and a grand scena, de- 
scribing the simoom, with a very realistic 
orchestral interlude. This cantata also con- 
tains Clay's most successful piece, the ballad 
' I'll sing thee songs of Araby,' a tenor solo 
not of a conventional pattern, very richly 
harmonised, and so gratefully written for the 
singer that performers and audiences have 
always delighted in it. It was first sung by 
Mr. Edward Lloyd, and was one of the 
pieces regularly given by him at his farewell 
tour in 1900. 

[Sir Arthur Sullivan's article on Clay in Grove's 
Diet, of Music and Musicians; Daily News, 
28 Nov. 1889; Referee, 25 Nov. 1900; The 
Choir and Musical Record, 1865, pp. 385, 401, 
415, 419; Brighton Gazette, 18 Feb. 1878; 
Clay's "Works ; information from R. S. Bathe, 
esq.'] H. D. 

CLAYTON, JOHN (1843-1888), actor, 
whose real name was John Alfred Calthrop, 
was son of James T. and E. Naylor Calthrop 



Clayton 



33 



Clement 



of Deeping, Lincolnshire. He was bom at r Magistrate/ Admiral Rankinff in tb6 
Gosberton, Lincolnshire, on 14 Feb. 1843, ''Schoolmistress,' and the Very Kev. Dean 



and euterod Merchant Taylors' School in 
1853. lie siibaequontly studied German at 
lionn, with a view to the Indian civil service. 
After some practice as an amateur he joined 
Miss Herbert's company at the St. James's, 
appearing on 27 Feb. 1866 as Hastings in 
* She Stoops to Conquer.' At the Olympic he 
played in ' Six Months Ago,' and was Landry 
fearbeau in * The Grasshopper ' (* La Petite 
Fadette'). On the opening of the new 
Queen's theatre, 24 Oct. 1867, he was the 
first Colney Hatch in * He's a Lunatic,' by 
Felix Dale (Mr. Herman Merivale). He 
played, at the Queen's, Kidgely in * Dearer 
than Life,' Monks in ' Oliver Twist,' Medli- 
cott in ' Time and the Hour,' and Gregory 
Danville in the ' Lancashire Lass.' At the 
Gaiety he was, on 27 March 1869, the Earl of 
Mount Forrestcourt in Robertson's 'Dreams,' 
and was also CaUhorpe in Mr. Gilbert's * An 
Old Score,' Vaubert in the ' Life Chase,' Joe 
Lennard in' Uncle Dick's Darling,' and Victor 
Tremaine in ' Awaking.' He was seen at the 
Vaudeville as Joseph Surface, and Dazzle in 
'London Assurance,' and at the Lyceum 
a9 Louis XIII in ' Kichelieu,' and Juan de 
Miraflores in Mr. Hamilton Aide's ' Philip.' 
At the Princess's he played the brothers in 
the ' Corsican Brothers,' and Nigel in the 
' King o' Scots.' At the Court he was 
Jaggers in * Great Expectations,' Jormell in 
Craven's ' Coals of Fire,' and George de 
Chavannes in ' Lady Flora.' As Hugh Trevor 
in ' All for her,' produced on 18 Oct. 1875 
at the Mirror, formerly the Ilolborn, he 
obtained his greatest success in serious parts. 
Osip in Lord Newry's version of ' Les 
Danischeffs' (St. James's, 6 Jan. 1877) was 
also a success, as was his Henry Beauclerc 
in ' Diplomacy ' at the Prince of Wales's, 
where he also played George d'Alroy in 
'Caste' (.Tanuary 1879). He w^as Robert 
Dudley to the Mary Stuart of Madame 
Modjeska, in an adaptation by Lewis Wing- 



Jedd in ' Dandy Dick.' The piece laat named 
was given on 27 Jan. 1887, and waa the last 
production of the management. While 
touring with it Clayton died, on 27 Feb. 
1888, at Canning Street, Liverpool. Ilia 
remains were interred in Brompton cemetery. 
Clayton married a daughter of Dion Bouci- 
cault [q. V. Suppl.], who survives him. lie 
was a good actor, both in drama and comedy, 
with a bluff, effective, breezy, and powerful, 
sometimes too powerful, style. 

[Personal knowledge ; Era, 3 March ; Scott and 
Howard's Blanchard; Pascoe's Dramatic List; 
Robinson's Register of Merchant Taylors' School ; 
Era Almanack, various years ; The Theatre, 
various years; Athenaeum, various years.] 

.1. K. 

CLEMENT OP Llanthont (d, 1190.^), 
known also as Clement op Gloucestkb, 
theological writer, was probably a relative 
and possibly a brother of Miles de Glou- 
cester, earl of Hereford [see Gloucester], 
who was buried at Llanthony in Gloucester- 
shire. He was educated at Llanthony, 
where he subsequently became canon, sub- 
prior, and prior, and witnessed a charter of 
David, who was bishop of St. David's from 
1147 to 1176. He is said to have been negli- 
gent of the affairs of his monastery, and to 
have died, probably about 1190, of a paralytic 
stroke. Giraldus Cambrensis {Opera, Rolls 
Ser. vi. 39) speaks highly of his learning, 
and Osbert of Clare mentions him as one of 
the most illustrious men of his age (Habdt, 
Descr. Cat. ii. 424). 

To judge from the number of manu- 
scripts of his works which have survived, 
Clement was one of the most popular theo- 
logical writers of the middle ages. His 
principal work appears to have been his 
' Concordia Quatuor Evangelistarum,' manu- 
scripts of which are extant at University 
College, Oxford (MS. xix. 36), Trinity Col- 
lege, Oxford (MS. ii. 1), Merton College 
field' from Schiller.* On 24 'Sept. 1881 he j (MS. ccxl. 1), Jesus College (MS. xlix.) 



opened, as Raoul de Latour in 'Honour, 
the Court theatre, in the management of 
which he was joined by Arthur Cecil [q. v. 
Suppl.] Changing his line, he appeared in 
comic plays by Mr. Pinero and other writers. 
He was, 15 Feb. 1882, Chiff in the ' Manager' 
and Bartley Venn in ' My Little Girl,' and 
was seen subsequently as*^ Charles Tracy in 
the ' Parvenu,' Sir George Dexter in ' Com- 
rades,'Rev. Humphrey Sharland in the 'Rec- 
tor,' Robert Streightley in the ' Millionaire,' 
Lewis Long in ' Margery's Lovers,' Due de 
Chevreuse in ' Devotion,''Sir George Carteret 
in the ' Opal Ring,' Colonel Lukyn in the 

VOL. II. — SUP. 



Cambridge University Library (MS. Dd. i. 
17), in Brit. Mus. Royal MS. 3 A x., and 
at Pembroke College, Cambridge. This work 
is said to have been translated by Wvcliffe 
or one of AVycliffe's followers ; and in Roval 
MS. 17 C. xxxiii. is 'Clement of Lantonie's 
Harmony of the Gospels in 12 books, Eng- 
lished by John Wiclif;' there is another 
copy of the same in Royal MS. 1 7 D. viii., 
and another English version which does not 
claim to be bv Wycliffe is in the Ikxileian 
(MS. F. ii.) ;'in Lambeth MS. 594 f. 47 is a 
tract claiming to be Wycliffe's * Preface to 
his Version of the Evangelical Harmony of 

D 



Clerk 



34 



Close 



Clemens Lanthoniensis.' Clement's work is 
said to have been completed by William of 
Nottingham [q.v.], but William's treatise 
was apparently a separate work. *The 
'tertia pars seriei collectpe quatuor Evan- 

feliorum ' is extant in the Bodleian (MS. 
I. 7; Bernard), and extracts * ex Clemente 
super Evangelia ' are extant in Cambr. Univ. 
Libr. MS. Mm. ii. 18. Distinct from the 
' Concordia ' was Clement's * Commentary 
on the Four Gospels/ extant at St. Mary's 
College, Winchester, in the cathedral library 
at Hereford, at Trinity College, Dublin, and 
among Bishop's More's manuscripts at Nor- 
wich (Bernard, ii. 1340, 1610, 8245, 8246, 
9260) ; this consists mainly of extracts from 
the fathers. 

Of Clement's other works his ' Commen- 
tarius in Acta Apostolorum ' is extant in 
Brit. Mus. Royal MS. 3 A. x., his ' Com- 
mentarius in VII Epistolas Canonicas ' is 
Lambeth MS. 239; and Bodleian MS. E. 5 
contains his ' Explanatio super alas cherubin 
et seraphin' and 'Liber Psalmorum cum 
glossa dementis Lantoniensis.' Other works 
not known to be extant are ascribed to him 
by Bale and Pits. 

[Historia Lanthoniensis in Cotton MS. Julius 
D. x; Bernard's Cat. MSS. Anglise.i. 2312,2333, 
2553, 3650, 5105, ii. 1340, 1610, 8245, 8246, 
9260, iii. 327 ; Coxa's Cat. MSS. in Coll. Au- 
lisque Oxon. ; Cat. MSS. in Univ. Libr, Cambr, ; 
Cat. Royal MSS, Brit, Mus. ; Todd's Cat, Lam- 
beth MSS. ; Hardy's Descr. Cat. ii. 424 ; Whar- 
ton's Anglia Sacra, ii, 322 ; Dugdale's Monasti- 
con, ii. 66 ; Tanner's Bibliotheca ; Giraldus 
Cambrensis (Rolls Ser.), vi. 39 ; Wright's Biogr. 
Brit. Lit, ii. 265-8 ; Chevalier's Repertoire ; 
Arnold's Select English Works of Wyclif, Introd. 
p. v.] A. F. P. 

CLERK, Sir GEORGE RUSSELL 
(1800-1889), Indian civilian, born at Wort- 
ing House in Hampshire, was the eldest son 
of John Clerk of Worting House, by his 
wife, the daughter and coheiress of Carew 
Mildmay of Shawford House, Hampshire. 
He was educated at Haileybury College, and 
entered the service of the East India Company 
as a writer on 30 April 1817. On 20 Aug. 
1819 he became assistant to the magistrate 
of the suburbs of Calcutta, and in 1820 
assistant in the office of the superintendent 
of stamps. On 30 June he was transferred 
to Nuddea as assistant to the magistrate, 
judge, and registrar, and on 13 Nov. he 
became first assistant to the secretary to the 
government in secret and political depart- 
ments. On 28 Nov. 1821 he was nominated 
second assistant to the resident in Rajputana. 
On 13 March 1824 he visited England on 
leave, returning in 1827, and on 17 Aug. 



was appointed first assistant to the resident 
at Delhi. On 28 June 1831 he was made 
political agent at Ambala, and then be- 
came in succession British envoy at Lahore, 
where he played a distinguished part, and 
on 11 Nov. 1846 governor of Bombay. He 
resigned the last office early in 1848, and, 
returning to England, was created K.CB. 
on 27 April 1848. He declined the gover- 
norship of the Cape of Good Hope, but in 

1853 undertook the duties of a commissioner 
for settling the boundary of the colony and 
arranging for the establishment of inde- 
pendence in the Orange Free State, and in 

1854 handed over the government of the 
Orange Free State to a convention of Boers. 
In 1856 he was nominated permanent under- 
secretary to the India board, on the recon- 
struction of the India administration, in 
1857 he became secretary of the India board, 
and in 1858 permanent under-secretary of 
state for India to Lord Stanley and Sir 
Charles Wood (afterwards first Viscount 
Halifax) [q.v.] On 23 April 1860 he was a 
second time nominated governor of Bombay, 
but he resigned in April 1862 in conse- 
quence of ill-health. He was succeeded by 
his warm friend Sir Henry Bartle Edward 
Frere [q. v.], and on 14 Dec. 1863 was 
appointed a member of the Indian council. 
On the establishment of the order of the 
Star of India on 25 June 1861 he was made 
a knight, and on its extension on 24 May 
1866 he was nominated G.C.S.I. He died 
in London on 25 July 1889 at his residence, 
33 Elm Park Gardens. He married Mary 
{d. 26 Nov. 1878), widow of Colonel Stewart. 

[Times, 27 July 1889; Men of the Time, 
1887; Dodwell and Miles's Bengal Civil Ser- 
vants, 1839; Statesman and Friend of India, 
4 Feb. 1888; Roberts's Forty-one Years in 
India, 1897, i. 440; Martineau's Life of Frere, 
1895 ; Noble's South Africa, 1877, pp. 156-62.] 

E. L C. 

CLOSE, JOHN (1816-1891), *Poet 
Close,' born at Gunnerside, Swaledale, on 
the estate of Lord Wensleydale, in 1816, 
was the son of Jarvis Close, a butcher, who 
was well known all over the countryside as 
a Wesleyan local preacher. Soon after 
1830, while still a butcher's lad. Close began 
issuing little paper tracts of verse of the 
cheap-jack order — * Sam Do well,' 'The 
Little Town Poet,' 'Dr. Caxton and Dr. 
Silverpen,' * The Old Farm House,' ' The 
Satirist,' 'Book of the Chronicles,' 'A 
Month in London,' 'Adventures of an 
Author,' and many fly-sheets. In 1846 
he established himself as a printer in Kirkby 
Stephen. He had not a spark of literary 
talent of any kind, but his assiduity in be- 



Clough 



35 



Clough 



rhyming his friends and neighbours, and 
more especially the gentlefolk of the dis- 
trict, won him patrons who in April 1860 
obtained for him a civil list pension of 50/. 
on the recommendation of Lord Palmerston. 
The bestowal of such recognition on so in- 
competent a writer excited widespread 
amazement. In the House of Commons on 
2 May 1861 AVilliam Stirling asked the first 
lord of the treasury if a pension of 50/. had 
been recently granted to J. Close of Kirkby 
Stephen, who styled himself * Poet Laureate 
to his Majesty the King of Grand Bonny ' 
{Hansard, 3rd ser. clxiv. 1375). Palmer- 
ston replied that he had conferred the pension 
upon the recommendation of Lord Carlisle, 
Lord Lonsdale, and other gentlemen. Lons- 
dale remained faithful to his ' lake-poet,' but 
most of Close's other noble patrons, after 
the fusillade of banter and quotation in the 
London press, seem to have grown ashamed 
of the countenance they had given to such 
a doggerel bard, and Close had to exchange 
his pension (the warrant for which was 
cancelled in May 1861) for a grievance, of 
which he made the best possilile use. He 
received a grant of 100/. from the Royal 
Bounty in June 1861, as a measure of com- 
pensation, but he continued for thirty years 
longer to issue little pamphlets of metrical 
balderdash, interspersed with documents re- 
lating to his wrongs, from the ' Poet's Hall,' 
Kirkby Stephen, and a little stall near the 
landing stage, Bowness ; by these means he 
extorted shillings from thousands of sum- 
mer visitors to Windermere, and stamps 
from numerous sympathisers all over the 
country. He may be termed a survival of 
the old packman-poet in the last stages of 
his degradation. He died at Kirkby Ste- 
phen on 15 Feb. 1891, and was buried on 
18 Feb. in the cemetery there ; he left a 
widow, a married daughter, and two sons. 
The amusing reference to * Poet Close ' in 
'Ferdinando and Elvira; or, the Gentle 
Pieman,' is familiar to readers of Mr. AV. S. 
Gilbert's ' Bab Ballads.' 

[Times, 17 Feb. 1891 ; Illustrated London 
News, 21 Feb. 1891 (portrait); Penrith Ob- 
server, 17 and 24 Feb. 1891 ; Daily News, 
Yorkshire Post, Newcastle Leader, and St. 
James's Gazette, 17-18 Feb. 1891 ; Close's Poet 
Close and his Pension, in 3 pts. 1861 ; Poetical 
Works of J. Close, ' Under Iloyal Patronage,' 
Kirkby Stephen, 1860, pts. 1-5; Brit. Mus. 
Cat.] T. S. 

CLOUGH, ANNE JEMIMA (1820- 
1892), first principal of Newnham College, 
Cambridge, the third child of James Butler 
Clough, a cotton merchant, and his wife 
Anne, daughter of John Perfect, was born at 



Liveroool on 20 Jan. 1820. Arthur Hug^ 
Clough [q. v.], the poet, was her brother. 
In 1822 James Clough took hia family to 
Charleston, South Carolina, where they 
remained for fourteen years. Anne, who 
during that period was solely educated by 
her mother, spent the summers of 1828 and 
1831 in England. She has well deficribed 
her childish experiences at Charleston in 
the * Poems and Prose Remains ' of her 
brother, Arthur Hugh Clough (cf. pp. 3-9). 
She returned to Liverpool in 1836, and re- 
sided there for the next sixteen years. Her 
intention was to become a writer, but she 
occupied herself mainly in teaching, taking 
classes at the Welsh national school founded 
by her father, at a Sunday school, and holding 
school on her own account at home for older 
girls. When her father failed in 1841 Anne, 
in order to help pay off some of the debts, 
started a regular school, which she con- 
tinued until 1846. Her father died on 19 Oct. 
1844. She found time for private study, 
although in addition to the school duties 
she had to help her mother in domestic 
work. Her brother had a hi^h opinion of 
her capacity, and desired a wider sphere of 
action for her. His letters to her show 
deep interest in her work and aims (cf. 
Clough, Poems and Prose Remains). In 
1849 she spent three months in London, 
and attended the Borough Road, and then 
the Home and Colonial School, to acquire 
something of the technical training neces- 
sary to teachers. In 1852 she removed to 
Ambleside, where she spent ten years. At 
first she collected round her a few pupils 
drawn from residents in the neighbourhood, 
among them being Miss Mary Arnold, now 
Mrs. Humphry Ward, but she soon deter- 
mined to establish a regular school for the 
children of the farmers and tradespeople. 
She related her experiences in an article 
entitled * Girls' Schools ' in ' Macmillan's 
Magazine ' (October 1866). 

After the death of her mother in 1860, 
Miss Clough ardently desired to enlarge the 
scope of her life. The death of her brother 
Arthur at Florence in 1861 somewhat modi- 
fied her plans, and in 1862 she gave up her 
school at Ambleside to Mrs. Fleming (the 
school still exists), and went to live with 
her brother's widow in order to help in the 
bringing up of her nephews and nieces. Her 
thoughts now turned to reforms in the edu- 
cation of women of the middle class, and she 
became acquainted with others, such as Miss 
Emily Davies, Madame Barbara Leigh Bodi- 
chon [q. v. Suppl.], and Miss Buss, who were 
working in the same direction. She was 
instrumental in founding the North of Eng- 

D 2 



Coburg 



36 



Cochran-Patrick 



land council for promoting the higher edu- 
cation of women, and was its secretary from 
1867, the year of its establishment, until 
1870, and its president from 1873 to 1874, 
in which year it was dissolved. It led to 
the organisation of local lectures by the 
universities. The higher local examinations 
for women had been started in 1869, and 
in 1870 Henry Sidgwick [q. v. Suppl.] 
suggested that lectures should be given in 
Cambridge to assist the candidates. The 

f)lan was most successful, women coming 
ong distances to attend the lectures. It 
was therefore determined to open a house of 
residence in Cambridge to accommodate the 
students, and Miss Clough was asked to be 
its head. She began work at a house in 
Eegent Street, Cambridge, in October 1871 
with five students, and out of that beginning ; 
was evolved Newnham CoUege. In 1872 
Miss Clough removed to the more conve- 
nient premises known as Merton Hall, but 
the number of students so increased that in 
1874 a new house again became imperative. 
It was decided to build one ; a sum of 
10,000/. was subscribed by friends of women's 
education. Newnham Hall, the old hall of 
the present Newnham College, was opened 
in 1875. More room was, however, soon 
needed, and Newnham College was esta- 
blished on its present basis, under the 
principalship of Miss Clough, in 1880. As 
the college developed Miss Clough acquired 
the position of a recognised leader in the 
education of women, and many things now 
regarded as a matter of course are due to 
her initiative. In 1888 her strength began 
to show signs of failure ; she died at Cam- 
bridge on 27 Feb. 1892, and was buried in 
Grantchester churchyard on 6 March. 

Her strong personality, high aims, and 
lofty principles enabled her to overcome 
defects in her that might have jeopardised 
the success of her work. She was no orga- 
niser ; her want of method, a very serious 
drawback, of which she was well aware, is 
to be attributed to lack of early training. 
She endeared herself to the students, and 
had an excellent influence on young women. 

The portrait which hangs in the library 
of the college was subscribed for by the 
students, and painted by Sir W. B. Rich- 
mond in 1882. Another portrait which 
hangs in the college hall was subscribed 
for by friends and students, and painted by 
Mr. J. J. Shannon in 1890. 

[A memoir of Anne Jemima Clough by her 
niece, Blanche Athena Clough, 1897.] E. L. 

COBURG, Duke op. [See Alfked 
Ebnbst Albert, 1844-1900.J 



COCHRAN-PATRICK, ROBERT 
WILLIAM (1842-1897), under-secretary of 
state for Scotland, only son of William 
Charles Richard Patrick (afterwards Coch- 
ran-Patrick) of Waterside, Ayrshire, and 
Agnes, eldest daughter of William Cochran 
of Ladyland and Belltrees, was born at 
Ladyland, Ayrshire, on 5 Feb. 1842. Having 
received his early education from private 
tutors, he matriculated at Edinburgh Uni- 
versity in 1857, where he secured prizes in 
classics, logic, and moral philosophy, gra- 
duating B.A. in 1861, and passing first in 
metaphysics and logic. In 1861 he entered 
at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where he had 
as friends among the residents Henry Faw- 
cett [q. v.], Mr. Leslie Stephen, and Lord- 
justice Romer. He became captain of one 
of the boats of the Hall, and carried off the 
university challenge cup for walking and 
other athletic prizes. As a volunteer he 
shot in a winning four with Edward Ross, 
the first queen's prizeman, and was a member 
of the amateur dramatic club, then under 
the management of Mr. F. C. Burnand. In 
1864 he graduated LL.B. Leaving Cam- 
bridge, he returned to Edinburgh for a year, 
with a view to qualifying for the Scottish 
bar, an idea soon abandoned. 

In 1866 he married and settled at Wood- 
side in Ayrshire, a property left him by his 
grand-uncle. With a strong bent for sport and 
natural history, Cochran-Patrick was in his 
element as a country gentleman, also throw- 
ing himself with vigour into local and county 
business. He became a captain in the militia, 
chairman of the parish school and parochial 
boards, served as convener of the finance 
committee of the county, and occupied other 
public posts. Taking up the study of ar- 
chaeology, he became a fellow of the Society 
of Antiquaries of Scotland, and contributed 
a large series of most valuable papers to the 
'Proceedings' of the society. In 1871 he 
was elected a fellow of the Society of Anti- 
quaries of London, and in 1874 he was sent 
to Stockholm to represent Great Britain at 
the international congress of archaeology. 
In 1874 he was one of the founders of the 
Ayrshire and Wigtonshire Archaeological 
Association. To the collections of this so- 
ciety he contributed numerous able articles. 
But it is as a numismatist that Cochran- 
Patrick is best known, and his collection of 
Scottish coins was wellnigh unrivalled. On 
this subject in 1876 he published his first 
book, entitled * Records of the Coinage of 
Scotland from the earliest Period to the 
Union,' 2 vols. This he followed up in 1878 
with * Early Records relating to Mining in 
Scotland,' in which he gave an account of 



Cochran-Patrick 



37 



Cochrane-Baillie 



the discovery of gold in Scotland, and de- 
scriptions of the lead and silver mines. 

In 18S0 Cochran- Patrick contested North 
Ayrshire in the conservative interest, and 
defeated Mr. J. B. Balfour (now lord-presi- 
dent of the court of session) by fifty-five 
votes. He was a frequent speaker in parlia- 
ment, especially on education matters. In 
1884 he published his third work, 'Cata- 
logue of the Medals of Scotland,' containing 
a learned account of Scottish medals, of 
which he preserved the best collection ex- 
tant. In 1886 he was defeated for North 
Ayrshire by the Hon. H. F. Elliot. In 1886 
he became assessor to St. Andrews Uni- 
versity, and in 1887 a commissioner to inquire 
into the working of the Scotch Education 
Act. Shortly afterwards he joined the fishery 
board of Scotland, and was granted the 
degree of LL.D. from Glasgow University 
in consideration of his scholarly attainments. 
In December 1887 he was appointed perma- 
nent under-secretary for Scotland, an office 
in which he rendered most valuable assist- 
ance in the promotion of Scottish business, 
notably the Local Government (Scotl.) Act, 
1889. On 15 June 1892 he resigned his ap- 
pointment owing to failing health, and re- 
tired to his seat at Woodside. In 1894 he 
acted as a commissioner to inquire into the 
Tweed and Solway salmon fisheries, visiting 
the border towns, taking evidence, and in- 
specting the rivers. In 1896 he became vice- 
chairman of the Scotch Fishery Board. As 
a freemason he was for many years pro- 
vincial grand master of Ayrshire. On 

15 March 1897, after returning from a meet- 
ing of the fishery board in Edinburgh, he 
died suddenly of heart disease at Woodside. 

Cochran-Patrick married, 31 Oct. 1866, 
Eleanora, younger daughter of Robert Hun- 
ter of Hunterston, Ayrshire, having by her 
(who died in 1884) a son, VVilliam Arthur, 
who died in 1891, and a daughter, Eleanor 
Agnes, w^ho married in 1895 Neil James 
Kennedy, advocate, who assumed the name 
of Cochran-Patrick in terms of the entail of 
the property. 

Besides the works named, Cochran- 
Patrick was the author of: 1. ' Unpublished 
Varieties of Scottish Coins,' 2 parts, 1871-2. 
2. * Notes on the Annals of the Scotch 
Coinage,' 8 parts, 1872-4. 3. * Notes towards 
a Metallic History of Scotland,' 1878. 
4. 'Mediaeval Scotland,' 1892— a reprint 
of articles published in the * Glasgow 
Herald.' 

[The Scottish Review, January 1 898 ; obituary 
notices in the Scotsman and Glasgow Herald, 

16 March 1897; Biu-ke's Landed Gentry.] 

G. S-H. 



COCHRANE-BAILLIE, ALEXAN- 
DEli DUNDAS UOSS WISHAHT, first 
Baron Laminotow (1816-1890), jpolitician 
and author, was eldest son of Admiral of the 
Fleet Sir Thomas John Cochrane [q.v.] and 
Matilda, daughter of Lieutenant-general Sir 
Charles Ross, seventh baronet of Balna- 
gowan, by his first wife (daughter and 
heiress of General Count James Lockhart 
of Camwath). Lady Cochrane, Cochrane- 
Baillie's mother, was heiress of the lands of 
Old Liston in the county of Edinburgh, ller 
father's mother, Elizabeth, daughter of llo- 
bert Dundas (1713-1787) [q.v.] of Amiston, 
by Henrietta Baillie, daughter and heiress 
of Sir James Carmichael of Bonnington, 
inherited, in addition to the lands of Bon- 
nington in Lanarkshire, the estateof Laming- 
ton in the same county as heiress of her 
grandmother, Margaret Baillie of Laming- 
ton, wife of Sir James Carmichael. Lady 
Cochrane's father (Sir Charles Ross) left no 
male heir by his first wife ; on his death in 
1814 he was succeeded in the baronetcy by 
Charles (then a boy of two), son of his 
second marriage with Lady Mary Fitzgerald, 
and thus Lady Cochrane's half-brother. 
When the boy's grandmother, Lady Ross- 
Baillie, died in 1817, the estates of Laming- 
ton and Balnagowan were placed under 
trust till he should attain his majority in 
1833, and exercise his choice of succeeding 
to the possession of the lands of Balna- 
gowan in the county of Ross or Lamington 
in the county of Lanark. He chose Balna- 
gowan, on which the lands of Lamington 
devolved on the son of Lady Cochrane, his 
half-sister, the subject of this memoir. 

Born on 27 Nov. 1816, Baillie-Cochrane, as 
the name was then written, was educated at 
Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A. 
1837). He sat as conservative member for 
Bridport from 1841 to 1852, when he was 
defeated in a contest for Southampton. He 
was one of the most active members of the 
* Young England ' party in the House of 
Commons, whereof Disraeli was the chief 
and Lord John Manners (now Duke of Rut- 
land) the vates sacer, and he is said to have 
been the original of Buckhurst in' Coningsbv* 
{Life o/Jl. C. Childers, i. 168). In 1857 he 
was returned for Lanarkshire, and from 
1859 to 1868 he sat for Honiton. In the 
autumn of 1868 he was offered the governor- 
ship of Cape Colony, but Disraeli's admini- 
stration fell before the appointment was 
completed. In 1870 he was returned for 
the Isle of Wight, which he continued to 
represent till 1880, when he was raised to 
the peerage as first baron Lamington. He 
died at 26 Wilton Crescent, London, on 



Cockle 



38 



Cockle 



15 Feb. 1890. In 1844 he married Anna- 
bella Mary Elizabeth, daughter of Andrew 
Drummond of Cadlands, Hampshire. He 
was succeeded in his honours and lands by 
his only son, Charles Wallace Alexander 
Napier, second baron Lamington, who was 
appointed governor of Queensland in 1895. 
There are portraits of Lord Lamington at 
Lamington by De Boeuf and Sir Francis 
Grant in oils, and by Swinton and Count 
d'Orsay in crayon. 

Baillie-Cochrane was for many years an 
exceedingly well-known character in London 
society. He spent much time and money in 
the improvement of his estate of Lamington. 
He was much given to literary studies, and 
delighted in the society of men of letters, 
whom he used to welcome freely at his table. 
He was one of the joint editors of and chief 
writers in the lively satirical journal called 
* The Owl,' which was published weekly 
from 1864 to 1868. 

His other published works are as follows : 

I. 'Poems,' privately printed, 1838. 2. 'Medi- 
tations of other Bays,' 1841. 3. ' The 
Morea, a Poem, with Remarks on Greece,' 
1842. 4. ' Lucille Belmont,' a novel, 2 vols. 
1849. 5. ' Ernest Vane,' a novel, 2 vols. 1 849. 
6. ' Florence the Beautiful,' a novel, 2 vols. 
1854. 7. 'Justice to Scotland,' 1854. 
8. ' Historic Pictures,' 2 vols. 1860. 9. ' A 
Young Artist's Life ' (under the pseudonym 
of Leonard Holme), 1864. 10. 'Francis 
the First, and other Historic Studies,' 1869. 

II. * The Theatre Fran^ais in the Reign of 
Louis XV,' a novel, made out of materials 
collected for a history of the Theatre Fran- 
cais, 1870. 12. ' Historic Chateaux— Blois, 
Fontainebleau,Vincennes,'1876. Lord Lam- 
ington was also the author of numerous 
anonymous contributions to periodicals. A 
series of reminiscences called ' The Days of 
the Dandies ' was running in ' Blackwood's 
Magazine ' at the time of his death, and was 
subsequently published separately in pam- 
phlet form (Edinburgh, 1890). 

[Lamington, Past and Present, by Mrs. Ware 
Scott ; Burke's Peerage ; G. E. C[okayne]'s Com- 
plete Peerage ; Tablettes Biographiques des 
Hommes du Temps ; Allibone's Diet, of English 
Lit.; Boase's Modern Brit. Biogr.; Times, 17 and 
25 Feb. 1890 ; private information.] H. E. M. 

COCKLE, Sir JAMES (1819-1895), 
chief justice of Queensland and mathema- 
tician, born on 14 Jan. 1819, was the second 
son of James Cockle, a surgeon of Great 
Oakley in Essex. He was educated at Stor- 
mond House, Kensington, from 1825 to 1829, 
and at Charterhouse from 1829 to 1831, and 
afterwards under the tuition of Christian 



Lenny. He left England on 29 Nov. 1835, 
and, after a year's sojourn in the West Indies 
and the United States of America, entered 
into residence at I'rinity College, Cambridge, 
on 18 Oct. 1837, graduating B.A. in 1842 
and M.A. in 1845. On 12 April 1838 he 
entered the Middle Temple as a student. 
He began to practise as a special pleader in 
1845, and on 6 Nov. 1846 was called to the 
bar. In the spring of 1848 he joined the 
midland circuit. His ability attracted th^ 
attention of Sir "William Erie [q. v.], then 
chief justice of the court of common pleas. 
At his instance he was appointed the first 
chief justice of Queensland in 1863. In this 
post his services were of a high order. His 
judgments were marked by laborious and 
conscientious preparation, and in only two 
instances were they reversed on appeal. He 
was knighted on 29 July 1869, and retired 
from office in 1879. When the consolidation 
of the state law of Queensland was effected 
in 1867 he was senior commissioner. 

Cockle, however, was still more eminent 
as a mathematician than as a judge. He 
was elected a fellow of the Royal Astrono- 
mical Society on 10 March 1854, a fellow of 
the Royal Society on 1 June 1865, and a 
fellow of the London Mathematical Society 
on 9 June 1870. He wrote on the Indian 
astronomical literature, on the Indian cycles 
and lunar calendar, on the date of the Vedas 
and Jyotish Sastra, and on the ages of 
Garga and Parasara. He also published four 
elaborate memoirs on the motion of fluids, 
and some notes on light under the action of 
magnetism. His chief interest, however, was 
centred in problems in pure mathematics. 
His analytical researches were confined for 
the most part to common algebra and the 
theory of differential equations. For many 
years he laboured among the higher alge- 
braic equations with the hope of being able 
to solve the general equation of the fifth 
degree. He failed to obtain a general solu- 
tion, and indeed in 1862 reproduced Abel's 
attempt to demonstrate its impossibility 
with Sir William Rowan Hamilton's modi- 
fications, in the ' Quarterly Journal of Mathe- 
matics' (V. 130-43), but'^he determined the 
explicit form of a sextic equation, on the 
solution of Avhich he showed that that of the 
general quintic depended. This result was 
independently confirmed by the Rev. Robert 
Harley in a paper published in the ' Memoirs 
of the Manchester Literary and Philosophi- 
cal Society ' (1860, xv. 172-219), to which 
Cockle had also contributed his result. Mr. 
Harley pursued the subject in two papers 
on the ' Theory of Quintics' in the ' Quarterly 
Journal of Mathematics ' (1860-2, iii. 34^- 



Coghlan 



39 



Coghlan 



369, V. 248-00), and also in an exposition of 
Cockle's method of symmetric products in 
'Philosophical Transactions' iii IMGO. These 
papers attracted the attention of Arthur 
Cay ley j^q. v. Suppl.], who carried the in- 
vestigation further. 

Cockle's contributions to the theory of 
differential equations were also noteworthy, 
lie found that from any rational and entire 
algebraic equation of the degree w, whereof 
the coefficients are functions of a single para- 
meter, it is possible to derive a linear dif- 
ferential equation of the order w — 1, which 
is satisfied by any one of the roots of the 
algebraic equation. From this discovery the 
theory of differential resolvents was evolved. 
He was also the first to discover and develop 
the properties of those functions called cri- 
ticoids or differential invariants. He con- 
tributed numerous papers on mathematical 
and philosophical subjects to the journals 
already mentioned, as \vell as to the 'Philo- 
sophical Magazine' and the ' Proceedings ' of 
the Poyal Societies of New South Wales 
and Victoria. 

Cockle returned to England in 1879. He 
was president of the Queensland Philoso- 
phical Society (now incorporated into the 
Koval Societv of Queensland) from 1863 to 
1879. From'^188G to 1888 he was president 
of the London Mathematical Society, and 
from 1888 to 1892 he served on the council 
of the Royal Astronomical Society. He 
died at his residence in Bayswater on 27 Jan. 
1895, and was buried at Paddington cemetery 
on 2 Feb. On 22 Aug. 1855 he was married 
at St. John's, Oxford Square, Paddington, 
to Adelaide Catherine, eldest surviving 
daughter of Henry Wilkin, formerly of 
Walton, Suffolk. His w4fe and eight chil- 
dren survived him. A volume entitled 
* Mathematical Pesearches,' consisting of 
Cockle's contributions to scientific journals 
between 1864 and 1877, was presented to 
the British Museum by Lady Cockle in 1897. 

[Memoir by the Rev. Robert Harley, F.R.S., 
in the Proc. of the Royal Soc. vol. Jix. (with 
portrait); Men and Women of the Time, 1891.1 

E I C 

COGHLAN, JEREMIAH (1775?- 
1844), captain in the navy, was in January 
1796 mate of a merchant ship at Plymouth, 
and on the occasion of the wreck of the 
Button East Indiaman [See Pkllew, Ed- 
ward, Viscount Exmouth] displayed such 
energy and courage that Pellew offered to 

?ut him on the Indefatigable's quarter-deck, 
n the Indefatigable he continued for three 
years, and in March 1 799 followed Pellew 
to the Imp6tueux. In June 1800 he was put 
by Pellew in commtind of the Viper cutter; 



and while watching Port Louii oonoeiT^d 

the desi^ of cutting out a French gnn- 
vessel lying in the entrance of the harbour. 
Pellew lent him a ten-oared cutter, and in 
this, with eighteen men and a midshipman 
— Silas Hiscutt Paddou— on tlie night of 
29 July, he boarded and after a hard fight 
captured the gun-brig Cerbere, * mounting 
three long 24-pounders and four G-pounders, 
full of men, moored with springs on her 
cables, in a naval port of difficult access, 
within pistol-shot of three batteries, sur- 
rounded by several armed craft, and not a 
mile from a 74 bearing an admiral's flag, 
and two frigates' (Pellew, Despatch). 
Being repulsed in the first attempt, wounded 
and thrown back into the boat, Coghlan 
renewed the struggle. Both he and Paddon 
received several severe wounds, six of his men 
were wounded, and one was killed ; but the 
Cerbere was taken and towed out under a 
heavy fire from the batteries. The squadron, 
to mark their admiration of the exploit, gave 
up the prize to the immediate captors ; and 
Pellew, in his official letter to Lord St. 
Vincent, excused himself for dwelling on 
the courage and skill ' which formed, con- 
ducted, and effected so daring an enterprise.' 
St. Vincent, in forwarding Pellew's letter to 
the admiralty, spoke of the pride and ad- 
miration with which the service had filled 
him, rivalling, as it did, the enterprise of 
Sir Edward Hamilton [q. v.] and of Captain 
Patrick Campbell [q. v.], and in his letter to 
Pellew desired him to give his thanks in 
* the most public manner ' to acting-lieutenant 
Coghlan, Mr. Paddon, and the other brave 
fellows under his command, and privately 
begged him to present to Coghlan * in the 
most appropriate manner' a sword of one 
hundred guineas' value. On St. Vincent's 
representation, Coghlan, though he had 
only served in the navy for four and a half 
years, was promoted to the rank of lieu- 
tenant on 22 Sept. 1800, and continued in 
command of the Viper till she was paid oti 
in October 1801. In the spring of 1802 he 
was appointed to the Nimble cutter ; and on 
1 May 1804 was promoted to the command 
of the Renard sloop on the Jamaica station. 
On 20 March 1805 he fell in with and brought 
to action the French privateer, G6n6ral 
Emouf, whose captain, it was said, hailed 
the Renard in English, commanding her to 
' strike.' * Strike I will,' answered Coghlan, 
' and damned hard too.' After an action of 
thirty-five minutes the G6n6ral Ernouf was 
set on fire and blew up with the loss of upwards 
of one hundred men. In August 1807 Coghlan 
was moved into the Elk brig on the same 
station, and for nearly four years was 



Cole 



40 



Cole 



officer of a light squadron for the protection 
of the Bahamas. He was promoted to be 
captain on 27 Nov. 1810, but continued in 
the Elk till the following summer. In 
September 1812 he was appointed to the 
Caledonia as flag captain of Sir Edward 
Pellew, then commander-in-chief in the 
Mediterranean. In the end of 1813 he ex- 
changed into the Alcmene frigate, and con- 
tinued in her till the end of the war. On 
4 June 1815 he was nominated a C.B. He 
afterwards, 1826-30, commanded the Forte 
frigate on the South American station. He 
died at Ryde on 4 March 1844, aged 69 
(Haultain, Quarterly Navy List, May 
1844). He married a daughter of Charles 
Hay of Jamaica, widow of Captain John 
Marshall, E.N., but left no issue. 

[Marshall's Koy. Nav. Biog. vi. (suppl. pt. 
ii.), 298 ; O'Byrne's Nav. Biog. Diet. (pp. 210 w, 
848) ; James's Nav. Hist. iii. 20-1, iv. 26; Sir 
J. C. Dalrymple Hay's Lines from my Log Book, 
p. 20; Brenton's Nav. Hist. ii. 510-11; 
Troude's Batailles Navales de la France, iii. 
214.] J.K. L. 

COLE, Sir CHRISTOPHER (1770- 
1837), post-captain, bom at Marazion in 
Cornwall on 10 June 1770, was the youngest 
son of Humphrey Cole of Marazion. He 
entered the naval service in 1780 as mid- 
shipman on board the Royal Oak, com- 
manded by Sir Digby Dent, where his second 
brother, John Cole (afterwards rector of 
Exeter College, Oxford), was chaplain. In 
the same year he was removed to the Raison- 
nable, and he subsequently served in the 
Russell and the Princessa, the flagship of 
Sir Francis Samuel Drake [q. v.] The Prin- 
cessa formed part of the fleet under Sir 
Samuel Hood (afterwards Viscount Hood) 
[q. v.] in the actions off Martinique and the 
Chesapeake on 29 April and 5 Sept. 1781. 
She also had a share in Hood's manoeuvres 
off St. Christopher's in January and February 
1782, and in Rodney's battles of 9 and 
12 April. 

At the peace of 1783 Cole joined the Tre- 
passey of 12 guns, commanded by his bro- 
ther. Captain Francis Cole, and accompanied 
him from the West Indies to Halifax, where 
he removed into the sloop Atalante, under 
Captain Thomas Foley, with whom he con- 
tinued on that station until 1785. In the 
following year he proceeded to Newfoundland 
in the Winchelsea of 32 guns, under (Sir) 
Edward Pellew (afterwards first Viscount 
Exmouth) [q. v.] In this vessel he remained 
until 1789, when, in consequence of the re- 
commendation of Sir Francis Samuel Drake, 
he was placed on the Crown of 64 guns, 
under Commodore (Sir) William Cornwallis 



[q. v.], with whom he proceeded to the East 
Indies. 

In 1793 he was promoted lieutenant, and 
in October 1794 appointed first lieutenant of 
the Cerberus, a new 32-gun frigate, at the 
particular request of the captain, John Drew. 
In the following year he joined the Sanspa- 
reil of 80 guns, bearing the flag of Lord 
Hugh Seymour [q. v.] In 1799 he accom- 
panied Seymour to the West Indies as his 
flag-lieutenant. On the surrender of Suri- 
nam in August 1800, Cole was appointed 
commander of one of the prizes, the Hussar, a 
corvette of 20 guns, which was rechristened 
the Surinam. In this command he dis- 
tinguished himself by his activity in pur- 
suing the enemy's privateers and his good 
care for the health of his men, which Sey- 
mour made the subject of an official recom- 
mendation to the admiralty. He gained the 
good opinion of Seymour's successor. Sir John 
Thomas Duckworth [q. v.], who promoted 
him into his flagship, the Leviathan of 
74 guns, and afterwards appointed him to 
command the Southampton frigate. His 
post commission was confirmed by the admi- 
ralty on 20 April 1802. 

After the conclusion of the treaty of 
Amiens in 1802, the Southampton was or- 
dered home and paid off" in September. In 
June 1804 Cole was appointed to the Cullo- 
den of 74 guns, the flagship of his old friend 
and commander. Sir Edward Pellew, who 
had been appointed commander-in-chief in 
the East Indies. On 25 Sept. 1806 he cap- 
tured the French corvette, I'Emilien, and on 
27 Nov. assisted to destroy thirty Dutch 
sail in the Batavia Roads. In April 1808, 
in command of the Doris and two other fri- 
gates, he escorted Colonel (Sir) John Mal- 
colm [q. v.] to Bushire on his mission to the 
Persian court, and remained at Bushire for 
the protection of the embassy. On his re- 
turn he received the thanks of the governor- 
general in council and a present of 500/. 
During 1808 and 1809 he was principally 
employed in cruising in the Straits of Ma- 
lacca and the China seas. Upon the arrival 
of the news of the political changes in Spain, 
he was despatched by Pellew's successor, 
Rear-admiral Drury, to conciliate the go- 
vernor of the Philippine Islands, a mission 
in which he was completely successful. 

In 1810 Cole was removed at his own re- 
quest into the Caroline of 36 guns, and was 
soon after despatched to relieve the garrison 
at Amboyna in command of a small squa- 
dron, consisting of the Caroline, the Piemon- 
taise of 38 guns, the 18- gun brig sl(X)p Bar- 
racouta, and the transport brig Mandarin. 
Leaving Madras on 10 May he arrived on 



Cole 



41 



Cole 



tlie 30tb at Prince of Wales Island, where he 
conceived a project of extraordinary darin^^ — 
the capture of Neira, the chief of the Jianda 
Islands. lie had on board a hundred olUcers 
and men of the Madras European regiment, 
who were destined to relieve the Amboyna 
garrison, and he obtained from the Penang 
government twenty artillerymen, two field- 
pieces, and twenty scaling ladders. lie 
arrived off Neira on 9 Aug., but owing to 
unfavourable weather he was compelled to 
make the attempt with less than two hundred 
men. The Dutch had a garrison of nearly 
seven hundred regular troops, besides militia; 
but, undeterred. Cole landed under cover of 
the tempest, stormed a ten-gun battery, and 
carried by escalade the citadel Belgica, 
which was considered impregnable. The 
town and the rest of the garrison surren- 
dered on the following morning. On his 
return to India Cole received the thanks of 
the governor-general in council, the com- 
mander-in-chief, and the lords of the admi- 
ralty. He was awarded a medal by the 
admiralty, and his action was the subject of 
a public order from the governor-general to 
the three presidencies. In the House of 
Commons Spencer Perceval [q. v.] described 
the enterprise as ' an exploit to be classed 
with the boldest darings in the days of 
chivalry.' 

In 1811 Cole joined Druryonthe Malabar 
coast, where an expedition against Java was 
being prepared. On the death of Drury, 
Cole was left in command for some months 
until the arrival of Captain William Robert 
Broughton [q. v.] The expedition sailed in 
June, and on its arrival at Java Cole again 
distinguished himself by promptly landing 
troops on his own responsibility before the 
enemy was prepared to receive them, and 
thus avoiding considerable loss. In 1812 
the Caroline was paid off, and on 29 May 
Cole was knighted and presented with a 
sword by his crew. On 10 June he received 
the honorary degree of D.C.L. from the 
university of Oxford, and subsequently was 
presented with a piece of plate of the value 
of three hundred guineas by the East India 
Company. 

Early in 1813 he was appointed to the 
Rippon, a new vessel of 74 guns. He con- 
tinued cruising in the Channel until the end 
of 1814, when he was put out of commis- 
sion. On 2 Jan. 1815 he was nominated 
K.C.B., and on C Dec. 1817 he was returned 
to parliament for Glamorganshire. He 
did not sit in the parliament which met in 
1818, but he was again returned on 16 March 
1820, and retained the seat until 1830. In 
1828 he was appointed to command the 



yacht Royal Sovereign, and in 1880 he waa 
nominated colonel of marines. lie died at 
Killoy, near Cardiff, on 24 Aug. 1836. On 
28 April 1815 he married Mary Lucv (rf. 
8 Feb. 1855), daughter of Henry Tbomaa 
Fox-Strangways, second earl of Ilche8ter,and 
widow of Thomas Mansel Talbot of Margam 
Park, Glamorganshire. He waa a knight of 
the Austrian order of Maria Theresa, and of 
the Russian order of St. George. 

[Marshall's Naval liiocr. 1824, ii. 601-17; 
Gent. Mag. 1811 ii. 165-6, 1836 ii. i543-4 ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; Osier's Life 
of Lord Exrr.outh, 1835, pp. 226, 230, 407-12; 
Kaye's Life of Malcolm, 1856, i. 417; James's 
Naval Biogr. 1886, pp. 194-202: Boase and 
Courtney's Bibliotheca Cornub. ; Official Returns 
of Members of Parliament.] E. I. C. 

COLE, GEORGE VICAT (1833-1893), 
landscape painter, the eldest son of George 
Cole [q. v.] by his marriage with Eliza 
Vicat, was born at Portsmouth on 17 April 
1833. He was taught by his father, and 
studied, as a boy, the works of Turner, Cox, 
and Constable. He exhibited his first pic- 
tures, views in Surrey and on the river Wye, at 
the British Institution and the Suffolk Street 
Galleries in 1852. In 1853, after a tour 
abroad with his father, he exhibited * Ma- 
rienburg on the Moselle ' and * Ranmore 
Common, Surrey,' at the Royal Academy. 
For a few years, after a temporary separation 
from his father, he lived in London and gave 
drawing-lessons. He gained little by his 
pictures, and was often in straits. He made 
his name in 1861 by * A Surrey Cornfield,' 
a view near Leith Hill, Surrey, exhibited at 
the Suffolk Street Gallery, for which he 
obtained the silver medal of the Society of 
Arts. He continued for years to spend 
his summers at Abinger or Albury, and to 
exhibit pictures of meadows and cornfields 
among the Surrey hills, with such titles as 
'Spring,' 'The Harvest' (a water-colour), 
and ' Summer Rain.' He was the most 
popular landscape painter of the time, 
though he ranked in the opinion of good 
judges, then as now, much below John Lin- 
nell [q. v.], with whom he has often been 
compared. From 1863 to 1867 he lived on 
Ilolmbury Hill, Surrey, but in 1868 he re- 
moved to 8 Victoria Road, Kensington, 
which was his home till 1874. In \^64 he 
withdrew from the Society of British Artists 
to become a candidate for academic honours. 
He was elected an a8.«<ociate of the Royal 
Academy on 25 Feb. 1870, and an academi- 
cian on 16 June 1880. After 1870 he varied 
his Surrev views with pictures of the river 
Arun (' fhe Day's Declme,' 1876, ' Arundel,' 
1877), and of the Thames valley, such as 



Colebrooke 



42 



Colebrooke 



atiiey Mill/ 'Windsor/ and 'Richmond 
Hill ' (1875), and many views of Streatley, 
Wargrave, and the backwaters near Henley, 
•which were no less popular than the Surrey 
landscapes. In 1881, at the suggestion of Mr. 
(afterwards Sir William) Agnew, Cole con- 
ceived the idea of painting a complete series 
of views on the Thames from its source to 
its mouth, w^hich were to be engraved. The 
project was never carried out in its entirety, 
but almost all Cole's later pictures were 
painted on the Thames. Among the few 
pictures of other scenery w^hich he exhibited 
were ' Loch Scavaig, Isle of Skye ' (1875), 
and ' The Alps at Rosenlaui ' (1878). In 1888 
he startled the public by a new departure, 
deserting the peaceful reaches of the upper 
Thames for the London river with its 
smoky wharves and crowded shipping. The 
* Pool of London,' his most ambitious pic- 
ture, but not a characteristic specimen of his 
work, w^as bought out of the funds of the 
Chantrey Bequest for 2,000/., and is now in 
the National Gallery of British Art, Mill- 
bank. The * Summons to Surrender,' an 
episode in the history of the Spanish Armada, 
was exhibited in 1889. His diploma pic- 
ture, 'Misty Morning' (1891), a scene at 
Abinger, was the last of his Surrey land- 
scapes. ' Westminster,' a large view of the 
houses of parliament from the river (1892) 
was less successful than his first London 
picture. Cole exhibited, in all, seventy-six 
pictures at the Royal Academy, and forty- 
eight in Suffolk Street. Many of them have 
been engraved. He died suddenly, on 6 April 
1893, at Little Campden House, l^ensington, 
which had been his residence since 1874. 
He was married on 7 Nov. 1856 to Mary 
Anne Chignell. 

By his wife, who survives him, he left 
three daughters and a son, Mr. Reginald Vicat 
Cole, who is also a landscape painter. Cole 
abandoned his first name, George, in 1854. 
His pictures were signed * Vicat Cole ' from 
that year till 1870, when, on being elected 
A.R. A., he changed his signature and adopted 
a monogram formed of the letters ' V. C 

[Chignell's Life and Paintings of Vicat Cole, 
R.A., with portrait and many illustrations ; 
Times, 8 April 1893 ; Daily Graphic, 8 April 
1893 (memoir by M. H. Spielmann) ; Athenaeum, 
15 April 1893; Graves's Diet, of Artists; pri- 
vate information.] C. D. 

COLEBROOKE, Sir WILLIAM 
MACBEAN GEORGE (1787-1870), soldier 
and colonial governor, son of Colonel Pau- 
let Welbore Colebrooke, R.A. (d. 1816 ; see 
Gent. Mag. 1816, ii. 466), and a daughter 
of Major-general Grant, was born in 1787, 
and educated at Woolwich, entering the 



royal artillery as a first lieutenant on 

12 Sept. 1803. In I8O0 he was ordered 
to the East Indies — first to Ceylon, then 
in 1806 to Malabar, and back to Ceylon 
in 1807. He went to India in 1809, and 
served with the field army there through 
1810, becoming a captain on 27 Sept. 1810. 
He next served in Java, and was wounded 
in the operations against the Dutch in that 
island in 1811 ; here he remained under the 
British occupation, and was deputy quarter- 
master-general in 1813, being promoted 
major on 1 June 1813. He was sent as 
political agent and commissioner to Palem- 
bong in Sumatra, and on to Bengal in 1814. 
He resumed his old duties in Java in 1815, 
and was ordered to India on the conclusion 
of peace and the restoration of Java to the 
Dutch on 19 Aug. 1816. He served through 
the Mahratta war of 1817-8, and accom- 
panied the expedition to the Persian Gulf in 
1818. He returned to England in 1821. 

From 1822 to 1832 Colebrooke was one of 
the commissioners of what was known as 
the Eastern inquiry. This was in fact a long 
and elaborate inquiry into the administra- 
tion and revenues of Ceylon, where he re- 
sided on the business of the inquiry from 
1825 to 1831. (For his reports see House of 
Commons Papers, 1832.) On 9 Sept. 1834 
he became lieutenant-governor of the 
Bahamas, whither he proceeded by way of 
Jamaica, spending about a month in that 
island and arriving at Nassau on a ship-of- 
war on 26 Feb. 1835. His first speech to 
the assembly was on 7 April 1835. He ad- 
ministered the colony during the days when 
slavery gave way to the apprenticeship 
system prior to its final abolition, and he 
showed himself appreciative of the problems 
which he was called upon to solve. On 

13 Feb. 1887 he was gazetted as governor of 
the Leeward Islands, being at the time on 
leave in England. He assumed the govern- 
ment of Antigua and the other islands on 
11 May 1837, and one of his earliest official 
acts was the proclamation of Queen Victoria. 
In this government, as in the Bahamas, he 
was anxious to improve education and re- 
form prison discipline; he also urged the 
restoration of the old general council of the 
Leewards. On 25 July 1840 he left Antigua 
for Liverpool, and after an extended leave was 
on 26 March 1841 made lieutenant-governor v 
of New Brunswick. Here his tenure of office 
was uneventful, the question of the Maine 
boundary being the chief public matter 
aff'ecting the colony at that time; he did, 
however, suggest a special scheme for coloni- 
sation, which had no practical results. On 

9 Nov. 1846 he became colonel in the army, 



Coleridge 



43 



Coleridge 



though he was not colonel of artillery till 
later. On 27 Nov. 1847 he was gazetted to 
British Guiana, but never took up the ap- 
pointment, proceeding instead on 11 Aug. 
1848, as governor, to Barbados, where he 
also administered the Windward Islands. 
This administration was marked, like pre- 
vious ones, by special interest in the sup- 
pression of crime and the improvement of the 
prisons. He also suggested a federation of all 
the Windward Islands, thus anticipating 
much later proposals. In 1854 the with- 
drawal of imperial troops from the smaller 
islands caused some apprehension, but the 
peace of the islands was not really disturbed. 
He seems to have left a very good impression 
on the people of Barbados. He became 
major-general on the retired list on 20 June 
1854. In January 1856 he relinquished his 
government and returned to England. He 
was promoted lieutenant-general on 16 Jan. 
1859, and he was colonel commanding the 
royal artillery from 25 Sept. 1859 till his 
death. He resided at Salt Hill, near Slough, 
Buckinghamshire, where he died on 6 Feb. 
1870. He had become K.H. in 1834, K.B. 
in 1837, and received C.B. (civil) in 1848. 

Colebrooke married, in 1820, Emma Sophia, 
daughter of Lieutenant-colonel Robert Cole- 
brooke {d. 1808), surveyor-general of Ben- 
gal; she died in 1851. 

[Colonial Office List, 1864; Boase's Modern 
English Biogr.; Times, 10 Feb. 1870 ; records of 
Colonial Office, among which is a statement in 
his own writing giving the earlier dates of his 
career.] C. A. H. 

COLERIDGE, HENRY JAMES, B.D. 
(1822-1893), born on 20 Sept. 1822, was 
second son of Sir John Taylor Coleridge [q. v.] 
He was thus a grand-nephew of the poet 
and younger brother of John Duke Cole- 
ridge, Baron Coleridge [q. v. Suppl.] From 
Eton he proceeded to Trinity College, Oxford, 
where he matriculated on 16 June 1840. 
Soon after taking his B.A. degree in 1845 
he was elected a fellow of Oriel College. 
He graduated M.A. in 1847, and after taking 
Anglican orders he held for a short time a 
cure at Ottery St. Mary, Devonshire, a 
village which for nearly two centuries has 
been associated with his family. He was 
received into the Roman catholic church in 
1852 and soon afterwards went to Rome to 
pursue his theological studies in the Collegio 
Romano (Browne, Annals of the Tractarian 
Movement, p. 262). He was ordained priest 
in 1855 and took about the same time his 
doctor's degree. He joined the Jesuit no- 
vitiate at 15eaumont Lodge, near Windsor, 
7 Sept. 1857, and on the expiration of his two 
years' probation he was sent to St. Beuno's 



College, Flintshire, where he wm engiged 
for six years in teaching holy scripture. 

About 1864 the 'Month* was started 
under the editorship of Miss Fanny Mar- 
garet Taylor, and in 1865 she sold it to the 
Jesuit fathers, who were anxious to poiseM 
a periodical of their own. This was the 
immediate occasion of Coleridge's removal 
from Wales to Farm Street, London, where 
he spent the remainder of his active life. 
He became editor of the ' Month,' and held 
that post till 1881, when he resicrned it in 
order to devote himself exclusively to his 
work on * The Life of our Lord ' and the 
bringing out of * The Quarterly Series.' In 
1891 he had a stroke of paralysis, and he 
died at Manresa House, Roehampton, on 
13 April 1893. His remains were interred 
in the family vault at Ottery St. Mary. 

He was the author of: 1. * Vita Vitae 
Nostrse Meditantibus Proposita,' London, 
1869, 8vo; translated into English under 
the title of ' The Story of the Gospels har- 
monised for Meditation,' London, 1884, 8vo. 
2. ' The Theology of the Parables . . . with 
an arrangement of the Parables ... by 
Father Salmeron,' London, 1871, 8vo. 3. 
' The Life and Letters of St. Francis Xavier,' 

2 vols. London, 1872, 8vo; new edit. 1881. 4. 
' The Life of our Lord,' including *The Life 
of our Life,' 2 vols.; 'The Public Life of 
our Lord,' 11 vols.; * Passiontide,' 3 vols.; 
and ' The Passage of our Lord to the Father,' 
London, 1872, &c., 8vo, in ' The Quarterly 
Series,' beginning with vol. xii. and ending 
with vol. Ixxviii. 5. * The Prisoners of 
the King : Thoughts on the Catholic Doc- 
trine 01 Purgatory,' London, 1878, 8vo ; 
reprinted 1882. 6. 'The Sermon on the 
Mount (part of a larger work ... on the Life 
of our Blessed Lord),' 3 vols. London, 1879, 
8vo. 7. ' The Life and Letters of St. Teresa,' 

3 vols. London, 1881-8, 8vo. 8. * The Life of 
Mother Frances Teresa Ball, Foundress in 
Ireland of the Institute of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary,' London, 1881, 8vo. 9. ' The Works 
and Words of our Saviour, gathered from 
the Four Gospels,' London, 1882, 8vo. 10. 
'The Return of the King: Discourses on 
the Latter Days,' London, 1883, 8vo. 11. 
' The Baptism of the King: Considerations 
on the Sacred Passion,' London, 1884, 4to. 

I 12. ' The Preparation of the Incarnation,* 

I London, 1885, 8vo. 13. ' The Mother of the 

King : Mary during the Life of our Lord/ 

i London, 1886, 8vo. 14. ' The Mother of the 

I Church : Mary during the First Apostolic 

Age,' London, 1887, 8vo. 15. 'Teachings 

and Counsels of St. Francis Xavier,' London, 

1888, 8vo. 16. 'Chapters on the Parables 

of our Lord,' London, 1889, 8vo. 



Coleridge 



44 



Coleridge 



[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; Month, 
May 1893, p. 1 ; Tablet, 22 April 1893, p. 624 ; 
Times, 17 April 1893; Weekly Kegister, 22 April 
1893, p. 499.] T. C. 

COLERIDGE, Sir JOHN DUKE, first 
Baron Coleridge (1820-1894), lord chief 
justice of England, was the eldest son of 
Sir John Taylor Coleridge [q. v.], by his 
wife Mary, the daughter of the Rev. Gilbert 
Buchanan, D.D., vicar of Nortbfleet and rec- 
tor of Woodmansterne. Henry James Cole- 
ridge [q.v. Suppl.] was his younger brotber. 
He was born at Heath Court, Ottery St. 
Mary, on 3 Dec. 1820. He was educated 
at Eton, where he was in the remove in 
1832, in the fifth form in 1835, and in the 
sixth in 1838 ; in that year he was elected a 
scholar of Balliol College, Oxford, matricu- 
lating on 29 Nov. 1838. As an undergra- 
duate he was the friend and contemporary 
of Arthur Clough, Matthew Arnold, Dean 
Church, Theodore Walrond, and Lord Lin- 
gen, all of whom were with him members 
of a small club for purposes of discussion 
called the * Decade.' Coleridge graduated 
B.A. in 1842 and M.A. in 1846; from 1843 
to 1846 he was fellow of Exeter, of which 
he was elected honorary fellow in 1882, 

On 27 Jan. 1843 Coleridge was admitted 
student of the Middle Temple, and on 6 Nov. 
1846 he was called to the bar and joined 
the western circuit. Follett, at that time a 
leader of the circuit, was his friend and ad- 
viser ; Karslake (afterwards Sir John) was 
his contemporary, professional rival, and 
warm friend. His scholarly eloquence soon 
obtained him practice. In 1855 he was ap- 
pointed recorder of Portsmouth, and in 1861 
he was made a queen's counsel and a bencher 
of his inn. During his early years at the 
bar he contributed to the ' Guardian ' and 
the * Quarterly ' and * Edinburgh ' Reviews. 
At the general election of 1865 he was 
elected M.P. for Exeter, as a liberal, and sat 
for that city until his appointment as chief 
justice of the common pleas in 1873. As 
a private member he took an active part in 
the successful movement for the abolition of 
religious tests in the universities, and con- 
sistently supported the proposal to dis- 
establish the Irish church. He was selected 
by Gladstone, then leader of the opposition 
in the House of Commons, to move the in- 
struction as to rating which so materially 
modified Disraeli's reform bill of 1867. Upon 
the liberals coming into office in 1868 Cole- 
ridge was appointed solicitor-general and 
knighted (12 Dec), and in 1871 he succeeded 
Sir Robert Porrett Collier (afterwards Lord 
Monkswell) [(j. v.] as attorney-general. Be- 
ing an exceedmgly persuasive and success- 



ful advocate he was much employed during 
this period in the sort of actions at nisi 
pnus which attract most public attention. 
His professional reputation was thoroughly 
established in London by his conduct of the 
plaintiflfs case in Saurin v. Starr. This was 
an action for conspiracy and false imprison- 
ment brought against the lady superior of 
a convent of sisters of mercy at Hull, at 
whose hands the plaintifi" alleged that she 
had, while one of the inmates, sufiered 
many grievances. Coleridge obtained a sub- 
stantial verdict after a trial which was then 
almost if not quite unprecedented in its 
duration. 

It was, however, entirely eclipsed in this 
respect by the famous 'Tichborne case' which 
followed a year or two later, in 1871-2. In 
the action of ejectment, tried in the court 
of common pleas before Chief-justice Bovill, 
Coleridge led for the defendants, his juniors 
being Messrs. Hawkins (now Lord Bramp- 
ton), Honyman (afterwards Mr. Justice 
Honyman), C. Barber, and Charles (after- 
wards Lord) Bowen. His cross-examina- 
tion of the 'claimant' [see Orton, Arthur, 
Suppl.] lasted three weeks, and though it 
was considered lacking in startling or excit- 
ing episodes, entirely destroyed in the minds 
of all reasonable persons who followed it any 
possibility of belief in the plaintiti^s assertion 
that he was Roger Tichborne. His speech 
in opening the case for the defendants occu- 
pied twenty-three days, and never fell from 
a high level of forensic eloquence. The trial 
was stopped by the jury in the summer of 
1873, and in November of that year. Chief- 
justice Bovill having died — his life being 
supposed to have been shortened by the 
duration and anxiety of this case — Coleridge 
was appointed his successor. On 10 Jan. 
1874 he was, during his father's lifetime, 
created Baron Coleridge of Ottery St. Mary, 
CO. Devon; he was elected F.R.S. in Wfo,/^'' 
and created D.C.L. of Oxford University on 
13 June 1877. 

Coleridge retained the office of chief jus- 
tice of the common pleas for seven years, 
and was the last person w^ho ever held it. 
In 1880, on the death of Lord-chief-justice 
Cockburn, Coleridge was appointed chief 
justice of the queen's bench, and the offices 
of chief justice of the common pleas and 
chief baron of the exchequer (vacant by the 
death of Chief-baron Kelly) were abolished 
under the Judicature Acts. Coleridge and 
his successors seem to be indubitably en- 
titled to the style of chief justice of Eng- 
land, which may previously have been an 
inaccurate mode of describing the chief jus- 
tices of the king's (or queen's) bench, though 



Coleridge 



45 



Colling 



it had been commonly used by them since 
Sir Edward Coke, chief justice, * took par- 
ticular delight' in so styling himself (Camp- 
bell, Lives of the. Chief Justices, i. 320). 
Coleridge presided in the queen's bench divi- 
sion for fourteen years, and died at his house, 
1 Sussex Square, W., on 14 June 1894 ; he 
was buried at Ottery St. Mary on the 22nd. 

Among the more famous trials with which 
he was connected as a judge were the Fran- 
conia case, in which his opinion as to terri- 
torial jurisdiction at sea within three miles 
of the coast subsequently obtained legislative 
ratification ; the case of the Mogul Steam- 
ship Company, which deals with the right 
of combination among traders ; Regina v. 
Foote, in which he held that the temperate 
expression of atheistic opinions, if it had been 
(as some authorities held) a crime, had ceased 
to be so ; Regina v. Dudley and Stephens, 
the only case in which a sentence of death 
has been passed in the royal courts of jus- 
tice ; and Bradlaugh v. Newdegate, * the 
most recent authority upon the law of main- 
tenance. 

Coleridge was tall and handsome in fea- 
ture, and had an extremely beautiful voice. 
His language was refined and forcible, and 
no one could, on occasion, produce a greater 
sense of solemnity with less effort. His 
nature was receptive and sympathetic to an 
unusual degree. It was almost impossible 
to him not to agree largely with the person 
to whom he happened to be talking, and 
many persons who knew him slightly were 
inclined to attribute to him an insincerity 
which was probably entirely foreign to his 
real nature. He had a marvellous store of 
anecdotes, which he related with great skill. 
An American who stayed with him as his 
guest is asserted to have ascertained that he 
told two hundred different anecdotes in the 
course of three rainy days, for the amuse- 
ment of an ambassador who was confined 
to the house by a cold, and that none of 
them were tiresome. His kindness of heart 
and great sensitiveness made him a pas- 
sionate opponent of vivisection for experi- 
mental purposes. He had a great love and 
wide knowledge of English literature, espe- 
cially of the poetry and drama of the Eliza- 
bethan, and collected a valuable library, in 
which Elizabethan literature was well repre- 
sented. Portraits of him were painted by 
E. U. Eddis and E. Matthew Hale, and an 
admirable sketch of him was drawn by the 
first Lady Coleridge for Grillon's Club. 

Coleridge married, on 11 Aug. 1846, at 
Freshwater, .Jane Fortescue, third daughter 
of the Rev. George Turner Seymour of Far- 
ringford Hill in that parish, and by her he 



had four children— Bernard (now Lord Cole- 
ridge), Stephen, Gilbert, and Mildr»;d, who 
married Charles Warren Adams, esq. Lodj 
Coleridge, who was an accomplished painter, 
died on 6 Feb. 1878, and Coleridge married, 
secondly, on 13 Aug. 1885, Amy, daughter of 
Henry JJaring Lawford, who survives him. 

Coleridge published in 1870 an inaugural 
address to the members of the Edinburgh 
Philosophical Institution, and in 1887 an 
address to the Glasgow Juridical Society. 

[Private information and personal recollec- 
tions; Foster's Alumni Oxen. 1715-1886; StA- 
pylton's Eton School Lists ; Foster's Men at the 
Bar; Burke's Peerage; G. E. Cfokaynej's Com- 
plete Peerage, ii. 331, viii. 350.] H. S-k. 

COLLING, CHARLES (1751-1836), 
stockbreeder, was one of the earliest and 
most successful improvers of the breed of 
shorthorn cattle. Bom in 1751, he was the 
second son of Charles Colling (1721-1785) 
by Dorothy Robson {d. 1779), and succeeded 
his father in the occupancy of a farm at 
Ketton, near Darlington, in 1782, shortly 
after a visit he paid to the well-known 
breeder, Robert Bakewell (1725-1795) [q. v.] 
'It is generally supposed that the great lesson 
that Charles Colling learnt during the three 
weeks he spent at Dishley was the expe- 
diency of concentrating good blood by a 
system of in-and-in breeding. . . . What he 
really learnt at Dishley was the all-import- 
ance of " quality" in cattle, and he resolved 
to devote himself to the preservation and 
amelioration of the local cattle on the Tees 
and Skerne ' (Bates, pp. 5-6). 

On 23 July 1783 he married Mary Col- 
pitts {b. 2 Feb. 1763 ; d. 25 April 1850), who 
was almost equally interested with himself 
in his breeding of improved shorthorns, and 
helped him greatly in his work. The first 
bull of merit he possessed was bought from his 
elder brother Robert [q. v. Suppl.] and was 
subsequently known (after its sale by Charles) 
as 'Hubback.* This bull had been mated 
whilst at Ketton with cows — afterwards 
famous — called Duchess, Daisy, Cherry, and 
Lady Maynard. One of Hubback's daugh- 
ters produced in 1795, by another celebrated 
bull called Favourite, a roan calf, which 
grew to be the famous Durham ox. 

At five and a half years of age this animal 
! had attained the weight of 3,024 lbs., and 
i was sold as a show animal for 140/. After 
1 five months' exhibition, its then owner re- 
fused 2,000/. for it, and for six years 
afterwards perambulated the country with 
it. A portrait of the ox, painted by J. 
Boultbee and engraved by J. Whessell, 
was published in March 1802, and dedicated 



Colling 



46 



Collins 



to John Southey, fifteenth Lord Somerville 
[q. v.] At ten years old the ox scaled 
about 3,800 lbs., but, dislocating its hip- 
bone, was killed at Oxford in April 1807. 
A still more famous animal was Comet, 
born in the autumn of 1804, which ' Charles 
Colling declared to be the best bull he ever 
bred or saw, and nearly every judge of short- 
horns agreed with him ' (Bates, p. 16). A 
portrait of Comet, by T. Weaver, is in 
possession of Mr. Anthony Maynard of 
Harewood Grove, Darlington. Others belong 
to Mr. John Thornton of 7 Princes Street, 
Hanover Square, W., and Mr. H. Chandos- 
Pole-Gell, Hopton Hall, Derbyshire. 

On 11 Oct. 1810 Colling sold off his en- 
tire herd at a public auction, which was 
very largely attended. The prices fetched 
by each animal are quoted in many works 
on the subject (e.g. Youatt, Cattle (1834), 
p. 231 ; David Low, Breeds of Domestic 
Animals (1842), i. 51). Comet sold for one 
thousand guineas, and the forty-seven lots 
went in all for 7,116/. I85., or an average of 
151/. 8?. 56/. A testimonial was presented 
to Colling by forty-nine subscribers in the 
shape of a silver-gilt cup inscribed, * Pre- 
sented to Mr. Charles Colling, the great im- 
prover of the short-horned breed of cattle, 
by the breeders whose names are annexed, as 
a token of gratitude for the benefit they 
have derived from his judgment, and also as 
a testimony of their esteem for him as a 
man. mdcccx.' His brother Robert died ten 
years later, in 1820, but Charles lived on in 
retirement until 16 Jan. 1836, when he 
died in his eighty-sixth year. 

A picture of the two brothers by Thomas 
Weaver, probably painted about 1811, was 
engraved by William Ward, A.R.A., and 
published in 1825, and again in 1831. A 
reproduction of part of the engraving appears 
as the frontispiece of the ' Journal of the 
Royal Agricultural Society ' for 1899. An 
engraving of Charles Colling by G. Cook, 
from a portrait by I. M. Wright, is in the 
* Farmers' Magazine ' for February 1844. 

[The most elaborate biographical sketch of 
the brothers Colling is by Cadwallader J. Bates 
in the Journal of the Royal Agricultural So- 
ciety, 1899, pp. 1-30. See also the same 
■writer's Thomas Bates and the Kirklevington 
Shorthorns (1897); T. Bell's Hist, of Improved 
Shorthorn Cattle (1871); John Thornton's 
Shorthorn Circular, 1868-9, vol. i. The 
brothers Colling are constantly referred to in 
works on stockbreeding as the great improvers 
of the Shorthorn breed of cattle.] E. C-e. 

COLLING, ROBERT (1749 - 1820), 
stockbreeder, born in 1749, was the eldest son 
of Charles Colling of Ketton, near Darling- 



ton, and brother of Charles Colling [q. v. 
Suppl.] After receiving ' an ordinary edu- 
cation,' he was apprenticed to a grocer in 
Shields; but 'not having his health' he 
came home to his father's farm and com- 
menced an agricultural career. After spend- 
ing some time at Hurworth, he entered on 
a farm at Barmpton, under the Lambton 
family. He had then ' no thought of be- 
coming a breeder of shorthorns, and only 
kept dairy cows.' The foundation of his 
pedigree herd was a yellow-red and white 
bull, originally bought on the advice of his 
brother Charles for eight guineas, and after- 
wards sold to his brother for the Ketton 
herd (known in shorthorn history as ' Hub- 
back '). A * shyness ' sprang up between the 
brothers, which became accentuated in March 
1793 ; and the Barmpton and Ketton herds 
for some time lived apart, though later more 
amicable relations were restored. When, 
in October 1810, Charles Colling sold oft' his 
Ketton herd of shorthorns, Robert's herd at 
Barmpton ' became the centre of interest' to 
the breeders of shorthorns, which had then 
become fashionable. A famous white heifer 
(daughter of the bull Favourite), which 
weighed at four years old 1,820 lbs., was 
painted by Thomas Weaver, and an engrav- 
ing of the picture was made by William 
Ward, and published on 13 Dec. 1811, with 
a dedication to Robert Colling. The heifer 
was purchased by two butchers, and ex- 
hibited at Christmas 1811, at the stables of 
the Three Kings, Piccadilly, as * the greatest 
wonder of the world of the kind,' and then 
weighed 2,448 lbs. * The same system of in- 
and-in breeding that had been in vogue at 
Ketton was pursued without interruption at 
Barmpton, and that without any admixture 
of fresh alloy' (Bates, p. 22). Robert 
carried on his herd until Michaelmas day, 
1810, when it was sold by auction, and sixty- 
one lots fetched 7,852/. 195. He died unmarried 
at Barmpton on 7 March 1820, leaving his 
property to his brother Charles, a final sale 
being held on 3 Oct. 1820. 

Robert was described as *a model all- 
round farmer — good cattle, good sheep, good 
crops, neat hedges, neat farm-buildings,' but, 
not being so much of a specialist, was less 
known than his more businesslike and ver- 
satile brother Charles. 

[Authorities as under Charles Colling.] 

E. C-E. 

COLLINS, WILLIAM WILKIE(1824- 

1889), novelist, eldest son of the painter, 
William Collins (1788-1847) [q. v.], and 
elder brother of Charles Allston Collins 
[q.v.], born in Tavistock Square, London, 



Collins 



47 



Collins 



on 8 Jan. 1824, was named after his father's 
intimate friend and brother academician, Sir 
David Wilkie. IIo always called himself 
and was addressed by his friends as Wilkie, 
the William beinjr allowed to fall into abey- 
ance. After private education at Highbury, 
he spent two or three years with his parents 
in Italy, and in 1841 was articled by his 
father to the London firm of Antrobus &Co., 
who were engaged in the tea trade. While 
thus employed, and while under the in- 
fluence of a strong boyish admiration for 
Bulwer Lytton, he clandestinely produced 
a novel in which he utilised with great 
cleverness all the local information he had 
acquired at Rome. His father was so 
pleased with the novel (published some years 
later as 'Antonina') that he emancipated 
him from the tea warehouse, and caused 
his name to be entered at Lincoln's Inn 
(18 May 1846), whence he was called to the 
bar on 21 Nov. 1851. In the meantime his 
father died (in 1847), and Wilkie first ap- 
peared in print as his biographer. His 
rambling and diffuse, but on the whole very 
creditable, performance appeared in two 
volumes in 1848. Extremely clever and 
versatile, he at first cherished the idea of 
supporting himself and his mother by fol- 
lowing in his father's footsteps, and he ex- 
hibited a landscape at the Royal Academy 
in 1849, At the same time he prepared for 
press his novel 'Antonina,' which was ac- 
corded an encouraging reception upon its 
appearance in 1850, and in 1851, as the fruit 
of a summer vacation in the neighbourhood 
of Penzance, he published his 'Rambles 
beyond Railways.' He only preceded the 
Cornish railway by one year, but the book 
was a success, and went through several edi- 
tions. In this same year Wilkie Collins 
first met Charles Dickens, and from this 
time may be dated his vocation to letters 
as a profession. CoUins's conception of the 
novel as written drama (by preference melo- 
drama) harmonised exactly with that of 
Dickens, and the two novelists, unequal as 
they were both in genius and reputation, 
became almost at once firm friends and active 
correspondents. The letters of Dickens (which 
alone are preserved) are among the most 
interesting that w^e possess from his pen, and 
the constant inquiries as to the state of his 
friend's health indicate very clearly the phy- 
sical weakness that Collins had to contend 
with even thus early in his career. In 
September 1852 Collins took part in the 
theatricals organised by Dickens at his resi- 
dence, Tavistock House, and for performance 
there he wrote in 1855 *The Lighthouse.' 
Dickens formed a very high opinion of his 



friend's novel, * Hide and Seek/ produced in 
1854. In 1855 Collins bejifan contributing 
to Dickens's periodical ' Household Wordj? 
with * Sister Rose,' a storv in four parts. He 
contributed again to the ' ilolly Tree' Christ- 
mas number of 1855, and he 'spent the fol- 
lowing winter with Dickens at Paris, and 
planned the ' Wreck of the Golden Mary* 
and ' Frozen Deep.' Both ' After Dark * and 
*The Dead Secret' appeared serially in 
' Household Words.' During the latter part 
of 1857 he further collaborated with Dickens 
in ' The Lazy Tour of Two Idle Apprentices,' 
and 'The Perils of certain English Prisoners' 
(for which Collins wrote chap, ii.) In 1859 
he contributed the ' Queen of Hearts' to 'All 
the Year Round,' with which ' Household 
Words' was by this time incorporated, and 
in the same periodical appeared during 1860 
his first great popular success, ' The Woman 
in White.' Excelling in every trick that a 
novelist has at his disposal, he proved a 
splendid serial writer, and all his best works, 
after the ' Woman in White,' such as ' No 
Name,' 'Armadale,' 'The Moonstone,' and 
' The New Magdalen,' were produced in this 
fashion — ' Armadale ' and the ' New Mag- 
dalen' in the 'Comhill'and 'Temple Bar' 
respectively, the other three (comprising his 
most brilliant work) in 'All the Year Round.' 
In 1867 Collins joined Dickens in writing 
' No Thoroughfare.' During 1873-4 he fol- 
lowed Dickens's example in visiting the 
United States and giving public readings — 
his short story, ' The Frozen Deep,' being 
generally selected for this purpose. Subse- 
quently his play, ' Rank and Riches,' which 
had proved a failure at the Adelphi (June 
1883), had a long and most successful career 
in America. After his return from America 
he became more and more of a recluse, 
though he occasionally visited Ramsgate 
during the summer. Intimacies formed as a 
young man led to his being harassed, after 
he became famous, in a manner which proved 
very prejudicial to his peace of mind. Though 
a genial host, he easily adopted a somewhat 
cynical and pessimistic tone in conversation. 
He was very critical of the official * Life' of 
Charles Dickens, which he called 'The Life 
of John Forster, with occasional Anecdotes 
of Charles Dickens.' His own copy was 
covered with annotations and corrections. 
The last years of his life witnessed the 
gradual decline of his powers, due in lai^ 
measure to ill-health, to relieve which he 
had recourse to large and always increasing 
doses of opium. At the time of his being 
called to the bar he was residing at Gloucester 
Place, whence he removed to Hanover Place 
(where Edward Pigott, Millais, and Holman 



Collins 



Collins 



Hunt formed members of his circle, over 
which his mother still presided), and subse- 
quently to Harley Street. He died at 
82 Wimpole Street on 23 Sept. 1889, and 
was buried five days later in Kensal Green 
cemetery. A portrait of Wilkie Collins as 
a boy with his brother C. A. Collins was 
painted by A. Geddes. Another, painted in 
later life, by Kudolf Lehmann, belongs to 
Mr. R. C. Lehmann {Cat. Victorian Exhib. 
Nos. 258, 265). 

The influence of Dickens is very clearly 
traceable in CoUins's work, yet there is 
reason to believe that Collins had nearly as 
much influence upon the latest works of the 
greater writer as Dickens had upon him. 
Dickens longed to shine as an elaborator of 
plots, while Collins, the past master of the 
plot, aspired to be a delineator of character 
and to produce didactic fiction and re- 
formatory romance after the Dickensian 
model. He succeeded in evolving some good 
characters in * No Name ' and ' Armadale,' 
but his best figures are semi-burlesque, such 
as John Betteridge and Captain Wragge, 
and even, to a certain extent. Count Fosco. 
In his anxiety to individualise them he made 
them too much like ' character parts.' The 
actors having been brought on the stage, 
a well-defined object is set before the per- 
formers, the discovery of a secret or a crime, 
the recovery of a fortune, or the vindication 
of a doubtful marriage certificate, counter- 
plotters are introduced and obstacles accu- 
mulated ; but eventually, after a display of 
the utmost ingenuity, the object is attained. 
In order to give * actuality ' to the story, the 
latter is often conducted by means of ex- 
tracts from diaries, personal narratives, and 
excerpts from documents, of which the 
author poses as editor. In the course of 
these operations the author has the gift, as 
Mr. Swinburne justly observes, of ' exciting 
a curiosity, which in the case of the younger 
and more impressible readers amounts to 
anxiety.' If Coleridge had known * The 
Moonstone,' he might well have given it a 

Slace beside 'The Alchemist' and 'Torn 
ones' for ingenuity of plot. * The con- 
struction is most minute and most wonder- 
ful,' wrote Anthony Trollope of his fellow 
novelist, * but I can never lose the taste of 
the construction. The author seems always 
warning me to remember that something 
happened at exactly half-past two o'clock 
on Tuesday morning, or that a woman dis- 
appeared from the road just fifteen yards 
beyond the fourth milestone ' {Autohiogr. 
ii. 82). Among the 'breathless admirers' 
of 'The Woman in White' was Edward 
Fitzgerald, who thought of calling his her- 



ring-lugger the Marian Halcombe. Wilkie 
Collins's style is unornamented, but well 
adapted to keep the reader's mind clear 
amid the complications of the story. He 
corrected and rewrote extensively, and 
most of his manuscript was very heavily 
scored. 

The following is a list of Collins's most 
important publications: 1. ' Memoirs of the 
Life of William Collins, R.A. By his Son,' 
London, 1848, 2 vols. 12mo. 2. ' Antonina, 
or the Fall of Rome. A Romance of the 
Fifth Century,' 1850, 8vo. 3. 'Basil: a 
Story of Modern Life,' 1852, 8vo. 4. ' Hide 
and Seek : ' a story of deafness and dumb- 
ness, 1854 (French version, ' Cache-Cache,' 
1877). 5. 'After Dark' (short stories), 
1856. 6. ' The Dead Secret : ' a sensational 
story, embodying a study of blindness, 
1857 (French version as ' Le Secret,' 1858). 

7. ' The Queen of Hearts : a Collection of 
Stories with a connecting Link,' 1860. (It 
was dedicated to E. Daurand Forgues, who 
inscribed his ' Originaux . . . de I'Angleterre 
Contemporaine' to Collins in the same year.) 

8. ' The Woman in White,' 1860 (dedicated 
to Barry Cornwall ; seven editions appeared 
within six months, and several translations). 

9. 'No Name,' 1862 (numerous editions). 

10. 'My Miscellanies,' 1863, 2 vols. 8vo. 
(vol. ii. contains an interesting sketch of an 
old friend, Douglas Jerrold). 11. 'Arma- 
dale,' 1866 : a study of heredity, containing 
the character portrait of Lydia Gwilt. 
12. 'The Moonstone: a Romance,' 1868 
(' La Pierre de Lune,' 1872). 13. ' Man and 
Wife,' 1870 : an attack on the brutalising 
effect of an undue devotion to athletics 
(' Mari et Femme,' 1872). 14. ' Poor Miss 
Finch,' 1872 (' Pauvre Lucile ! ' 1876). 15. 
' The New Magdalen,' 1873 (numerous edi- 
tions ; in French, ' La Morte Vivante,' 1873). 
16. 'The Frozen Deep' and other stories 
(first issued in America), 1874 ('La Mer 
Glaciale,' 1877). 17. 'The Law and the 
Lady,' 1876 ; aimed against the Scottish ver- 
dict of ' not proven ' (' La Piste du Crime,' 
1875). 18. 'The Two Destinies,' 1876: a 
telepathic story, very ingeniously written, 
and the best of his later works. 19. ' The 
Haunted Hotel' (a mystery of modern 
Venice), 1878. 20. 'The Fallen Leaves,' 
1879. 21. ' Jezebel's Daughter,' 1880. 22. 
'The Black Robe,' 1881. 23. 'Heart and 
Science,' 1883. 24. 'I sav No,' 1884. 25.'The 
Evil Genius,' 1886. 26. 'The Legacy of 
Cain,' 1888. 27. 'Blind Love' (this was 
running through the ' Illustrated London 
News' at the time of the novelist's death). 
Nearly all the above were included in the 
Tauchnitz 'Collection of British Authors,' 



Colomb 



49 



Colomb 



and the majority were translated into one 
or more European languages. 

Among Collins's plays the chief were : 

* The Frozen Deep' (privately printed 1806), 
first performed at Tavistock J louse in 1857, 
and then at the Gallery of Illustration and 
elsewhere for the benefit of Douglas Jerrold's 
family. Collins also dramatised four of his 
works, viz. * Armadale : a Drama,' 1866, sub- 
sequently dramatised anew as ' Miss Gwilt,' 
1875; *No Name' (1870; this had been dra- 
matised by W. B. Bernard in 1863) ; ' The 
Woman in White: a Drama,* 1871; and 

* The New Magdalen ' (published by the 
author in 1873, and also the subject of 
several piratical versions and translations). 
The last was the most successful of the 
author's plays. 

[Illustrated London News, 28 Sept. 1889 (por- 
trait) ; Times. 24 and 28 Sept. 1889 ; Spectator, 
28 Sept. 1889; World, 25 Sept. 1889; Athe- 
naeum, 1889, ii. 418 ; Biograph, 1879, i. 5 ; Charles 
Dickens's Letters; Forster's Life of Dickens; 
Celebrities of the Century; Graves's Diet, of 
Artists ; Swinburne's Studies in Prose and 
Poetry; Foster's Men at the Bar ; Temple Bar, 
Ixxxix. and cii. ; Universal Review, October 1 889. 
See also interesting critical notices from different 
points of view by Messrs. A. Lan^ and H. Qui Iter, 
Contemp. Review, liii. and Ivii.] T. S. 

COLOMB, PHILIP 110 WARD (1831- 

1899), vice-admiral, third son of General 
George Colomb and of Mary, daughter of 
Sir Abraham Bradley King, bart., twice 
lord mayor of Dublin, was born on 29 May 
1831. He entered the navy in February 
1846 on board the Tartarus on the Irish 
station ; and from November 1846 to March 
1849 was in the steam frigate Sidon in the 
Mediterranean. He was then appointed to 
the Reynard on the China station, and was 
still in her when she was wrecked on the 
Plata shoal in 1851. He remained on the 
station as a supernumerary in various ships, 
till in September he was appointed to the 
Serpent, in which, from November till May 
1852, he was engaged in the Burmese war 
and was present at the capture of Rangoon. 
He passed his examination in seamanship 
in May 1852, and continued in the Serpent 
as acting mate and acting lieutenant till she 
was paid off in January 1854. In March he 
joined the Phoenix for a voyage to Smith 
Sound under the command of Captain (after- 
wards Admiral) Sir Edward Augustus Ingle- 
field [q. V. Suppl.] On his return to England 
m October he was appointed to the Ajax 
guardship, and on 3 Feb. 1855 was promoted 
to be lieutenant of the Hastings, going up 
the Baltic under the command of (Sir) 
James Crawford Caffin [q. v.l In May 1866 

VOL. II.— SUP. ^ 



he was appointed to the Excellent for the 
gunnery course, and, having pftssed out in 
November 1857, was in December appointed 
flag-lieutenant to Rear-admiral Sir Thomaii 
Sabine Pasley [q. v.], then admiral superin- 
tendent at Devonnort,and later on to Pasley's 
successor, (Sir) Thomas Matthew Charles 
Symonds [q. v.] 

These appointments, commonplace as they 
usually were, proved the turning point of 
Colomb's career. They brought him into a 
more direct relation with the current system 
of signals, and the subject grew on him. 
In 1858 he was ordered by the admiralty to 
examine and report on a system of day sig- 
nals which they had bought. On his showing 
that it was unsuitable for the sea service, he 
was asked to turn his attention to night sig- 
nals, which were still made in the primitive 
manner devised in the seventeenth century. 
Colomb had already studied this problem, 
but without success ; he now resumed his 
experiments, and after many months' work 
devised a system still in use in the navy, and 
rightly known as ' Colomb's Flashing Signals.' 
It was, in fact, an application of the tele- 
graphic system known as Morse's, in which 
the movements of the needle were replaced 
by long and short flashes from a lamp by 
night, or blasts from the fog horn or steam 
whistle in fog. The novelty of this has been 
disputed, and it seems not impossible that 
the method had been more or less vaguely 
suggested before ; but no evidence of any 
previous practical adaptation of it has ever 
been produced. At the time it was certainly 
regarded as absolutely new ; and it was only 
after much opposition and many unfavour- 
able reports that Colomb was at last attached 
to the Edgar, the flagship of the channel 
squadron, in which the admiral, (Sir) Sidney 
Colpoys Dacres [q. v.], was instructed to re- 
port on an exhaustive series of experiments. 
Colomb joined the ship on 16 July and was 
allowed a quarter of an hour to instruct a few 
signalmen. The same night Dacres, by an 
impromptu and unexpected question put by 
the signal apparatus, which was at once 
understood and answered, convinced him- 
self of the value of the invention, and par- 
tially adopted it from that day. I3efore the 
end of the year Dacres and all the captains 
of the Channel fleet sent in reports calling 
for the immediate adoption of the system. 
The apparatus was therefore supplied to 
every ship of the Channel fleet and to many 
in the Mediterranean, and was fully adopted 
in the navy on 12 Feb. 1867. It is this 
system that is still in use, though in the 
course of years some changes in detail have 
been made. 



Colomb 



50 



Colquhoun 



On 12 Dec. 1863 Colomb was promoted 
to the rank of commander, but continued 
attached nominally to the Edgar or the 
Victory, for the perfecting of his system of 
signalling. In 1867 he was for some time 
lent to the royal engineers, to improve the 
system of military signalling, and in July 
1868 commissioned the Dryad for the East 
India station. Of his experiences in that 
command he wrote an interesting account 
under the title of ' Slave Catching in the 
Indian Ocean ' (1873, 8vo). On 4 April 1870 
he was advanced to post rank, and for the 
greater part of the next four years was em- 
ployed at the admiralty preparing the 
* Manual of Fleet Evolutions,' officially 
issued in 1874. For the next three years, 
1874-7, he commanded the Audacious on the 
China station, as flag captain to Vice-admiral 
(Sir) Alfred Phillipps Ryder [q. v.] ; in 1880 
he commanded the Thunderer in the 
Mediterranean, and from 1881 to 1884 was 
captain of the steam-reserve at Portsmouth, 
from which in September 1884 he was ap- 
pointed to the Duke of AVellington as flag 
captain to Sir Geoffrey Thomas Phipps 
Hornby [q. v. Suppl.] This was his last 
active service. On 20 May 1886 he was re- 
tired for age, being still nearly a year from 
the top of the captains' list. He became a 
rear-admiral on 6 April 1887, and vice- 
admiral on 1 Aug, 1892. He settled down 
at Botley in Hampshire, and there he died 
suddenly, of an aff*ection of the heart, on 
13 Oct. 1899. He married in 1857 Ellen 
Bourne, daughter of Captain Hook, who 
survives him, and left issue, besides two 
daughters, six sons, of whom five are in the 
public service. A good lithograph portrait 
has been published since his death. 

Always a man of strong literary instincts, 
in his retirement he devoted himself more 
and more to the study of history as a key 
to the many problems of naval policy and 
strategy which are continually arising. The 
science of naval evolutions he had, theoreti- 
cally, a complete mastery of, though hard 
fate prevented him from combining practice 
with his theory, and thus his views did not 
always, among naval men, meet with that 
ready acceptance which many believed they 
were entitled to. An untiring correspondent 
of the ' Times,' he had an opinion to express 
on every naval subject of the day ; at the 
meetings at the Royal United Service In- 
stitution he was a regular attendant and a 
frequent speaker as well as the contributor 
of several important papers, some of which 
were published in a small volume under the 
title of ' Essays on Naval Defence ' (1893, cr. 
Svo). He was also the author of ' Naval 



Warfare : its ruling principle and practice 
historically treated ' (1891, roy. 8vo), a work 
whose very great merit is somewhat obscured 
by what many would think its needless 
length ; and a ' Memoir of Sir Astley Cooper 
Key' (1898, Svo), which, as a professional 
biography, is among the very best. For the 
last two or three years he had been working 
at a memoir of Arthur Herbert, earl of Tor- 
rington [q. v.], whose character and whose 
conduct of the battle of Beachy Head he con- 
sidered to have been grossly misrepresented 
by our most popular historians. He was 
also the author of numerous pamphlets on 
naval matters. 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biogr. Diet. 2nd edit. ; Times, 
16 Oct. 1899 ; United Service Mag. November 
and December 1899, N.S. xx, 214, 305; Colomb 
and Bolton's The System of flashing Signals 
adopted in her Majesty's Army and Navy ; En- 
cyclopaedia Brit. 9th edit. s.n. ' Signals; ' Navy 
Lists ; personal knowledge ; private informa- 
tion.] J. K. L. 

COLQUHOUN, SiK PATRICK MAC- 
CHOMBAICH (1815-1891), diplomatist, 
author, and oarsman, born on 13 April 
1815, was the eldest son of the Chevalier 
James Colquhoun, and great-grandson of 
Patrick Colquhoun [q. v.] His father was 
charg6 d'affaires of the king of Saxony, the 
duke of Oldenburg, and of the Hanseatic 
republics, Lubeck, Bremen, and Hamburg ; 
he was also political agent for many of the 
West Indian islands, a knight of the Otto- 
man empire, and commander of the Saxon 
order of merit. Patrick entered Westmin- 
ster School on 25 May 1826, left in August 
1832, and was admitted pensioner of St. 
John's College, Cambridge, on 27 Feb. 1833. 
He graduated B.A. in 1837, M.A. in 1844, 
and LL.D. in 1851 ; he was also LL.D of 
Heidelberg (1838). On 1 May 1834 he was 
admitted student of the Inner Temple, and 
on 4 May 1838 he was called to the bar; he 
became Q.C. in 1868, bencher of his inn in 
1869, and treasurer in 1888. Through his 
father's connection with the Hanse towns, 
he was in 1840 appointed their plenipoten- 
tiary to conclude commercial treaties with 
Turkey, Persia, and Greece. These duties 
occupied him four years, and on his return to 
England in 1844 he joined the home circuit. 
In 1845 he was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society of Literature, during Hallam's presi- 
dency ; he was placed on the council in 
1846, was made librarian in 1852, vice- 
president in 1869, and president in succes- 
sion to the duke of Albany in 1886. During 
his residence in England he wrote his 'Sum- 
mary of the Roman Civil Law,' a substantial 
work in four large volumes (London, Svo, 



Colquhoun 



S' 



Congreve 



1849-64). In 1857 he was appointed aulic 
councillor to the kin^ of Saxony, and he was 
Rtandinp counsel to the Saxon legation until 
it was abolished by the war of 1866. 

In 18r)8 Sir Edward Biilwer Lytton, then 
colonial secretary, appointed Colquhoun a 
member of the supreme court of justice in 
the Ionian Islands, and in 1861 he became 
chief justice of the court, and was knighted. 
In the following year the high commissioner, 
Sir Henry Knight Storks [q.v.], dismissed 
two Ionian judges. Colquhoun took their 
part, and in 1864, after the cession of the 
islands to Greece, he bitterly attacked Storks 
in * The Dismissal of the Ionian Judges : a 
Letter to Sir H. Storks' (London, 8vo). 
Storks's action was, however, upheld by the 
colonial office. In 1875 Colquhoun pub- 
lished a treatise on * The Supreme Court of 
Judicature Acts' (London, 8vo), which 
reached a second edition in the same year. 
This was followed by ' llussian Despotism ' 
(London, 1877, 8vo), evoked by the Bul- 

farian atrocity agitation, and * A Concise 
listory of the Order of the Temple ' (Bed- 
ford, 1878, 8vo), which was dedicated to the 
Prince of Wales. In 1886 he was elected 
honorary fellow of St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge. He died at his chambers in King's 
Bench Walk, Temple, on 18 May 1891 ; his 
widow, Katherine, daughter of M. de St. Yi- 
talis, whom he married in 1843, survives him. 
Colquhoun was a man of remarkable lin- 
guistic attainments ; he spoke most of the 
tongues and many of the dialects of Europe, 
was a thorough classical scholar and a 
jurist. He received orders of merit from 
the sultan of Turkey, the kings of Greece 
and of Saxony, and the duke of Oldenburg. 
He was also, like his brother, the Chevalier 
James du Colquhoun {d. 1891), who founded 
the Cercle Nautique at Cannes {Times, 
2o March 1891), a noted oarsman. In 1837 
(WooDGATE, pp. 38, 296, or in 1835 accord- 
ing to his own account, Eagle, xi. 228) he 
won the Wingfield sculls, which made him 
amateur champion of England, and in the 
same year he founded the Colquhoun sculls 
for the benefit of the Lady Margaret Boat 
Club ; in 1842 the prize was thrown open to 
the university. In 1837 he also rowed at 
Henley in a race between St. John's College, 
Cambridge, and Queen's College, Oxford, 
the head boats of the respective universities, 
and for many years he was secretary of the 
Leander Boat Club. 

[The best account of Colquhoun is contained 
in the Eagle (St. John's College, Cambridge, 
Magazine), xvi. 567-72. See also Colquhoun's 
letter in the Eagle, xiv. 228 sqq. ; his works in 
Brit. Mu8. Libr.; Graduati Cantabr. 1800-1884: 



Times, 19 May 1891 ; FotWi PMragt.fte^aod 

Men at the Bar ; Barker and Stenning'ji Wettni. 
Sch. Reg. ; Woodgato'a Boating, pp. 38, 243, 
296 ; Men of the Time, 13th edit. ; infonnation 
from R. F. Scott, esq., St. John's College, Cam- 
l»ridge.] A. F. P. 

CONGREVE, RICHARD (1818-1899), 

Sositivist, third son of ThomaB Congreve, by 
alia his wife, was bom at Leamin^n 
Hastings, Warwickshire, on 4 Sept. 1818. 
He was educated under Dr. Arnold at Rugby, 
and at the university of Oxford, where he 
gained a scholarship at Wadham College, 
matriculated on 23 Feb. 1837, graduated 
B.A. (first class in literee humaniores) in 
1840, and proceeded M.A. in 1843. He 
came to Oxford a typical pupil of Arnold, 
high-minded, intensely earnest, and latitu- 
dinarian in his theological opinions. His 
success in the schools was naturally followed 
by election to a fellowship at his college, 
where, with a brief interval during which 
he taught a form at Rugby, he resided as 
tutor for the next ten years. His influence 
upon his pupils is said to have been singularly 
bracing, morally as well as intellectually. 

The turning-point in Congreve's life was 
a visit to Pans shortly after the revolution 
of 1848. He there met Barth61emy St.- 
Hilaire and Auguste Comte, and the influ- 
ence of the latter thinker proved decisive and 
enduring. On his return to Oxford he em- 
barked on a course of study which resulted 
in the adoption of the entire positivist sys- 
tem, including the religious cult. He in 
consequence resigned his fellowship (1865), 
left Oxford, and soon afterwards founded 
the positivist community in London. While 
preparing for his life-work as exponent of 
the new gospel he studied medicine, and in 
1866 was admitted M.R.C.P. In the early 
days of the movement he took the chief part 
in the establishment of the propaganda in 
Chapel Street, Lamb's Conduit Street, Lon- 
don, and for some years worked harmo- 
niously with Mr. Frederic Harrison and 
other leading positivists. In 1878, however, 
he issued a circular (17 June) in which he 
claimed for himself an authority independent 
of M. Pierre Lafitte, Comte's pnncipal execu- 
tor, and as such then universally acknow- 
ledged as the head of the positivist com- 
munity. Some positivists joined him : 
others, among whom were Mr. Frederic 
Harrison, Dr. Bridges, Professor Beesly, 
Mr. Vernon Lushington, and James Cotter 
Morison [q. v.], remained in union with 
M. Lafitte, and opened Newton Hall, Fetter 
Lane, London, as their place of meeting. 
Congreve used the freedom which this separa- 
tion allowed him to elaborate a higher form 

b2 



Coode 



53 



of rttaal. He continued, notwithstanding 
fiuling health and the increasingly adverse 
trend of English thought, zealous in the 
adrocftcv of his opinions, and punctilious in 
the discharge of his priestly functions until 
his death, at Hampstead, on 5 July 1899. 
He married in 1856 Mary, daughter of 
J. Berry of Warwick. 

Congreve published: 1. 'The Politics of 
Aristotle: with English Notes,' London, 
1866, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1874 (a thoughtful and 
scholarly performance). 2. 'The Roman 
Empire of the West : Four Lectures delivered 
tX the Philosophical Institution, Edinburgh,' 
London, 1866, 8vo. 3. ♦ Gibraltar ; or, the 
Foreign Policy of England,' London, 1857, 
Svo (a plea for the surrender of the Rock). 
4. * India,' London, 1867, 8vo (a plea for 
the abandonment of our eastern dominions). 
6. *The Catechism of the Positive Religion. 
Translated from the French of Auguste 
Comte,' London, 1868, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1883 ; 
8rd edit. 1891. 6. * Italy and the Western 
Powers, and Elizabeth of England,' London, 
1862, 12mo. 7. ' Mr. [William] Broadhead 
Tq. V. SupplJ and the Anonymous Press,' 
London, 1867, 8vo. 8. ' Essays, Political, 
Social, and lieligious,' London, 1874 ; 2nd 
ser. 1892, Svo. 9. 'Human Catholicism,' 
London, 1876, Svo. 

[Foster's Aluinm Oxon. 1714-1886; Oxford 
Honoon Reg.; J. B. Mozley's Letters, p. 193 ; 
Brodrick's Memories and Impressions, pp. 105- 
106; Men of the Time, 1884; Men and Women 
of the Time, 1891 ; Times, 6 July 1899; Ann. 
Reg. 1899, ii. 168; Athenaeum, 15 July 1899; 
Positinst Review, 1 Aug. 1899 ; information 
kindly furnished by Prof. Beesly.] J. M. R. 

COODE, Sir JOHN (1816-1892), civil 
engineer, son of Charles Coode, solicitor, and 
of Ann, daughter of Joseph Bennett, rector 
of Qreat Wigborough, Essex, was born at 
BodminonllNov. 1816. He was educated 
ftt Bodmin Grammar School and after leaving 
school entered his father's office. His natural 
tMteSy however, were not for law but for 
engiiioering ; he was therefore articled to 
Jtmet Meadows liendel [q. v.] of Plymouth, 
and on completion of his pupilage he worked 
for some years for that gentleman and on the 
Great Western Railway. 
^ In 1844 he set up in business for himself 
in Westminster as a consulting engineer, 
and remained there till 1847. In that year 
hj WM appointed resident engineer in charge 
<\>n« great works at Portland harbour, 
which had been designed by Rendel. On 
the death of the latter in 1866 Coode was 
appointed engineer-in-chief, and retained 
•i£^^ ""^*^ *^® completion of the work 
in 1872. This harbour provided the largest 



Coode 

area of deep water of any artificial harbour 
in Great Britain, and was a work of the 
utmost national importance. The first stone 
of the great breakwater was laid by the 
prince consort on 25 July 1849, and the final 
stone was put in place by the prince of 
Wales in 1872, the work having therefore 
taken twenty-three years to complete and 
having cost about a million sterling. The 
honour of knighthood was conferred upon 
Coode in 1872 for his services in connection 
with this national undertaking. 

While this work was going on Coode 
served as a member of the royal commission 
on harbours of refuge, and also drew out 
the plans for the harbour which was to be 
constructed in Table Bay, Cape Town, and 
for numerous other similar harbour works. 

He was consulted by several of the most 
important colonial governments, notably by 
those of the South African and Australian 
colonies, in reference to proposed harbour 
works, and he made several journeys to 
South Africa, Australia, and India in con- 
nection with the schemes upon which his 
advice was sought. In 1876 he was in Cape 
Colony and in Natal, and again in 1877, and 
in 1878 and 1885 he paid visits to Australia 
and New Zealand. Perhaps the harbour by 
which he will be best known after Portland 
is the great harbour of Colombo in Ceylon. 
This was commenced in 1874 and completed 
in 1885, and has been of enormous benefit to 
the colony of Ceylon and to the eastern trade 
of the empire. An account of the harbour 
is given in a paper written by the resident 
engineer (Proc. Inst. Civil Eng. Ixxxvii. 76). 
The following other harbour works may 
be mentioned among the great number for 
which Coode was responsible: Waterford 
harbour, Portland harbour (Australia), Free- 
mantle harbour, and plans for the Dover 
commercial harbour. 

He was a member of the royal commis- 
sion on metropolitan sewage discharge 
(1882-4), and of the international commis- 
sion of the Suez Canal ; on the latter he 
served from 1884 till his death in 1892. 
After he returned from his second visit to 
the Australian colonies he was made a 
K.C.M.G. in 1886, in recognition of the dis- 
tinguished services he had rendered to the 
empire. 

Coode was probably the most distinguished 
harbour engineer of the nineteenth century; 
it would be difficult to estimate too highly 
the value to the trade and mutual inter- 
course of the different parts of the British 
empire, of the harbour and river improve- 
ment schemes in every part of the world 
for which he was responsible. 



Cook 



S3 



Cook 



He was elected a member of the Institu- 
tion of Civil Enpfineers in 1849, served for 
many years on the council, and was presi- 
dent from May 18^9 to May 1891. He was 
also an active member of the Koyal Colonial 
Institute, and sat on its council from 1881 
till his death. 

Coode died at Brighton on 2 March 1892. 
He married in 1842 Jane, daughter of 
William Price of Weston-super-Mare. 

There is a portrait of him in oil at the 
Institution of Civil Engineers, and a bust, the 
property of Mrs. Lillingston, the Vicarage, 
Havering-atte-Bower, near Romford. 

Coode contributed a very valuable paper 
to the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1852 
on the ' Chesil Bank ' {Proc. Inst. Civil Eng. 
xii. 520), and his presidential address to the 
civil engineers was delivered in 1889 (ib. 
xc'x. 1). He wrote many professional re- 
ports, chiefly on harbours, the most impor- 
tant of which are Table Bay (Weymouth, 
1859); Whitehaven (London, 1866); on 
military harbours (London, 1875); Table 
Bay, Mossel Bay, &c. (London, 1877) ; Port 
Natal (London, 1877) ; Melbourne (Lon- 
don, 1879) ; Report on Harbours and Rivers 
in Queensland, Mackay (London, 1887); 
Townsville (London, 1887) ; Report on 
River Tyne Improvements (London, 1877) ; 
Report on tidal difficulties on Dee at Chester 
(Chester, 1891). 

[Obituary notices in Proc. Inst. Civil Eng. 
cxiii. ; Burke's Peerage &c. 1890: Times, 
3 March 1892.] T. H. B. 

COOK, ELIZA (1818-1889), poet, bom 
on 24 Dec. 1818, was the youngest of the 
eleven children of a brasier living in liondon 
Road, Southwark. Wlien she was about 
nine years old her father retired from busi- 
ness, and the family went to live at a small 
farm in St. Leonard's Forest, near Horsham. 
Her mother encouraged Eliza's fondness for 
imaginative literature, but the child was 
almost entirely self-educated. She began 
to write verses before she was fifteen ; in- 
deed, some of her most popular poems, such 
as * I'm afloat ' and the ' Star of Glengarry,' 
were composed in her girlhood. Her first 
Tolume, * Lays of a Wild Harp,' appeared as 
early as 1835, when she was but seventeen. 
Encouraged by its favourable reception, she 
began to send verses without revealing her 
narue to the 'Weekly Dispatch,' the 'Metro- 
nolitan Magazine,' and the ' New Monthly 
Magazine ; ' and Jerdan sang her praises in 
the ' Literary Gazette.' After a time she 
confined herself to the 'Weekly Dispatch,' 
where her first contribution had appeared 
under the signature * C on 27 Nov. 1836. 



In May of the following rear that pwwr 
printed the ' Old Arm Chair ' with her 
mitials. This, by far the most popular of 
Eliza Cook's poems, was inspired by affection 
for her dead mother. Its success and that 
of other verses from the same pen induced 
the proprietor of the * Dispatch (Aldernuui 
Harmer of Ingress Abbey in Kent) to have 
a notice inserted in his paper requesting 
that the writer would reveal her name. 
Eliza Cook, who was now living in the 
neighbourhood of St. George's Road, Wal- 
worth, complied with the request. The re- 
sult was a handsome pecuniary acknowledg- 
ment, and a regular engagement to contribute 
to the paper. Her second volume, entitled 
' Melaia and other Poems,' was published in 
London in 1838 (reissued in 1840 and 1846), 
and met with great success both in England 
and America, where an edition was issued at 
New York in 1844. The poem which gave 
its title to the volume is an eastern tale, 
the theme being the attachment of a dog to 
his master. 

In May 1849 Eliza Cook brought out a 
publication upon somewhat similar lines to 

* Chambers's Journal,' which she called 

* Eliza Cook's Journal.' It had great popu- 
larity among the same class of readers to 
which her poetry appealed, and was for a 
time highly successful. But she had no 
great journalistic ability, and, her health 
breaking down, the publication was discon- 
tinued after November 1864. Great part 
of its contents reappeared in * Jottings from 
my Journal,' 1860. They consisted ot essays 
and sketches written in a simple, clear, and 
unpretending style, and generally conveyed 
some moral lesson. Some of them are mild 
satires on the social failings of her contem- 
poraries, and exhibit good sense and some 
humour. With the exception of this volume, 
and a collection of aphorisms entitled * Dia- 
mond Dust,' published in I860, she never 
essayed prose. 

Meanwhile, bad health compelled her to 
take a long rest, and it was not until 1864 
that she produced fresh verse in the volume 
called ' New Echoes and other Poems.' It 
showed failing power, and was not so suc- 
cessful as her previous eftbrts. On 18 June 
1863 Eliza Cook received a civil list pension 
of 100/. a year. Henceforth she published 
nothing but a few poems in the * Weekly 
Dispatch,' and she soon became something 
like a confirmed invalid. Her ponularity 
waned, though she was in receipt of royal- 
ties from her publishers almost to the cloee 
of her life. She died on 23 Sept. 1889 at 
Thornton Hill, Wimbledon, in her seventy- 
first year. 



Cook 



54 



Cook 



Elin Cook's poetry appealed very strongly 
to the middle classes. Its strength lay m 
the sincerity of its domestic sentiment, 
which is absolutely devoid of affectation, 
and, on the other hand, never degenerates 
into the mawkish. Her sympathetic lines, 
* Poor Hood,' led to the erection of a monu- 
nant in Kensal Green cemetery to that 
aomewhat neglected man of genius. Col- 
lective editions (exclusive of * New Echoes ') 
ABpeared in 1851-3, 4 vols., and 1860, 1 vol. 
4U>, with illustrations by Dalziel Brothers 
after J. Gilbert, J. Wolf, and others. Com- 
plete inclusive editions followed in 1870 
(*GhAndos Classics ')'and 1882 (New York). 
Selected poems, including the 'Old Arm 
Chair,' the 'Englishman,' 'God speed the 
Plough,' and the ' liaising of the Maypole,' 
with preface by John H. Ingram, are in 
A. H. Miles's ' Poets of the Century ;' and 
in 1864 H. Simon edited a quarto volume 
of pieces done into German. 

[Notable Women of onr own Times, pp. 138- 
15u, with portrait ; Miles's Poets of the Cen- 
tury ; Times, 26 Sept. 1889; Daily News, 
26 and 27 Sept. ; Illustr. London News, 5 Oct., 
with portrait; Aoidemy and Athenaeum, 
28 Sept. ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Allibone's Diet. Engl. 
Lit. vol. i. and SuppL] G. Le G. N. 

COOK, FREDERIC CHARLES (1810- 
1889), editor of the ' Speaker's Commentary,' 
bom in Iferkshire in 1810, was admitted as 
a sizar of St. John's College, Cambridge, 
8 July 1824, graduated B.A. with a first 
class in the classical tripos in 1831 , and M.A. 
in 1844. After leaving Cambridge he studied 
for a while under Niebuhr at Bonn. He 
was ordained by the bishop of London 
(Blomfield) in 1839, and a few years later 
WIS made her majesty's inspector of church 
ichools. In this capacity he issued in 1849 
hit * Poetry for Schools.' In 1867 he was 
appointed chaplain-in-ordinary to the queen, 
in 1800 he became preacher at Lincoln's 
Inn^ in 1864 canon-residentiary at Exeter 
Cathedral (replacing Harold Browne), and 
in 1869 chaplain to the bishop of London. 
About 1864, when the minds of many per- 
•one^ were disouieted by the * Essays and 
Reviews,' and by the critical investigations 
of Colenso, the idea occurred to John Evelyn 
Deniaon, afterwards Viscount Ossington, 



speaker of the House of Commons, that 
the difficulties which had been raised with 
regard to the bible should be answered by 
m church in a sufficient manner. A com- 
misaion was formed, after consultation with 
the bishops, which divided the bible into 
eight sections, and for each section chose 
the scholars who were most competent to 



handle it. The editorship of the whole was 
entrusted to Cook, who had the reputation 
of being a good Hebrew scholar and egypto- 
logist, with an adequate knowledge of recent 
geographical discovery in Palestine. Cook 
was assisted by the archbishop of York and 
the regius professors of theology at Oxford 
and Cambridge. The first volume, containing 
Genesis and Exodus, was reached in 1871, 
and the fourth volume of the New Testa- 
ment in 1881. The whole of ' The Speaker's 
Commentary,' as it was called, forms ten 
volumes, excluding the Apocrypha, which 
were treated separately under the editorship 
of Dr.Wace in 1888. The editor's supervision 
of the work of his colleagues was largely 
confined to seeing that no important inves- 
tigations on their respective subjects were 
accidentally unnoticed. The learning dis- 
played in the work was unfortunately felt 
by many to be neutralised by the avowedly 
apologetic aim of the undertaking. The 
portions (by Dr. Harold Browne) refer- 
ring to the iPentateuch were criticised with 
a damaging severity by Colenso, Dr. A. 
Kuenen, and others. Cook himself was a 
very severe critic of the labours of the re- 
visers of the New Testament, and in his 
volume on ' The Ptevised Version of the 
First Three Gospels' (1882) he went so 
far as to maintain that the southern convo- 
cation, owing to the omissions, corruptions, 
and blunders of the revisers, had incurred 
a terrible weight of responsibility. Cook 
was made precentor of Exeter Cathedral 
in 1872. He resigned his preachership a* 
Lincoln's Inn in 1880. He devoted his time 
thenceforth almost wholly to philology, and 
produced his remarkable ' The Origins of 
Religion and Language ' (1884), in which he 
upheld the original unity of speech. He is 
said to have been acquainted with fifty-two 
languages. He was a complete invalid 
during the last years of his life, but went 
on adding to his excellent library, which he 
bequeathed to the chapter, and which is 
now housed in the new cloister building at 
Exeter. He died at Exeter on 22 June 1889. 
He married on 2 June 1846 .Jessie Barbara, 
daughter of Alexander Douglas M'Kenzie of 
Burleston, Huntingdonshire, but left no 
issue. His widow survived him but a few 
months, dying at Exeter on 5 Oct. 1889 
{Guardian, 9 Oct.) 

[Times, 24 June 1889; Guardian, 26 June 
1889; Western Morning News, 24 June 1889; 
Notes and Gleanings, ii. 114-20; The Patrician, 
i. 290 ; note from Mr. R. F. Scott, fellow of 
St. John's College, Cambridge ; Grad. Cantabr. ; 
Theologisch Tijdschrift, May and September, 
1873 ; works in Brit. Mus. Libr.] T. S. 



Cook 



55 



Cook 



COOK, THOMAS (1808-1892), tourist | 
agent, was horn at Melbourne, Derbyshire, 
on 22 Nov. 1808. His father died when he ' 
was four years old ; ho left scliool at ten, ' 
and was employed in tlio gardens of the 
Melbourne estate and lielped his motlier, 
whose only child ho was, to eke out her ' 
earnings from a small village shop. Having 
a strong desire to better himself, ho became 
the apprentice of his uncle, John Pegg, who , 
was a wood-turner. After his apprentice- 
ship he went to Loughborough in Leicester- 
shire, where he was em])loyed by Joseph ; 
Winks, a printer, and publisher of books for 
the General 15aptist Association. Cook's 
religious training led him to become an 
active member of the Association of Baptists, 
and in 1828 he was appointed bible reader 
and missionary in Kutland. In 1829 he tra- 
versed 2,692 miles on missionary duty, 2,106 
of them on foot. 

Cook married the daughter of a Kutland 
farmer named Mason in 1832, taking up his 
abode in Market Harborough, and beginning 
business as a wood-turner, with the in- 
tention of acting as a missionary also. When 
Father Mathew passed from Ireland into 
England as an apostle of temperance. Cook 
became one of his converts, and his zeal in 
the cause led to his appointment as secretary 
to the Market Harborough branch of the 
South Midland Temperance Association. In 
1840 he founded the 'Children's Temperance 
Magazine,' the first English publication of 
the kind. A gathering of members of the 
temperance society and their friends was 
appointed to be held in 1841 at Mr. W. 
Paget's park in Loughborough. It occurred 
to Cook that the Midland railway between 
that place and Leicester might be utilised 
for carrying passengers to the gathering, 
and he arranged with Mr. J. F. Ik'll, the 
secretary, for running a special train. On 
6 July 1841 this train, being the first publicly 
advertised excursion train in England, car- 
ried o70 passengers from Leicester to Lough- 
borough and back for a shilling. Owing 
to the success of the venture Cook was 
requested to plan and conduct excursions 
of members of temperance societies and 
Sunday-school children during the summer 
months of 1842, 1843, and 1844. 

Cook's business of wood-turning had to be 
given up. Removing to Leicester, he con- 
tinued to print and publish books there. In 
1845 he made the organising of excursions a 
regular occupation, arranging with the Mid- 
land railway for a ])ercentage upon the 
tickets sold. One of the lirst pleasure trips 
under this condition was made from Leicester 
to Liverpool on 4 Aug. 1845, a 'handbook 



of the trip' being compiled by Cook, who 
visited beforehand the places at which stop- 
pages were to be made, and he arranged with 
hotel-keepers for housing the pleasure seekem. 
Afterwards Cook issued the coupons for hotel 
expenses which are now familiar to travellers. 
An excursion to Scotland was next under- 
taken, 350 persons journeying from l>«icester 
to Glasgow and back for a guinea each. Tliey 
went by rail to Manchester and Fleetwooo, 
and by steamer from Fleetwood to Ardros- 
san. At Glasgow they were welcomed with 
salutes from cannon and music from bands, 
while both there and in Edinburgh they 
were publicly entertained. The publisher 
William Chambers (1800-1883) [a. v.l de- 
livered an address of welcome to the Scot- 
tish capital, which was afterwards published 
with the title 'The Strangers' Visit to 
Edinburgh.' 

Soon afterwards Cook issued a monthly 
magazine called ' The Excursionist.' lie 
wrote in 1850 : * I had become so thoroughly 
imbued with the tourist spirit that I began 
to contemplate foreign trips, including the 
continent of Europe, the United States, and 
the eastern lands of the Bible.' In 1865 he 
crossed the Atlantic, issuing beforehand a 
circular letter to the editors of the press in 
the United States and Canada, wherein he 
said, ' Editors of, and contributors to, many 
of the principal journals of England and 
Scotland have generally regarded my work 
as appertaining to the great class of agencies 
for the advancement of Human Progress, 
and to their generous aid I have been in- 
debted for much of the success which has 
crowned my exertions' {The Business of 
Travel, pp. 42-7). 

Cook's only son, John Mason (see below), 
became his partner in 1H64, and next year 
(in 1865) the head office was removed from 
Leicester to London, owing to the rapid 
growth of the tourist business. While hun- 
dreds of persons visited the continent under 
Cook's guidance and enjoyed themselves, 
others objected to the new industry, and 
Charles Lever,writ ing as * Cornelius 0'n>owd,* 
said that the parties of tourists under Cook's 
care were convicts whom the Australian 
colonies refused to receive, and were sent 
to Italy by the English government to bo 
gradually droj)ped in each Italian city. The 
Italians did not understand that the state- 
ment was a joke, and Cook appealed to Lord 
Clarendon, then foreign secretary, for re- 
dress, receiving in return the sympathy, 
which was all that could be given (i6. pp. 
151-7). 

In 1872 Cook started on a tour round the 
world, recording his impressions in letters 



Cook 



s6 



Cook 



tothe^'Timee/ His purpose was to prepare 
the w»y for tourists. lie was absent 222 
days. At the close of 1878 Cook's son 
became the sole manager and acting head, 
Oook himself receiving a fixed annual pay- 
ment. His later years were passed at 
Lttoeeter, and were saddened by the in- 
firmity of blindness. He died in his house, 
Thomcroft, Stonegate, on 18 July 1892. 

John Masox Cook (1834-1899), tourist 
agent , Thomas Cook's only son, born at Market 
Marboroagh in 1834, accompanied his father 
aa a boy in his excursion trips, and when 
a younfl^ man entered the service of the 
Midland Railway Company. Afterwards he 
eagued in business as a printer, and when 
in ISM he became his father's partner, he 
liberated him, as he wrote, ' from details of 
office work and enabled him to carry out 
Ibraign schemes of long projection in both 
the eaatem and western hemispheres ' (The 
Bumneu of Travel, p. 72). After taking 
charge of the office in London, when it was 
opened in 1865, and of the 'Excursionist' 
ma^faxine, he visited America next year, 
owing to the railway managers there having 
repudiated the arrangements made with his 
father, and he entered into contracts by 
which forty-one series of tickets issued by 
his firm were made available at any time in 
the United States and Canada. This laid 
the foundation of the large tourist business 
of his firm on the North American con- 
tinent. 

The Great Eastern Railway Company 
having appointed Cook in 1868 to manage 
the continental traffic by way of Harwich, he 
had many interviews on the subject with the 
managers of railways in Holland, Belgium, 
and Germany. At first the president of the 
Mienish railway advised him to abandon his 
▼iaionary project of issuing through tickets. 
Finally the concession was granted him for 
the issue of a special series, subject to the 
condition that five hundred first-class passen- 
gen took them during twelve months after 
the agreement was signed. At a meeting 
held shortly afterwards he announced that 
five hundred tickets had been taken in one 

"J^^ill: '^'^^ '^^'^^ ^^^^^ ^^^® president of 
the Rhenish railway proposed, with the ap- 
proTal of his colleagues, that J. M. Cook be 
appomted paid agent for all the companies 
concerned in traffic through Germany, by 
way of the Rrenner Pass, to Brindisi. During 
the Franco-Gprman war this route was alone 
available for English visitors to the Riviera. 
At the clow of the Franco-German war the 
trench railway companies, which till then 
bad refused to allow through tickets to be 
1»*5<I OTcr their lines, appointed J. M. Cook 



their agent for the development of this form 
of traffic. In England he then held the 
same office for the Midland, the Great 
Eastern, the Chatham and Dover, and the 
Great Western railway companies. 

In January 1871 he was employed by the 
Mansion House Committee to convey the 
supplies provided for the relief of the Pari- 
sians after the armistice; bis success caused 
James White, M.P. for Brighton, to say in 
the House of Commons that, if T. Cook & 
Son were entrusted with the transport of 
troops within the United Kingdom, ' the 
country would probably be a gainer to the ex- 
tent of something like 120,000/. or 130,000/., 
while the soldiers would find the change at- 
tended by a great increase of comfort ' {Han- 
sard, 3rd ser. vol. ccv. col. 1592). 

A year before, the Khedive of Egypt had 
appointed Cook government agent for pas- 
senger traffic on the Nile. In 1873 he 
opened a branch office at Cairo, and insti- 
tuted a regular service of steamers to the 
first cataract, and two years later between 
the first and the second, becoming also sole 
agent for the postal service. An hotel was 
opened by J. M. Cook at Luxor in 1877, and a 
hospital for the treatment of natives was 
built and endowed by him in after years. 

After the battle at Tel-el-Kebir in 1882, 
the wounded and sick were transported by 
hini from Cairo and Alexandria by water, 
while suffiirers from enteric fever were con- 
veyed up the Nile, with the result that 
eighty to ninety per cent, recovered, owing to 
the Nile trip. The Duke of Cambridge, then 
commander-in-chief, sent J. M. Cook official 
thanks for his services to the army. 

In 1884, when the British government 
resolved to send General Gordon to the 
Soudan, Cook was requested to convey him 
as far as Korosko. Before leaving "that 
place Gordon sent a letter of thanks and ex- 
pressed the hope of ' again having the plea- 
sure of placing myself under your guidance.' 
Cook was consulted when the relief expedi- 
tion was planned, and he was entrusted with 
conveying from Assiout, the terminus of the 
Egyptian railway, as far as Wady Haifa, at 
the foot of the second cataract, eleven thou- 
sand English and seven thousand Egyptian 
troops, about 130,000 tons of stores and war 
material, eight hundred whale boats, and be- 
tween sixty thousand and seventy thousand 
tons of coal. To do this work twenty-eight 
large steamers were running between the 
Tyne and Alexandria, six thousand trucks 
were passing along the line between Alex- 
andria and Assiout, while twenty-seven boats 
were steaming on the river by day and 
night. At the appointed time, the first 



Cook 



57 



Cook 



week in November, the task undertaken was 
accomplished (/business of Travel, pp. 189, 
191). The secretary for war expressed his 
opinion in writing that ' great credit is due 
to you for the satisfactory way in which 
your contract was performed.' 

At a meeting of the lloyal Geographical 
Society held on 5 Jan. 1885, J. M. Oook 
narrated some discoveries concerning the 
navigation of the Nile. The river had been 
surveyed when in flood, while the expedition 
was undertaken at low water. Going in a 
small boat from the Lower Nile to Uongola, 
he ascertained that the third cataract placed 
at Ilannek did not exist, while there were 
four or five cataracts between the second and 
the so-called third one. Cook's mastery over 
the Nile was completed in 1889, when the 
Egyptian government granted him the ex- 
clusive right of carrying the mails, specie, 
and the civil and military officials between 
Assiout and Assouan. A like contract was 
made with the British government, under 
which stores and troops were despatched to 
the Soudan to overthrow the Mahdi. lie 
bought a large piece of land at Boulac, where 
he erected works for constructing and re- 
pairing steamers, and brought a graving 
dock from England to be used in the pro- 
cess. At the launch in 1889 of his new 
steamer, Rameses the Great, Cook said that 
twenty years before there were 136 daha- 
beahs and one steamer on the river, while 
thirty dahabeahs and nineteen steamers were 
then at the service of tourists. Since that 
time the business has grown so large as to be 
conducted by an independent company with 
the title of * Egypt, Limited,' which was 
formed on 1 May 1894. 

Meanwhile Cook had greatly developed 
touring arrangements in Norway, where he 
opened operations in 1875. He had also ac- 
(juired the railway up Mount Vesuvius, work- 
ing it successfiiHy and safely. In 1880 he 
travelled through India and arranged for the 
issue of international tickets over all the 
railways there, opening branches at Bombay 
and Calcutta. He had the sanction and 
help of Gladstone, the prime minister ; of 
Lord Hartington, secretary of state for 
India ; and Lord Salisbury, who had filled 
that office. He returned to India in 1885, 
being invited by Lord Dutt'erin, the gover- 
nor-general, to co-operat,e in devising plans 
for the safer travel and better treatment of 
pilgrims to.Teddah and Yambo, and to Mecca 
and Medina. He devised a scheme which 
worked well, with the qualification that it 
brought him no pecuniary return (j^. pp. 2(K.>, 
215). He was experienced in conducting 
pilgrims, a party ot 1,004 having been led 



by his agents from France to and through 
the Holy Land. 

The jubilee of the firm was celebrated on 

22 Jul^ 1891, by the publication of a book 
for private circulation, entitled * The Busi- 
ness of Travel, a Eifty Years' Record of Pro- 
gress,' and by a banquet to eminent repre- 
sentatives of all classes of the public at the 
Hotel M6tropole. 'A serious and enthu- 
siastic letter was read from Mr. Gladstone, 
and another, full of gratitude for real ser- 
vices, from Lord Wolseley, giving it as 
his opinion that the good work done by 
Messrs. Cook in the Nile campaign could 
have been done by nobody else* (Timeiff 

23 July 1891). Cook gave the following 
figures to illustrate the growth of his busi- 
ness. In 1865 the total receipts for the year 
were under 20,000/. ; in 1890 no less than 
3,262,159 tickets had been issued, and they 
had refunded 44,644/. for unused tickets. 
In 1865 the staff consisted of his father, him- 
self, and two assistants ; in 1890 the fixed 
salaried staff was 1,714, while the offices 
numbered eighty-four, and the agencies 
eighty-five. His tourist business had ex- 
panded into a banking and shipping business 
as well. 

In the autumn of 1898 the German em- 
peror and empress, whom he had previously 
conducted up his railway on Mount Vesuvius, 
visited the Holy Land under arrangements 
made by Cook. His health at this time was 
feeble. He rose from a sick bed to greet the 
imperial party on entering Jerusalem {Black- 
tcood's Magazitie, c\\xx\\. 220). The pres- 
sure of work broke down his health prema- 
turely. He had a fine physique, and, like 
his father, he was a water drinker ; but he 
had always taxed his powers to the utter- 
most. While in the service of the Midland 
Railway Company he worked eighteen hours 
out of the twenty-four; later he passed a 
hundred nights at a stretch without sleeping 
in a bed. Attacks of influenza eventually 
undermined his constitution. He never 
rallied from an illness in Jerusalem, with 
which he was seized in October 189*^, and on 
4 March 1899 he died in his house. Mount 
Felix, at Walton-on-Thames. 

According to the 'Times 'for 6 March 1898, 
'his real work consisted in breaking down the 
obstrnctiveness of foreign railway managers, 
and even govemmentP,and in makmgjoumeys 
all over the world p<issible and easy to any 
one who might choose to buy a bundle of 
coupons at Ludgate Circus.* 

On 29 Dec. 1861 J. M. Cook marrie<l 
Emma, daughter of T. \V. Hodges of May- 
field, Leicestershire ; she survived him with 
three sons and daughters. His sons — Mr. 



Cooke 



58 



Cooper 



Fnnk Henry Cook, Mr. Thomas Albert Cook, I 
•nd Mr. Ernest Edward Cook— now carry on j 
the throe branches of his business, tourist, 
btaking, and shipping, the banking and ex- 
change department being more especially 
oontioUed by Mr. Ernest Edward Cook. 

[The Bnstneae of Travel ; Times, 6 March 
1W9; Blackwood's Magaziue, August 1899 ; pri- 
faie information.] -F' I^« J 

COOKE, Sib GEORGE (1768-1837),' 
lieutenant-general, born in 1768, was the 
•on and heir of George John Cooke of Hare- 
field, Middlesex, grandson of George Cooke 
{d. 6 June 1768), prothonotary of the court | 
of common pleoA and member of parliament ; 
Ibr Middles<^x from 1757 to 1768, and great- 
mndeon of Sir George Cooke (d. 4 Nov. 
1740) of Harefield, prothonotary of the 
court of common pleas. His sister Penelope 
Anne married Kobert Brudenell, sixth earl 
of Cardigan, and was the mother of James 
Thomas Brudenell, seventh earl [q. v.] Cooke 
was educated at Harrow, and at Caen in 
Normandy. He was appointed ensign in 
the 10th foot guards in 1784 and lieutenant 
and captain in 1792. In Marcli 1794 he 
joined tiie flank battalion of the guards in 
Flanders, and in June was appointed aide- 
de-camp to Major-general (Sir) Samuel 
Holae [a. v.] lie was present when the 
combinea armies took the field and attacked 
the French posts in April ; in the actions of 
17 and 18 May, and at the affair at Boxtel 
on 15 Sept. In 1795 he joined the brigade 
of guards at Darley camp and became aide- 
de-camjp to Major-general Edmund Stevens. 
Lb 179d he was promoted to be captain and 
lieutenant-colonel in his regiment, and in 
Aognst 1799 he went with it to Holland. 
He waa present in the action at the Zuype 
on 10 Sept., and in the battle on 19 Sept., 
when he was severely wounded. 

From 1H03 until the spring of 1805 he 
held the post of assistant adjutant-general 
to the north-west district. In 1806 he went 
to Sicily, returning to England in December 
1807. On 2o April 1808 he received the 
bnret rank of colonel, and in July 1809 he 
wii employed in the ex])edition to the 
Sdielde, whence he returned sick in Sep- 
tcnber. ^ 

In April 1811 he went to Cadiz, and on 
4 Jane attained the rank of major-general and 
■aecemded to the command of the troops 
•tetioned there, which he retained until his 
ntimi to England in July 181.3. In Novem- 
ber he went to Holland with the brigade of 
fwda. He commanded the first division 
of the guards at Waterloo, and lost his 
nght arm m the battle. He was appointed 



K.C.B. on 22 June 1815, and colonel of the 
77th foot on the following day. He also re- 
ceived for his share in the engagement the 
insignia of the third class of the order of 
St. George of Russia and of the third class 
of the order of Wilhelm of the Netherlands. 
On 20 Oct. 1819 he was appointed lieu- 
tenant-governor of Portsmouth, a post which 
he resigned a few years later. On 19 July 
1821 he obtained the rank of lieutenant- 
general, and on 23 Dec. 1834 he was trans- 
ferred to the command of the 40th regiment. 
He died unmarried at his house, Harefield 
Park, on 3 Feb. 1837. 

[Gent. Mag. 1837, i. 656-7; Army Lists; 
Vernon's Notes on the Parish of Harefield, 
1872, pp. 28-9; Kopes's Campaign of Waterloo, 
1893, pp. 38, 184, 300; Siborne's Waterloo 
Campaign (Arber's War Library), 1894, pp. 72, 
121, 186, 337.] E. L C. 

COOPER, THOMAS (1805-1892), char- 
tist, born in Leicester on 20 March 1805, 
was the son of a working dyer. The family 
removed to Exeter when Cooper was a few 
months old, and there his father died three 
years afterwards. The widow returned to 
Gainsborough and opened a business in dyeing 
and fancy box making. Cooper was admitted 
into a bluecoat school, and remained there 
until 1820, when, after a trial of the sea, he 
was apprenticed to a shoemaker. He had 
been an intelligent pupil, and as an appren- 
tice seized every opportunity for self-culture, 
studying Greek, Latin, and Hebrew, and 
these he put to use when, after a serious 
illness in 1827, he gave up shoemaking at 
Gainsborough and opened a school there. 
In 1829 he added the work of a methodist 
local preacher to that of schoolmaster, but, 
failing at Gainsborough, he removed to 
Lincoln. Here he was not more successful, 
and in 1836 joined the staff of a liberal 
newspaper in Lincoln, whence, after a few 
months' residence in Stamford, he went to 
London in 1839. Failing to obtain news- 
paper work, he assisted a second-hand book- 
seller, and then for a month or two edited the 
' Kentish Mercury ' from Greenwich, but in 

1840 he accepted an invitation to go to 
Leicester and join the staff of the ' Leicester- 
shire Mercury.' Immediately afterwards he 
became a chartist, and, his employers ob- 
jecting, he left them and undertook the 
editorship of the chartist * Midland Counties 
Illuminator.' For the four succeeding years 
he was one of the foremost of the more 
extreme party among the chartists, and in 

1841 was nominated for the representation 
in the House of Commons of both the town 
and the county of Leicester, but did not go 



Cooper 



59 



Cope 



to the poll. In the rollowing year, when 
proceeding- from Leicester to jlunchester 
as a delegate to a chartist conference, he 
addressed the colliers on strike at Ilanley. 
Passion ran high, and next day a serious riot 
took place, and Cooi)er was arrested at 
Burslem, but liberated for want of evidence. 
He proceeded to Manchester and, finding 
that a great strike had begun, urged his 
friends in Leicester to join in it. Some 
disturbance followed, and on his return 
Cooper was arrested for his Ilanley speech 
and tried for arson. Acquitted on this 
charge, he was re-arrested on a charge of 
sedition and conspiracy. After an adjourned 
trial he was sentenced in March 1843 to 
two years' imprisonment. Most of the time 
he spent in Stafford jail. After his libera- 
tion he quarrelled with Feargus O'Connor 
[q. v.] and took no part in the further de- 
velopments of the chartist movement. 

When in prison Cooper wrote some tales 
and *The Purgatory of Suicides,' a political 
epic in ten books, written in Spenserian 
stanzas. The poem is a poetical rendering 
of the ideals of the radical movement, and 
the circumstances and motives of some of 
the most famous suicides of history are used 
as the moral and political setting of the 
work. His efforts to publish his poem 
brought him into contact with Disraeli (after- 
wards Earl of Beaconsfield) and Douglas 
Jerrold, through whose influence a publisher 
was found in 1845. It reached a third edi- 
tion in 1863. Cooper then turned his repu- 
tation as poet and cultured working man to 
account by lecturing to radical and free- 
thought audiences upon historical and edu- 
cational subjects. While addressing one 
of these audiences in the hall of science in 
1856, he suddenly broke off and announced 
that he had been reconverted to the truths 
of Christian evidences, and from that time, 
with the exception of a month or two 
when he was employed as copyist at the 
board of health, he was engaged as an 
itinerant lecturer on Christian proofs. In 
1867 he was presented with an annuity by 
his friends. He died at Lincoln on 15 July 
1892. He married in 1834, but his wife 
died in ISSO. 

In addition to the various papers with 
which he was connected. Cooper in 1850 
conducted ' Cooper's Journal,' but only a few 
issues appeared. His chief works are : 

1. 'Wise Saws and Modern Instances,' 
London, 1845; written in Stafford jail. 

2. 'The Bason's Yule Feast,' London, 1846. 
8. ' Land for the Labourers,' London, 1848. 
4. 'Captain Cobbler: his Romance,' Lon- 
don, 1848. 5. ' Bridge of History over the 



Gulf of Time/ London, 1871. 6. 'Life of 
Thomas Cooper, written by Himself,' Lon- 
don, 1872. 7. ' Plain Pulpit Talk,' I^n- 
don, 1872. 8. • God, the Soul, and a Fu- 
ture State,' London, 1873. 9. * Paradi*e of 
Martyrs,' London, 1873. 10. 'Old-fashinn.-d 
Stories,' London, 1874. 11. 'Evolu' 
London, 1878. 12. 'Atonement,' »*•< ;. i 
series of 'Plain Pulpit Talk,' London, 1880. 
13. ' Thoughts at Four Score,' London, 188/5. 
Cooper's collected 'Poetical Works' were 
published in London, 1877. 

[Life of Thomas Cooper, written by himself; 
Lincoln Gazette, 23 July 1892 ; Annual Register, 
1892.] J. R.M. 

COPE, CHARLES WEST (1811-1890), 
historical painter, the son of Charles Cope, 
a water-colour landscape painter, was bom 
at Park Square, Leed.s, on 28 .July 1811. 
He was called West, and his only sister, 
Ellen Turner, was called Turner, after the 
celebrated painters, both of whom were 
friends of his father. His mother was ' a 
gifted amateur' in water-colours, and painted 
rustic figures. He was sent as a child to a 
school at Camberwell, and afterwards to 
Terry's school at Great Marlow, where he 
was bullied and his elbow was broken, which 
left him with a crooked arm for life. He 
was then sent to the grammar school at 
Leeds, where he suffered from the cruelty of 
a master. His mother died shortly after his 
birth, and his father from a coach accident 
in 1827. He entered Sass's well-known 
academy in the same year, and in 1828 
became a student of the Royal Academy. 
He obtained a silver medal from the Society 
of Arts in 1829, and a second medal in the 
Royal Academy Life School, and a life 
studentship. About 1830 he had lodgings 
in Great Russell Street, Bloorasbury. 

In 1832 he went to Paris with his friend 
Cornelius Harrison, and copied Titian, Rem- 
brandt, and other 'old masters' in the 
Louvre. In 1833 he exhibited at the Royal 
Academy for the first time, the title of his 
picture being * The Golden Age.' In 
September of the same year he started for 
Italy, and was absent nearly two years, 
visiting Florence, Rome (where he met 
Gibson, Severn, H. Atkinson, the architect, 
Arthur Glennie, and other artist**), Orvieto, 
Assisi, Perugia, and other places in Umbria, 
Naples and its neighbourhood, where he 
saw Vesuvius in eruption. From Naples he 
went back to Florence, where he spent the 
winter of 1834 and the spring of 1835. Here 
he painted pictures on commission, including 
the first version of ' The Firstborn,' which 
was exhibited at the British Institution, 



Cope 



60 



Cope 



bought by William Beckford of Fonthill, 
and repeated for Lord Lansdowne. After 
Tisiting Siena, Verona, Parma, and Venice, 
Cope returned to England and took lodgings 
in Newman Street, London. He shortly 
afterwards removed to 1 Russell Place, 
where his landlord, a musical man, and his 
family, whose name was Kiallmark, sat for 
his models. Here he painted 'Paolo and 
Franceaca* and ' Osteria di Campagna,' which 
were exhibited at the Royal Academy in 
1887 and 1888 respectively. Miss Kiallmark 
sat for the principal figure in the latter. 
Thej attracted nonce, and 'Paolo andFran- 
eesca' was bought by the Art Union of 
London, and the other by Mr. Villebois ot 
Beaham, who gave him for it 150/., a large 
•om to the artist at that time. 

In 1839-10 he painted a large altar-piece 
(16 feet by 10) for St. George's church, 
Leeds, in a large room in Lisson Grove, 
formerly occupied by Haydon. It was ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy in 1840, re- 
erired a premium of 60/. at Liverpool, and 
was presented to the church by the artist. 

Jonn Sheepshanks [q. v.] had been Cope's 
friend from boyhood, and it was at his house 
that he made friends with George Richmond 
fq. v.] and Richard Redgrave [q. v.] It was 
during his residence in Russell Place that the 
Etching Club was founded, of which Cope 
was one of the original members. While 
on a sketching and fishing excursion with 
Richard Redgrave in the valley of the Greta 
and the Tees, and livine at Mortham Tower, 
he met the father of his friend Harrison (who 
had died), and it was at his house (Stubb 
House) that Cope met his future wife. Miss 
Charlotte Bennmg, the daughter of a sur- 
geon with a large country practice. Despite 
Biach opposition from her mother, the 
marriage took place on 1 Sept. 1840, and the 
young couple, after a brief occupation of 
fumiiuied lodgings in Lisson Grove, moved 
to Hyde Park Gate, Kensington Gore, in 
\f<i\. While staving with his friends the 
Sulivans at Ashford (Middlesex), Cope had 
bpf'n much struck with a scene at a meeting 
of a board of guardians at Staines, and he 
made it the subject of a picture which was 
exhibited at the Academy in 1841. It was 
called 'Poor Law Guardians: Board-day 
ApDlication for Bread.' It attracted a great 
deal of attention, but, to his surprise and 
OMOoaragement, it was returned unsold at 
the doee of the exhibition. It was sold 
two years afterwards for 106/. to the winner 
of one of the prises of the Art Union of 
London. 

Cope now directed his energies to the com- 
petttUMis for the decoration of the 



of parliament, and obtained in 1843 a prize 
of 300/. for his cartoon of 'The First Trial 
by Jury.' This success induced him to 
learn fresco painting. To the competition 
of 1844 he sent a simple and beautiful 
design of the ' Meeting of Jacob and Rachel,' 
and was one of the six painters commis- 
sioned in July of that year to prepare car- 
toons, coloured sketches, and specimens of 
fresco painting for the decoration of the 
House of Lords, and he received 400/. for 
his design of ' Prince Henry, afterwards 
Henry V, acknowledging the authority of 
Chief-justice Gascoigne ' (see Return to 
H. of C. 23 of 1854). Cope received a com- 
mission to execute this design in fresco, and 
also another of ' Edward the Black Prince 
receiving the Order of the Garter.' Both 
frescoes were duly executed, but are now in 
ruins. These commissions were followed 
by others, and Cope was for many years so 
much engaged on his frescoes in the House 
of Lords that his only oil pictures were 
small and of a domestic character. He was 
elected an associate of the Royal Academy 
in 1843. 

In 1845 Cope went with Mr. Horsley to 
Italy to examine the technical methods of 
fresco painting; he also went to Munich 
and consulted Professor Hess. In 1846 he 
visited Switzerland, and in 1848 he ex- 
hibited a large picture of ' Cardinal AVolsey's 
Reception at Leicester Abbey ' (painted for 
Prince Albert), and was raised to the full 
honours of the Royal Academy. In this 
year he was engaged on the fresco of ' Gri- 
selda ' on the wall of the upper waiting hall 
of the House of Lords. It is now in ruins 
as well as another from ' Lara,' afterwards 
painted by Cope in the same hall. A small 
sketch of the ' Griselda' was sold to Munro of 
Novar. In 1849 he exhibited ' The First- 
born ' (life-size), which was painted for Mr. 
Dewhurst of Manchester. This is perhaps 
the best known of his easel pictures, as it 
was engraved by Vernon for the Art Union. 
Next year he sent to the Royal Academy 
' King Lear and Cordelia ' (painted for the 
' Shakespeare room ' of Isambard K. Brunei, 
tlie celebrated engineer), and in 1851 ' The 
Sisters,' sold to Mr. Watt, arid ' Laurence 
Saunders's Martyrdom' in three compart- 
ments. Another 'Marriage of Griselda' 
was painted for Mr. Betts of Preston Hall, 
Kent, in 1852, and in 1853 ' Othello relating 
his Adventures to Besdemona,' for Mr. Bar- 
low of Upton Hall, Ardwick, near Man- 
chester (afterwards repeated for the Duchess 
of Sutherland but sold to Mr. Leather of 
Leeds). In this year Cope was seriously ill 
from an internal tumour. In 1854 he ex- 



Cope 



6i 



Cope 



bibited * Tbe Friends ' ("two of his own 
cbildren, Charles and Cliarlotte), and in 
1855 'Royal Prisoners' (Princess Elizabetb 
lying dead in Carisbrooke Castle and her 
young brother). In 1856 he exhibited 
nothing, but he painted in oil 'The lOm- 
barkation of a l*uritan Family for New 
England ' (the pilgrim fathers) for the peers' 
corridor in the House of Lords, for which a 
fresco was afterwards substituted. A small 
replica in oils was also made. The big pic- 
ture was sent to America, and Cope was 
made an honorary member of the Phila- 
delphian Society of Arts. It is now in tlie 
National Gallery at Melbourne, Australia, 
having been purchased by the government 
of V ictoria in 1864. 

In 1857 Cope exhibited ' Affronted ' (a 
portrait of his daughter Charlotte, which 
was engraved), and executed a fresco of The 
Burial of Charles I ' in the peers' corridor. 
To this year also belong two designs from 
Longman's ' Selections from Moore,' and four 
for Burns's ' Cotter's Saturday Night.' In 

1858 came 'The Stepping Stones,' and in 

1859 a picture of ' Cordelia receiving the 
News of her Father's Ill-treatment,' and the 
fresco of ' The Parting of Lord and Lady 
William Russell ' in the peers' corridor. 
In 1861 the fresco of ' Raising the Standard ' 
was placed in the same corridor. In 1862 
he executed by the water-glass method the 
fresco of 'The Defence of Basing House,' 
and in 1863-4 that of the ' Expulsion of 
Fellows from Oxford for refusing to sign the 
Covenant.' In 1863 Cope was examined 
before the Royal Academy commission, and 
in 1865 he exhibited a study of Fra An- 
gelico in oil, afterwards executed in mosaic 
on a larger scale at the South Kensington 
Museum. This he presented to the Royal 
Academy with his diploma picture ' Gene- 
vieve.' In this year his large posthumous 
portrait of the prince consort was hung in 
the large room of the Society of Arts. For 
many years Cope had been associated with 
the prince in his schemes for the advance- 
ment of art, and the artist in his re- 
miniscences bears witness to the prince's in- 
variable kindness. In 1865 and 1866 Cope 
finished his bust frescoes in the House of 
Lords : * Meeting of Train Bands to relieve 
the Siege of Gloucester' and 'Speaker 
Lenthall asserting the Privileges of the 
Commons.' In 1866 he became secretary of 
the building committee appointed to make 
arrangements for the removal of the Royal 
Academy from Trafalgar Square. In 1867 he 
was appointed professor of painting to the 
Royal Academy, and he delivered six lectures 
a year till 1875. In 1867 also he painted a 



third scene (moonlight) from * Othello ' (ex- 
hibited 18(58), and wu ono of the artifta 
selected to report on the paintings in oil st 
the great exhibition in i'aris. 

In 1868 Cope received a seyere shock by 
the loss of his wife, but after a brief visit to 
the continent he recommenced work and sent 
three pictures to the Academy in 1869. In 
1871 he exhibited 'Guy, the Bookseller, 
consulting Dr. Mead as to the Plans of Guy's 
Hospital,' which was presented to the hos- 
pital, and he was one of the committee of 
artists employed in the decoration of West- 
minster I'alace who reported on fresco 
painting in this year (see Return to House 
of Commons, 19 of 1872). He continued to 
exhibit at the Royal Academy till 1882, but 
perhaps the most important picture of this 
period was ' The Council of the Royal Aca- 
demy — Selection of Pictures.* It was ex- 
hibited in 1876 and presented by the artist 
to the Royal Academy, to be placed in the 
council room, where it now hangs. It was 
in 1876 also that Cope was selected with 
Mr. Peter Graham to represent the Royal 
Academy at the centennial exhibition' in 
Philadelphia. He took with him his son 
Arthur (now an associate of the Royal 
Academy), and on his return he delivered a 
lecture upon the proceedings of the 'judges,' 
and also wrote an amusing account of his 
experiences in America, both of which are 
contained in his ' Reminiscences.* 

In 1879 Cope left his house at Kensington 
and married his second wife, Miss Eleanor 
Smart. They settled at Maidenhead on the 
Thames in a house called Craufurd Rise. In 
1883 he retired on to the list of honorary 
members of the Royal Academy, and ceased 
the active practice of his profession, though 
he still amused himself occasionally with 
painting, and as late as 1886 acted as examiner 
in painting for the South Kensington Schools 
of Art. He retained the vigour of his in- 
tellectual ])owers, his keenness of obserra- 
tion, and his humour till the end. It was 
during his last years that,at the request of 
his eldest son, the Rev. Charles Henry Cope, 
he wrote the ' Reminiscences ' of his life, 
which furnish most of the material of this 
article. The autobiography was completed 
in October 1889, and he died at I^ume- 
mouth on 21 Aug. 1890, after a brief illness. 

Though not of the first rank, Cone was 
an artist of considerable accomplishment, 
versed in technical methods, a capable 
draughtsman and designer, and a good 
etcher. Engaged mainly on large historical 
compositions, and obtaining a ready sale for 
the smaller domestic pictures which occupied 
his lighter hours, he lived an industrious 



Corner 



62 



Cory 



and honoared life. Unfortunately the works 
on which ho bestowed his higher energies, 
the frescoes in the House of Lords, are for 
the most part in a deplorable condition. Of 
his smaller work good specimens are in- 
cluded in the Sheepshanks bequest at South 
Kmington. 

[RamintscencM of Charles West Cope, R.A., 
br his son Charles Henry .Cope, M.A. ; Men of 
the Time ; Annual Register ; Returns to House 
of Commons, 23 of 1854, 295 of 18G1, and 
19 of 1872; Art Journal, 1869; Athenaeum, 
1880 ii. 828, and 1892 ii. 166; Hamerton's 
Itabing and Etchers.] C. M. 

CORNER, JULIA (1798-1875), writer 
for the young, daughter of John Comer 
[a. T.], an engraver, was born in London in 
1/08. She was the author of stories and 
pla^ for children, and of a number of edu- 
cational works dealing chiefly with history, 
which are still extremely popular. Of her 
•History of France' (1840), for instance, 
thirty-one thousand copies had been sold by 
1889. All the histories have lately been re- 
vised and brought out in new editions, some 
illustrated with engravings after designs by 
Sir John Gilbert. Some of the plays for 
Tonog people, mostly adaptations of well- 
Imown fairy tales, are now in a sixteenth 
edition. She wrote altogether over sixty 
books. The chief educational works that 
have been reprinted are 'The Play Grammar ' 
(1W8); the histories of England (1840), of 
Scotland (1840), of Ireland (1840), of Greece 
(1841), of Rome (1841), of Italy (1841), of 
Holland and Belgium (1842), of Germany 
mnd the German Empire (1841). The ' His- 
torical Library,' in 14 vols., appeared first 
in 1840-8. Miss Comer died at 92 Claren- 
don Roftd, Netting Hill, London, on 16 Aug-. 

[Allibones Diet. i. 430,Snppl. i. 390 ; Boase's 
Uodftrn English Biogr. i. 720-21.] E. L. 

OORY, WILLIAM JOHNSON (1823- 
1892). poet and master at Eton, was the 
MOOIM son of Charles Johnson of Torrington, 
Btvouhire, and was bom there on 9 Jan. 
1888. His mother, Theresa, daughter of the 
Rer. Peter Wellin^on Furse of Halsdon, was 
ft mat-niece of Sir Joshua Reynolds. His 
elder brother, Charles Wellington Johnson 
(lWl-1900), assumed his mother's surname 
ofFone; he was well known from 1894 till 
bw death (on 2 Ana. 1900) as canon and 
ncbdeecon of AVestmmster. William John- 
■on reeetved his education at Eton, where 
be WM elected kind's scholar in 1831, and 
WejrcMtle scholar m 1841, and at King's 
college, Cambridge, where he was elected 
to a Kholarship on 23 Feb. 1842. In 1843 



he gained the chancellor's medal, ' won by a 
casting vote,' for an English poem on Plato. 
In 1844 he won the Craven scholarship, suc- 
ceeded to a fellowship at King's in February 
1845, graduated B.A., and in September of 
the same year was appointed an assistant 
master at Eton, where he remained for up- 
wards of twenty-six years. ' He will long 
be remembered as the most brilliant Eton 
tutor of his day,' says Mr. G. W. Prothero 
in his memoir of Henry Bradshaw. Among 
his pupils were Lord Rosebery and Sir F. 
Pollock. Between 1861 and 1865 Johnson 
took a leading part in the throwing open of 
Kind's College, Cambridge, previously an ex- 
clusive foundation, and in the introduction 
of mathematics and natural science into its 
course of study. He led the way to the 
creation of an exhibition fund by the gift of 
400/., to which he afterwards made many 
additions. 

In 1872 Johnson, who had two years pre- 
viously inherited an estate at Halsdon, as- 
sumed the name of Cory and retired from 
Eton, resigning also his fellowship at King's. 
In 1878 he went for his health to Madeira, 
where he married, in August 1878, Rosa Caro- 
line, daughter of George de Carteret Guille, 
rector of Little Torrington, Devonshire. He 
spent four years entirely in Madeira, and on 
his return in September 1882 settled at 
Hampstead, where he devoted much time to 
giving oral classical instruction to ladies, 
for his own sake as well as theirs. * Women,' 
he says, < are as divining rods tome; they 
relish everything that is taught.' He died 
on 11 June 1892, and was buried at Hamp- 
stead on 16 June. He left a son, Andrew 
Cory, born in July 1879. 

Cory has a permanent and exceptional 
place among English lyrists as the singer of 
the affection of a teacher for his pupils. The 
first edition of his ' lonica,' published anony- 
mously in 1858, at first neglected, soon came 
to be sought and hoarded, and is now among 
the most prized of modern editiones prin- 
cipes. A new enlarged edition was reissued 
in 1891. In such pieces as 'Anteros' and 
* Mimnermus in Church ' emotional glow and 
pathetic tenderness are blended with inde- 
scribable charm. In the poems written sub- 
sequently, and published along with the 
original ' lonica ' in 1891, Cory has forsaken 
his ground of vantage, and appears as merely 
the elegant and melodious versifier. He 
practised Latin and Greek verse composition 
with consummate taste and skill ; the original 
verses which accompany his ' Lucretilis,' a 
technical ' introduction to the art of writing 
Latin lyric verses ' (2 parts, Eton, 1871), were 
pronounced by H. A. J. Munro ' the best and 



Cottesloe 



63 



Cotton 



most Iloratian Sapphics and Alcaics since 
Horace ceased to write.' • lonhon '(1873) was 
a similar nuvnual for (treelc iambics; and 
* Nucos' (18()9-70),a series of lessons on the 
new Latin primer, lie defended verse com- 
positidn in a paper, contributed to the 'Essays 
on a Liberal Education/ edited by F. W. 
Farrar ; and the Etonian system in general in 
two pamphlets on * Eton keform ' published 
in 1801 in reply to the strictures of* Pater- 
familias ' (Matthew James Higgins [q. v.]) in 
the Cornhill Magazine, and of Sir J. T. 
Coleridge. His 'Guide to Modern English 
History' from 1815 to 1835, published after 
his return from Madeira, is a very remark- 
able book, composed in a singularly concise 
and pregnant style, almost every sentence 
embodying a criticism or some view or sug- 
gestion of marked originality. The author's 
very merits, nevertheless, render him an 
unsafe guide to follow implicitly, his obiter 
dicta are not supported by reasoning or 
authority ; as a critic of men and events he 
is as valuable as he is racy and entertaining. 
It was intended to have been continued, but 
remained incomplete. The book, however, 
which would most contribute to preserve his 
memory w^ere it better known, is the * Ex- 
tracts from the Letters and Journals of 
William Cory,' printed for subscribers at the 
Oxford University Press, with a good por- 
trait, in 1897. It would not be easy to find 
a more charming volume of its class, whether 
in point of expression or of feeling ; and the 
amiability and self-devotion of which the 
reader might otherwise tire are relieved by an 
originality amounting to eccentricity, finding 
vent in paradoxical but suggestive disparage- 
ment of Shakespeare, Goethe, Dante, and the 
middle ages. The extracts cover nearly the 
whole of the writer's life. 

[Extracts from the Letters and Journals of 
William Cory, selected and arranged by F. W. 
Cornish ; Miles's Poets and Poetry of the Cen- 
tury.] R. G. 

COTTESLOE, Barox. [See Fremaxtle, 
Thomas Francis, 1798-1890.] 

COTTON, Sir ARTIII'R THOMAS 
(1803-1899), general and irrigation engineer, 
was son of Henry Calveley Cotton of Wood- 
cote, Oxford [see Cotton, Richart) Lynch, 
D.D., and Sir Sydney John]. He was born 
on 15 May 1803, and at fifteen years of age 
entered the East India Company's military 
college at Addiscombe, whence at the close 
of 1819 he obtained a commission in the 
Madras engineers, and after having served 
successively with the ordnance survey at 
Bangor and with the engineer depot at 
Chatham, he proceeded to Madras as an 



assifltant engineer in 182L On reaching 
India he was for a time employed in ex- 
amining tlie Pambam passage, or channel, 
which divides the mainland of the Indian 
peninsula from the island of Uam^fshwaram 
off the north coast of Ceylon. Cotton's 
opinion was favourable to the practicability 
of deepening the channel, so as to render it 
navigable for ships of a considerable size; 
but nothing very material followed from 
his report, and the traffic is still raainlv 
confined to coasting vessels, although there is 
some emigration by this route to Burma and 
the Straits settlements. 

In 1824, upon the outbreak of the first 
war with Burma, Cotton joined the ex- 
peditionary force. In the course of the war 
he led the storming parties against seven 
forts and stockades, he served in the trenches 
against the great stockade at Donabew, was 
present at most of the actions in the war, 
and was mentioned in despatches at its 
close. In 1828 he was for the first time em- 
ployed upon what became the most im- 
portant duty of his life, viz. the improve- 
ment and extension of irrigation in Southern 
India. The works upon which he was em- 
ployed, or which owe their existence to his 
initiative, were, first, the works on the 
Cavery and Coleroon rivers in the districts 
of Trichinopoly, Tanjore, and South Arcot ; 
second, the works on. the Godavery river in 
the district of that name ; third, the works 
on the Krishna river at Bt*zwada in the 
Krishna district. The earliest of these works 
were those on the Cavery and Coleroon rivers, 
the first of which rises in Coorg, passes through 
Mysore, and, skirting the British district of 
Coimbatore, a few miles above Trichinopoly, 
branches into two main streams. The larger 
of these streams, called the Coleroon, takes a 
north-easterly course and divides the districts 
of Trichinopoly and Tanjore, and then, skirt- 
ing the southern divisions of the South Arcot 
district, falls into the Bay of Bengal to the 
south of Porto Novo ; while the other branch, 
retaining the name of Cavery, passes through 
the centre of the Tanjore district, and, supply- 
ing in its course numerous irrigation chan- 
nels, debouches into the sea, so much of it as 
remains, to the south of the French settle- 
ment of Karical. 

The Cavery had been used for irrigation 
from the earliest times all along ita course, 
from its source in the Coorg mountains to its 
delta in the Tanjore district. In the delta it 
has many branches, the water-surface of 
which is generally higher than the surround- 
ing country, and is kept from overflowing by 
artificial banks. Minor channels have been 
drawn from these branches, and the whole 



Cotton 



64 



Cotton 



eoontry w thus a network of streams. This 
fyliem waa in full operation when Tanjore 
|y^ ^ ^<> a British province; but in 1828 it 
waa found that the system was seriously 
endangered by the increasing tendency of 
tha Cavery waters to flow down the Cole- 
roon, deaerting the southern branch and its 
dnendant branches and channels. In these 
eiiOiuiitUnoas Cotton, then a captain of 
angineeTa, waa placed in charge of the works 
inTanjore and the adjoining districts, with 
Ofders to suggest a remedy. The result of 
hia investigations, prosecuted with great 
eax« and extended over several years, was 
completely successful. His plan embraced 
the construction of two dams or anicut8,the 
int at the head of the Coleroon, which had 
the effect of turning a portion of its waters 
into the Cavery on the right, and at the same 
time securing an abundant supply for the 
land in the Trichinopoly district on the left. 
The aeeond was a still larger work, seventy 
miles lower down the Coleroon, which in- 
tercepted the water still flowing down that 
river and provided an adequate supply for 
the southern division of South Arcot. 

These works, both of considerable magni- 
tade, were built in the winter of 1835-6, in 
the brief season of the cessation of freshes 
in the river. They were built at a most 
critical time; for in 1837 a failure of the 
rains took place, which, without the new 
works, would have caused immense loss to 
the people and to the government. The great 
ntihty of the works was at once realised. 
The principal collector of Tanjore, writing 
to the board of revenue in 1838, declared 
that there was ' not an individual in the 
prorince who did not consider it (the upper 
•aieat) the greatest blessing that had ever 
baen conferred upon it,' at the same time 
ezpfeasing his conviction that ' the name of 
its projector would in Tanjore survive all 
the Europeans who had been connected with 
it.' 

The financial returns of the works were 
•aeh as have seldom resulted from any public 
undertaking. It appears from a report made 
forty years after the construction of the 
anicata, that the annual profit on the capital 
expended was, in the case of the upper 
anient, 69 per cent , and in that of the lower 
anient nearly 100 per cent. The increased 
▼alue of private propertv, due to the works, 
was equally large, while in seasons of 
•oarcity not only nave these districts been 
preserved from the horrors of famine, but 
thwr have been able to pour large supplies 
of food into the adjoining districts. 

In 184/>, or ten years after the construc- 
tion of the Coleroon anicuts, Cotton laid 



before the Madras government a project for 
building an anicut across the Godavery river 
a few miles below the town of Rajahmundry. 
The Godavery district, then called the 
Rajahmundry district, was at that time in a 
most depressed condition. Not many years 
before it had gone through a terrible famine, 
the people were impoverished, and the 
revenue was always in arrears. The district 
was mainly dependent for its revenue upon 
a precarious rainfall, and upon tanks de- 
pending upon that rainfall. 

Here again was a magnificent river flow- 
ing through the district, having its source 
in the western Ghats, fed by the almost un- 
failing south-west monsoon, and only needing 
the exercise of the genius which had brought 
prosperity to Tanjore and Trichinopoly, to 
convey its waters over the land on either 
side of it. The work was one of greater 
magnitude, and presented more serious diffi- 
culties, than the works on the Cavery and 
Coleroon. The total breadth of the river 
at the point at which it was decided to 
build the anicut was G,287 yards, or more 
than three miles and a half. The stream, 
however, was divided by three islands, which 
reduced the length of those portions of the 
dams having their foundations in the bed of 
the river to 3,946 yards or 2^ miles. Even 
so it was a stupendous work, the Dowlaish- 
waram branch of the anicut being alone of 
greater length than the two Coleroon anicuts 
put together. Moreover, unlike Tanjore and 
Trichinopoly, the Godavery district was 
comparatively destitute of irrigation chan- 
nels, while in high floods the river overflowed 
its banks, and flooded the surrounding 
country. 

The anicut which was begun in 1847 took 
five years to construct. It included, as a 
subsidiary work, an aqueduct built to con- 
duct water over the tidal part of the river 
to a fertile island near its mouth. 

The Godavery irrigation channels were to 
a considerable extent so constructed as to be 
available for navigation. At the present 
time the navigable channels in the Godavery 
delta are 528 miles long, while the total 
length of the distributive channels is 1,600 
miles. The financial returns of the works, 
as represented by interest on capital, are, 
owing to their unavoidably greater cost, con- 
siderably less than those received from the 
Cavery and Coleroon works. They are 
variously computed at from 12*69 to 14-92 
per cent., according to the method of calcu- 
lation observed. This is by no means 
unsatisfactory as a return upon a public 
work, and in the far more important matter 
of the effect of the works upon the prosperity 



Cotton 



6s 



Cotton 



of the people the results are still more en- 
coiirftging. Tho works irrijfiito upwiirds of 
612,(K)0 acres. They had raised the exports 
and imports of tlie district from 170,000/. in 
1847 to l,500,tX)0/. in 1887. They have 
converted a district which in former times 
was continually in a state of extreme poverty 
and distress into one of tlie most prosperous 
districts in India. The people are now well- 
to-do and contented. The population has 
more than doubled. 

The anient on the Krishna river, in the 
district of that name, was projected by Cotton, 
but was act nail V planned by the late Colonel 
Sir Henry Atwell Lake,R.E., K.C.B. [q. v.], 
afterwards distinguished in the defence of 
Kars. Its construction, however, was carried 
out by the late Major-general Charles Orr, 
II. E., a very able otlicer who had received his 
training under Cotton on the Godavery, and 
in the absence of the latter, owing to ill- 
health, during a portion of the time that the 
Godavery works were in progress, had been 
in charge of those works. 

The Krishna river, like the Godavery, has 
its rise in the western Ghats, and the district 
in which the works were constructed had 
suffered from time immemorial from very 
much the same causes which had impeded 
the prosperity of the Godavery district. 
I'nlike the Godavery delta, the delta of the 
Krishna district begins comparatively near 
its embouchure, and the anient being built 
across an undivided river is verv much less 
in length than the Godavery anlcut; but its 
section is very much greater. AVhile the 
height of the Godavery anient from the bed 
of the river is 14 feet, that of the Krishna 
anicut is 20 feet. The length of the Krishna 
anicut, on the other hand, is much less, being 
1,300 yards against 6,257 yards, the extreme 
length of the Godavery anicut. The waters 
of the Krishna are distributed through 348 
miles of navigable and 800 miles of unnavi- 
gable canals. The total cost of the anicut 
and the distributing canals was about 
834,000/., and the number of acres irrigated 
is now about 400,(XX). The interest which 
the works yield upon the capital expended 
is put down at 7*14 per cent. 

Of the three important irrigation works, 
of which a brief description is given in the 
preceding paragraphs, the first two may be 
regarded as the direct creation of Cotton, 
while, if it had not b«'en for his enthusiastic 
advocacy, the construction of the third would 

yrobably have been postponed for many years, 
lut these works do not by any means con- 
f^titute the whole of the boon which has been 
conferred upon India by Cotton. He not 
only createu great hydraulic works, but ho 

VOL. II.— SUP. 



founded a school of Indian hydraulic en- 
gineering which is still engaged in developinff 
the resources of other Indian river*. On 
the Pennar river in the Nellore district, on 
the Corteliar, on the Palar, Cheyar, and 
Vellar, in the districts of north and south 
Arcot and Chingleput, works have been 
constructed, which, if unavoidably less pro- 
ductive than those on the three larger rivers, 
still bear their share in increasing the food 
supply of the country. 

And further south on the borders of the 

Madura district and the native state of 

Travancore there has lately been constructed 

the Periyar irrigation work, an irrigation 

I work even more ambitious in its design, and 

j presenting greater difficulties of construction 

j than any irrigation work which has yet 

been constructed in India. Of this bold and 

I apparently successful work it may be affirmed 

that it never would have been entertained 

' if it had not been for Sir Arthur Cotton's 

previous labours. 

The effect of Cotton's works in preventing 

or in mitigating famines is unquestionable. 

In the great famine of 1877 four million 

I persons are supposed to have perished in the 

! more or less unprotected districts of the 

I Madras presidency. In the districts pro- 

I tected by the great irrigation works, viz. 

I Godavery, Krishna, and Tanjore, there were 

no deaths from famine, and it is estimated 

that the surplus food exported from these 

districts was sufficient to save the lives of 

three million persons. 

The eminent services rendered by Cotton 
had long been highly appreciated by the 
government under which he served. On 
15 May 1858 the Madras government re- 
corded their opinion of his work on the 
Godavery in the following words : * If we 
have done our duty and have founde<l a 
system which will be a source of strength 
and wealth and credit tons as a nation, it is 
due to one master mind, which, with admi- 
rable industry and perseverance, in spite of 
every discouragement, has worked out this 

great result. Other able and devoted officers 
ave caught Colonel Cotton's spirit, and have 
I rendered invaluable aid under his advice 
i and direction ; but for this creation of genius 
i we are indebted to him alone. Colonel 
I Cotton's name will bo venerated by millions 
' yet unborn, when many who now occupy a 
much larger place in the public view will be 
forgotten ; but, although it concerns not 
him, it would be for our own sake a matter 
of regret if Colonel Cotton were not to re- 
ceive due acknowledgment during hia own 
1 lifetime.* 
I Three yean later, in 1861, on the recom- 



Cotton 



66 



Cotton 



mendatioD of Sir Charles Wood, then secre- 
tary of state for India, Cotton received the 
honour of knighthood. In 1866 the second 
class of K.C.S.I. was conferred upon him. 
Althouffh he survived for thirty-three years 
longer, ne received no other public acknow- 
ledgment of his ser\'ices. 

Cotton retired from government service in 
1862, but from 1863 onwards he was em- 
plojed from time to time in investigating 
and reporting ui)on various irrigation pro- 
jects, some suggested by himself, and others 
enumating from other sources. Among the 
former of these projects were the irrigation 
-works in Karnul and Orissa, both of which 
were strongly advocated by Cotton, but were 
less successful in their results than the 
works which have been described in this 
article. This want of success was generally 
attributed to the fact that in both these 
cases the tracts of country which it was 
sought to irrigate were more under the in- 
fluence of the south-west monsoon than the 
tracts previously dealt with by Cotton, and 
that consequently they did not need irriga- 
tion in ordinary years. Cotton's view was 
that the comparative failure was largely due 
to the omission of the district officers to 
impress upon the people the great benefit of 
irrigation in enabling them to cultivate more 
valuable crops than were possible without it. 

In 1863 Cotton became engaged in a contro- 
versy with Sir Proby Cautley regarding the 
plan of the Ganges canal, which had been 
constructed by the latter. Cotton's criti- 
cisms, which had reference to the position of 
the canal head, were pronounced after full 
investigation to be well-founded, and the 
canal was partially remodelled at a cost, 
which, however, included extensions of work 
necessary in any case, of fifty-five lakhs of 
rupees [see article on Caxjtlet, Sir Proby]. 
^ The importance of the water communica- 
tions of India was a subject to which 
Cotton attached very great importance. He 
continually urged the expediency of utilising 
more extensively the rivers of India and the 
impolicy of developing the more expensive 
system of railway communication to the 
exclusion of the more economical system of 
canals. His views obtained little support, 
and his opponents declared that he had 
water on tDe brain. But there can be no 
<|ue8tion that there was much force in his 
arguments, and that both the revenues of 
India and the national wealth would have 
darived considerable benefit if his advice had 
been acted upon to a greater extent and at 
an earlier period. In 1878 Cotton was called 
upon to ffive evidence before a select com- 
mittee of the House of Commons, which, 



after the disastrous famine which depopu- 
lated large tracts in the Madras and Bombay 
presidencies, was appointed to inquire into 
and report as to the expediency of construct- 
ing public works in India with money raised 
on loan, both as regards financial results and 
the prevention of famine. The attitude of 
some of the members of the committee was 
very hostile to Cotton's views, and the tenor 
of their report was regarded by him as un- 
duly underrating the great importance both 
of irrigation and of cheap water communica- 
tion. This antagonistic attitude is still main- 
tained by some whose official positions give 
weight to their opinions : but the recent 
famine in Western India, unprecedented in 
its extent and virulence, has wrought a 
great change in public opinion, and in 1900 
the viceroy (Lord Curzon of Kedleston) prac- 
tically admitted in a speech in the legisla- 
tive council at Simla the correctness of 
Cotton's views. 

Cotton retired from the army with the 
rank of general in 1877 and settled at Wood- 
cote, Dorking. Thenceforth he applied his 
ever-active mind to devising new methods 
for improving English agriculture. He had 
great faith in deep cultivation, and in a 
small plot of ground attached to his house 
at Dorking he carried out some remarkably 
successful experiments. To the end of his 
life, which reached to the great age of ninety- 
six, he maintained undiminished a keen inte- 
rest in Indian aftairs. In a letter which he 
wrote to the author of this article in No- 
vember 1896, after he had completed his 
ninety-third year, the following expressions 
occur : ' What delights me is that, in spite 
of all mistakes, God has blessed India under 
our rule far beyond any man's imagination. 
If any man had written, when I went out, 
expressing a hope of anything approaching 
the present state of things, he would have 
been thought the greatest fool in India.' 

During his latter years he was afflicted 
by deafness, but in other respects he main- 
tained to a great degree his remarkable 
vigour, both mental and physical. Through- 
out his life he was impressed by strong re- 
ligious convictions, which he retained to the 
last. The end came peacefully and pain- 
lessly on 24 July 1899. Cotton married, in 
1841, Miss Elizabeth Learmonth, who sur- 
vives him. They had one son, who died 
before his father, and one daughter, Eliza- 
beth, who married, first, Admiral Sir James 
Hope, K.C.B., and, secondly, T. Anthony 
Denny, esq., D.L. 

Shortly after Cotton's death the secretary 
of state for India in council granted Lady 
Cotton a special pension of 250^. a year in 



Cotton 



67 



Cotton 



recognition of her husband's distinguished 
services. 

[India Office Records; paper contributed to 
the Koviil Knginoers' Journal by the late Colonel 
J. H. iioll, U.K. ; Mi-moir of General Sir A. T. 
Cotton, K.C.S.I., contributed to the Koyal En- 
gineers' Journal by General F. 11. Kundall, R.M, 
C.S.I. , September 1899 ; Lecture on Agriculture 
by Sir A. Cotton, rea<l before the Balloon 
Society, London, on 3 Feb. 1893; General Sir 
Arthur Cotton, R.E., K.C.SI. : his Life and 
Work, by his Daughter, Lady Hope, with some 
Famine Prcventiou Studies by William Difjby, 
CLE. 1900 ; Indian Engineering, 10 Nov. 1900; 
personal knowledge.] A. J. A. 

COTTON, Sir HENRY ri8:21-1892), 
judge, was second son of William Cotton 
(1786-1866) [q. v.] His eldest sister, Sarah 
(181o-1876), was wife of Sir Henry Went- 
worth Acland [q. v. Suppl.] (cf. Isambard 
Brunel, Sketch of the Life and Character of 
Sarah Acland^ 1894). Henry was born at 
Walwood House, Leytonstone, on 20 May 
1821, and educated at Eton, where he won 
the Newcastle scholarship in 1838. In May of 
the following year he matriculated at Christ 
Church, Oxford, where he was a student until 
1852. He graduated B.A. in 1843. In the 
same year he entered as a student at Lincoln's { 
Inn, and was called to the bar in 1846. 
He quickly acquired a large practice in the | 
ec[uity courts, and through the influence of j 
his father was appointed standing counsel 1 
to the Bank of England. In 1866 he took | 
silk and attached himself to the court of I 
Vice-chancellor (Sir) Richard Malins [q. v.], 
where he shared the leadership with Mr. \\ . 1 
B. Gla.sse. Among the important cases in 1 
which he was engaged were the liquidation 
of Overend, Gurney,& Co.; the King of Han- 
over 17. the Bank of England; Rubery v. 
Grant ; Dr. llayman v. the Governors of Rug- 
by School; and the Republic of Costa Rica 
V. Erlanger. In 1872 he was appointed stand- 
ing coun.'^el to the university of Oxford, and 
short Iv afterwards only went into court on a 
special retainer. In 1877, on the death of 
Lord-justice Sir George Mellish [q. v.], he 
was appointed a lord-justice of appeal, sworn 
on the privy council, and knighted. In the 
same year the university of Oxford conferred 
upon him the honorary degree of U.C.L. 
As a judge he was learned, painstaking, and 
courteous, and he enjoyed the reputation of 
being one of the strongest members of the 
appeal court. He retired from the bench 
in October 1890, when his health already 
showed signs of breaking down. 

As a bov Cotton was attached to athletic 
pursuits, though his stature was small. At 
Eton he was a ' wet bob,' and in later life 



specially distinguished a« a flgore-tkater. 

For many years he took a grouse moor at 
Kinloch-Rannoch in Perthshire. Wliile 
shooting there he had the misfortune to 
damage his right hand, which resulted in the 
amputation of the tips of most of the fingen. 
But this did not prevent him from remain- 
ing an act ive member of the Inns of Court 
volunteers from 1866 until his elevation to 
the bench. On his retirement from the corps 
he presented a challenge cup, to be decided 
by the sum of shooting and drill scores. In 
1853 he married Clemence Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of the Rev. Thomas Streatfield of Charts 
Edge, Kent, by whom he had a family of five 
sons and two daughters. Three of his sons 
died unmarried, ot whom one was a captain 
in the guards, and another was well known 
as president of the Oxford University boat 
club. He bought the estate of Forest Mere, 
near Liphook in Hampshire. Here he died 
on 22 Feb. 1892, and was buried in the 
neighbouring churchyard of Milland. 

His eldest brother, William Charles 
Cotton (1813-1879), writer on bees, bom in 
1813, was likewise educated at Eton and at 
Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated 
in 1830, with a first in classics and a second 
in mathematics. In 1842 he went out to 
New Zealand as Bishop Selwyn's first chap- 
lain, but soon returned in broken health. 
In 1857 he took the college living of Frods- 
ham in Cheshire, where he died unmarried 
in 1879. From a boy he was devoted to 
the study of bees. At Oxford he was one 
of the founders of the Apiarian Society, of 
which he was the first secretary. In 1838 
he printed at Oxford two ' Short and Simple 
Letters to Cottagers from a Bee Preserver,* 
which were afterwards expanded into an 
illustrated volume, * My Bee i3ook ' (London, 
1842), with a bibliography of the subject. 

[Private information; Times, 23 Feb. 1892; 
Foster's Men at the Bar, and Alumni Oxon.] 

J 8. C. 

COTTON, JOHN (1584-1052), noncon- 
formist divine, son of Roland or Rowland 
Cotton {d. 1604), an attorney, was bom at 
Derby on 4 Dec. 1584 (baptised at St. Alk- 
mund's, Derby, 15 Doc. 1584). After pass- 
ing through Derby grammar school under 
Richard Johnson, he is said to have entered 
Trinity College, Cambridge, * about the age 
of thirteen;' he was admitted scholar on 
16 April 1602, and attained distinction. 
His name occurs as B.A. in 1604. Gradua- 
ting M.A. in 1606 he removed to Emmanuel 
College, was elected fellow not '•■' - ''nn 
1607, became dean, and was i il 

tutor and catechist. His first rc.j,.. ... .in- 

F 2 



Cotton 



68 



Cotton 



vnmi 
NvilUi 



, .lions had been due to the preaching of 
U'ilUam Perkins [q.v.], some time after 
whose death (1602) a sermon by Richard 
Sibbes [o^-] proved a turning-point in his 
career. His funeral oration (10 Feb. 1609) 
for Robert Some [q.v.], master of Peterhouse, 
had gained him great repute, increased by a 
university sermon at St. Mary's. A second 
(Ittll.") university sermon drew a lar^e 
•odience, expecting learned flights ; a plain 
erangelical discourse was coldly received, 
bat moved John Preston [q. v.] to seek 
his counsel and to forsake medicine for 
divinity. 

In 1612 the parishioners of Boston, Lin- 
colnshire, petitioned for him as their vicar 
and carried their point, the corporation as 
patrons electing him on 24 June 1612 (ac- 
cording to Cotton Mather, by the mayor's 
casting vote, twice given in error) against 
another candidate who had influential sup- 
port, and despite the opposition of William 
liarlow (d. 1613) [q.v. J, bishop of Lincoln, 
who had a nominee of his own, Simon Biby, 
and objected to Cotton as too young, the 
real objection being his puritan tendency. 
His concio ad clerum on taking (1613) his 
B.D., and his divinity act, with William 
Chappell [q.v.] as opponent, added to his 
Cambridge repute. The Boston corporation 
made him frequent donations, and an annual 
grant of 10/., the living being small. His 
definite repugnance to the * ceremonies ' did 
not begin till 1616. For his disuse of them 
he was cited before his diocesan, llichard 
Neile [q.v.l, who suspended him. Thomas 
Leverett, nis agent, took the case to the 
court of arches on appeal, and succeeded in 
removing the suspension by some * piously 
sabt ile ' influence with one of the proctors ; 
for Cotton did not conform, though tempted 
by the offer of better preferment. He is 
•aid even to have disused the common 
prayer book, and his opinions advanced to 
oongrwrational views of church government. 
John Williams (1582-1650) [q.v.], lord-keeper 
and bishop of Lincoln, who respected him for 
hi* learnmg, indulged Cotton's nonconfor- 
mity with the sanction of James I. Subse- 
quently Williams complained that people 
came trom other parishes to receive the com- 
munion from Cotton without kneeling ; in 
a letter of 31 Jan. 1624-5 Cotton denies 
that this was the case. James Ussher [q.v.] 
consulted him on theological points ; a letter 
from Cotton (31 May 1626^ in Ussher's 
correspondence deals with predestination. 
His preaching in the morning was homiletic 
exposition of biblical books ; in the after- 
noon a catechetical lecture. He took theo- 
logical pupih ; Preston, ' the greatest pupil- 



monger in England,' sent his divinity stu- 
dents to complete their studies with Cotton ; 
among them were Thomas Hill {d. 1653) 
[q. v.] and Samuel Winter [q. v.] ; he had 
others from Holland and Germany. He was 
assisted by a * town preacher,' an office filled 
from 1629 by his cousin, Anthony Tuckney 
[q. v.] 

In September 1630 he was attacked by 
ague, which disabled him for a year ; from 
February 1631 he was the guest of Theo- 
philus Clinton, fourth earl of Lincoln. In 
1633 one Johnson, who had been punished 
by the Boston magistrates for some offence, 
gave information against two of them in the 
high commission court for nonconformity. 
He was questioned about Cotton, who was 
cited before the commission. He came up 
to London, but, on the advice of John Dod 
[q.v.], 'kept himself close.' His friends 
found they could not protect him, and Ed- 
ward Sackville, fourth earl of Dorset [q.v.], 
counselled flight. At a private conference 
several puritan divines urged him to conform ; 
his arguments brought them to his own 
position. Among them were John Daven- 
port [q.v.], Thomas Goodwin [q.v.], Philip 
Nye [q. v.], and Henrv Whitfield [q. v.] 
In a letter to Williams (7 May 1633) he 
intimated his resignation of his vicarage; 
the date of resignation, as entered in the 
corporation records, is 8 July. A fine of 
60/. was imposed on Cotton, but not till 
3 March 1633-4, when he had left England. 

About 13 July he sailed for New Eng- 
land in the Griffin, accompanied by Thomas 
Hooker [q.v.], Samuel Stone [q.v.], Edward 
Hutchinson [see under Hutchinson, Anne], 
and others. They landed at Shawmut or 
Trimountain on 3 or 4 Sept. 1633; their 
welcome was emphasised by a change of the 
town's name from Trimountain to Boston. 
Cotton was ordained (15 or 17 Oct.) as col- 
league to the Boston minister, John Wilson 
(1588-1667), grandnephew of Sir Thomas 
Wilson (1660 .P-1629) [q.v.] At the same 
time Leverett was ordained as ruling elder. 
The proceedings were to form a precedent 
for the future. Cotton's ministry in the 
humble New England meeting-house was 
on the same plan as in the splendid church 
of St. Botolph, including a Thursday lecture. 
Keeping Sunday as a sabbath, he counted 
the day from evening to evening, which 
became the usage of New England. His 
guidance was sought in the consolidation 
of the Massachusetts government ; at the 
direction of the general court he drew up 
an abstract of those parts of the Mosaic 
law which were considered of perpetual 
obligation. Thomas Hutchinson (1711- 



Cotton 



69 



Cotton 



1780) [q.v.] rightly describes him as 'more 
instrumeiitui, in the sottlement of their civil 
as well as ecclesiastical polity, than any 
other jHjrson.' 1 1 is * Abstract of the Laws 
of New lOnffland,' a code which made one 
ty]H' of religions observance compulsory, and 
ordained the dtmth penalty for heretical 
j)ropagandisfs, was printed in Loudon, 1G35, 
edited by William Aspinwell. 

His authority was not without set-backs. 
The arrival at IJoston, in September 1634, of 
Anne Hutchinson [q. v.] hampered him witli 
a devoted follower who proved a trouble- 
some enthusiju<t, and threw the colony into 
a ferment by her prophesyings and ' anti- 
noraian ' heresies [see Winthrop, John 
(1588-1649)]. The first New England 
synod met at Newtown (now Cambridge) 
on 30 Aug. 1637, and sat for three weeks; 
Cotton, who had at first made reserv-ations 
in his judgment of Mrs. Hutchinson, was 
brought at length to a complete condemna- 
tion of her opinions. His ideal of church 
government, as set out in his * Keys of the 
Kingdom of Heaven,' 1644, was put in prac- 
tice by the New England congregationalists. 
But when, in 1648, the synod had directed 
Cotton, Kichard Mather [q. v.], and llalph 
Partridge to prepare alternative schemes 
for reducing this ideal to legitilative shape, it 
was not Cotton's but Mather's * platform of 
church discipline' which was adopted by the 
synod at Cambridge (October 1648), and I 
hence known as the * Cambridge platform.' I 

In 1642 a letter, signed by four peers, over I 
thirty members of the lower house, and : 
some divines, had been addressed to Cotton, ! 
Hooker, and Davenport, begging them to j 
return to P^ngland, with a view to their | 
taking part in the Westminster assembly of ! 
divines. Cotton would have obeyed the 1 
call had the others been willing to accom- j 
pany him, but Hooker would not move. A 
movement in favour of presbyterian govern- 
ment, attempted by fresh immigrants in 
1643, was promptly suppressed by the gene- 
ral court. 

The nobility of purpose which inspired 
*the New England theocracy* cannot fail 
to be deeply impressive, but it involved an 
exchisiveness which easily passed into in- 
tol"rfttJC»'. Sometiiing may be said for the 
e\|>.(ru.ncv of tiie expulsion (1635) of lloger 
W il Hams' (l(K)4.s'- 1683) Tn. v.l, defended by 
Cotton in his • Letter ' of 1643. The infant 
colony doubtless felt that there were cases 
in which toleration would, to use Baxter's 
phrase, b«» ' self-murder.' But in his famous 
* Bloudy Tenent ' tract against persecution 
n644> Williams rose high above the con- 
tused ideas of his age, and cleared the way 



for the full recognition of the principle of 

religious liberty, while Cotton in nig ' Bloudy 
Tenent Washed' (HU7) fell back upon the 
very principles whose application to his own 
case had driven him from England. How 
little he understood the claims of conscienee 
may be seen in a letter written in the la«t 
year of his life, amazing for its tone of calm 
conviction, setting aside the remonstrances 
of Kichard Saltonstall (1580-1658) [q.v.l, 
and approving the treatment of Obadiaii 
Holmes, an Oxford scholar, who in August 
1651 had been publicly 'well whipped' for 
rebaptising an adult person at Lynn, near 
Boston (cf. Clakke, 111 News from New Eng- 
land, 1651). His consistency he bases on the 
futile distinction, * we flecl from men's in- 
ventions,' * we compel ' men to * God's institu- 
tions.' Yet his own temper was placid and 
gentle; Williams, his antagonist, speaks of 
him with esteem. He did not live to see 
the terrible application of his principles, in 
the case of the quakers, from 1656 to 1661. 
Cromwell wrote to him with warm sym- 
pathy (see his letter, 2 Oct. 1652, Shane 
M!SS. 4156, printed in Brook). 

After a brief illness, described as a com- 
plication of asthma and scurvy, he died on 
23 Dec. 1652, and was buried on 29 Dec. in 
the graveyard of King's chapel, Boston. In 
1855 a memorial brass, with Latin inscrip- 
tion by Edward Everett n794-lH65), waa 
placed in the Cotton chapel at St. Botolph's, 
Boston. He was of sanguine complexion, 
middle height, and stout. He married, first 
(about 1613), Elizabeth {d. April 1631), 
sister of James Horrocks, a Lancashire 
divine, by whom he had no issue; secondly 
(25 April 1632), Sarah Story, a widow, who 
survived him and married llichard Mather 
[q.v.l By her he had three sons and three 
daughters: (1) Seaborn {b. 12 Aug. 1038, 
d. 19 April 1686), was minister at Hampton, 
N.H., 1660-86; (2) John (A. 13 March 
1640, d. 18 Sept. 1699), minister at Ply- 
mouth, Mass., and Charleston, S.C., was 
noted as a preacher to Indians, and reviseil 
the translation of the Bible bv John Eliot 
(1604-1690) [q. v.] : his son Josiah [,\iim- 
1756) was a missionary to Indians under 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gos- 
pel, and author of an Indian vocabulary ; 
(3) Maria, married Increase Mather [q.v.] 

His very numerous publications miiT be 
thus arranged: I. Sermons. \, *(iod*s 
Promise to His Plantation,' 1630, 4to. 
2. 'The Churches Resurrection/ 1642, 4to 
(sermons on 1 John v.) 3. ' The Covenant 
of God's Free Grace,' 1W2, 4to. 4. * Christ 
the Fountaineof Life. . . . Sermons on part 
of the Fifth Chapter of . . . First . . . John,' 



Cotton 



Courtenay 



1061, 4to. 5. * A Treatise of the Covenant 
of Orwje,' 1659, 8vo; 1662, 12mo; 1671, 
8vo (8600008). 6. *The Danger of not 
obeying the Voice of God,' 1728, 12nio 
(edited by Benjamin Colman). II. Church 
Ooverament. 7. *A Coppy of a Letter . . . 
in Answer of certain Points made against 
the Discipline,' 1641, 4to. 8. ' The True 
Con8titution of a Particular . . . Church, 
1642, 4to. 9. * The Doctrine of the Church 
to which are committed the Keys of the 
Kingdom of Heaven,' 1643, 4to. 10. ' The 
Keyes of the Kingdom of Heaven,' 1644, 4to ; 
two editions same year (this treatise made 
John Owen (1616-1688) [q. v.] an indepen- 
dent). 11. 'Sixteene Questions . . . with 
his Answers,' 1644, 4to. 12. * The Way of 
the Churches ... in New-England,' 164.5, 
4to. 13. * Conference . . . with the Elders 
of New England,' 1646, 8vo (reported by 
F. Comwell). 14. 'Severall Questions of 
Serious . . . Consequence,' 1647, 4to. 16. * The 
Way of the Congregational Churches cleared,' 
1648, 4to (two parts). III. Doctrinal. 
16. 'The Way of Life,' 1641, 4to (edited 
by W. Morton). 17. * God's Mercie mixed 
with His Justice,' 1641, 4to. 18. 'Milk 
for Babes,' 1646, 8vo (a catechism). 
19. ' Singing of Psalms, a Gospel-ordinance,' 
1647, 4to ; 1650, 4to. 20. ' The Grounds 
and Ends of the Baptisme of the Children of 
the Faithfull,' 1(U7, 4to (dialogue ; with 
epistle by Thomas Goodwin, D.I), [q. v.]). 
21. * Of the Holinesse of Church Members,' 
1660, 4to. 22. 'The Covenant of Grace,' 
1654-55, 8vo (two parts). 23. ' The Saint's 
Support and Comfort,' 16-58, 4to. IV. Con- 
troversial. 24. ' A Modest . . . Answer 
to Mr. Ball's Discourse of Set Formes of 
Praver,' 1642, 4to (against John Ball (1585- 
1640) I'q. V.]) 26. ' A Letter ... to Mr. 
Williams,' 1643, 4to. 26. ' A Treatise of 
Mr. Cotton's ... concerning Predestina- 
tion . . . with an Examination ... by 
W. Twisse,' 1646, 4to [see Twisse, William, 
D.D.] 27. 'The Controversie concerning 
Liberty of Conscience . . . truly stated,' 
1646, 4to; 1649, 4to. 28. 'The Bloudy 
Tenent Washed,' 1647, 4to. 29. ' A Censure 
. . . upon . . . Mr. Henden,' 1656, 4to. 
V. Ex^itory. 30. ' The . . . Seven Vials 
. . . Exposition of the 16th Chapter of the 
RereUtion,' 1642, 4to ; 1645, 4to. 31. ' A 
Brief Exposition ... of Canticles,' 1642, 
8?o; 1648, 8vo; 1655, 870. 32. 'A Prac- 
tical Commentanr . . . upon the First 
Ejnstle ... of John,' 1656, fol. 33, ' A 
Briefe Expoeition . . . upon . . . Eccle- 
jiaites,' 1654, 8vo; 1657, 8vo. 34. 'An 
Exposition upon the Thirteenth Chapter of 
th« Rerelation,' 1655, 4to ; 1656, 4to. He 



prefaced J. Norton's ' Orthodox Evangelist,' 
1654 4to. Two of his tracts were published 
by the Narragansett Club, 1866 (ed. R. A. 
Guild). The Cotton Papers in the Boston 
(U.S.A.) Public Library fill six folio vo- 
lumes. 

[Life by John Norton, 'Abel being Dead,' 
&(!., 16o4; Clarke's Lives of Thirty-two English 
Divines, 1677, pp. 217 sq. ; Mather's Magnalia 
Christi Americana, 1702; Neal's Hist, of New 
England, 1720; Hutchinson's Hist, of the 
Colony of Massachusetts Bay, 1765; Brook's 
Lives of the Puritans, 1813, iii. 151 sq. ; Young's 
Chronicles of New England, 1848, 8vo ; Pishey 
Thompson's Hist, of Boston, 1856, pp. 412 sq. 
(portrait); Sprague's American Pulpit, 1857, i. 
25 sq. ; Uhdeu's New England Theocracy (Co- 
nant), 1858 ; Burn's High Commission, 1865, 
p. 48; Lifo by A. W. MacClure, 1870 ; Apple- 
ton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888 ; 
B. Tacchella's John Cotton, B.D.(190()?) ; parish 
register of St. Alkmund's, Derby ; information 
from the vice-master of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, and the master of Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge.] A. Gr. 

COURTENAY, WILLIAM EEGI- 
NALD, eleventh Eakl of Devon (1807- 
1888), politician and philanthropist, eldest 
son of William Courtenay, tenth earl {d. 
19 March 1859), by his first wife, Lady 
Harriet Leslie, daughter of Sir Lucas Pepys, 
hart., was born in Charlotte Street, Bedford 
Square, London, on 14 April 1807. He was 
admitted at Westminster School on 16 Sept. 
1818, and matriculated from Christ Church, 
Oxford, on 30 March 1824. He took a first 
class in classics in 1827, graduated B.A. in 
1828 and B.C.L. in 1831, and from 1828 to 
1831 was a fellow of All Souls' College. He 
was created D.C.L. on 27 June 1838, and 
was elected in 1869 a governor of West- 
minster School. 

Courtenay was called to the bar at Lin- 
coln's Inn on 27 Jan. 1832, and with three 
others edited vol. vi. of ' Cases decided in 
the House of Lords on appeal from the 
Courts of Scotland' (1832-3). From July 
1841 he sat in parliament, first in the con- 
servative interest and then as a Peelite, for 
the division of South Devon, but retired 
in February 1849 on his appointment as a 
poor-law inspector. From 1850 to 1859 he 
was secretary to the poor-law board. He 
succeeded to the peerage on 19 March 1859. 
The family estates in Devonshire and Ireland 
were worth about 35,000/. per annum, but 
they had been heavily mortgaged by his two 
predecessors. He at once set to work to 
free them from these incumbrances, and was 
fast realising his wishes when the extrava- ■ 
gance of his eldest son involved them in 



Coventry 



71 



Coventry 



still p^renter liability. Only a fragment of 
tho property still remains to the family. 
Lord Devon had before his succession re- 
turned to the conservative party, and in tlio 
Derby ministry he became chancellor of tho 
duchy of Lancaster, and was created a privy 
councillor (July 186t)). He remained in that 
ollice until May 1807, and from that month 
to December 1808 he was president of the 
poor-luw board. After that date he ceased 
to take an active part in politics, but his 
statement in tho House of Lords on 7 June 
1800 in favour of reading the Irish Church 
bill a second time produced much effect on 
public opinion. He was chairman in 1870 of 
the commission appointed to inquire into the 
treatment of Fenian prisoners in English con- 
vict prisons (Brodrick, Memoirs, pp. 103-8). 

Lord Devon was for many years the most 
influential man in his county, and was gene- 
rally known as ' the good earl.' For fifty- 
two years he presided at quarter sessions, 
and he was at first director and then chair- 
man of the Bristol and Exeter liailway. He 
made extensive improvements at Powder- 
ham Castle, planted the famous cedar avenue 
in its grounds, and aided in all the charitable 
foundations of Devonshire. In 18o9 he 
built and endowed the church of St. Paul at 
Newton Abbot, where he was the chief 
landed proprietor. A statue of him, by 
E. B. Stephens, A.R.A., was placed in 1880 
by public subscription in the Bedford Circus 
at Exeter. 

In 1877, while riding through the plan- 
tations at Powderhara on his seventieth 
birthday, Lord Devon was thrown from his 
horse. Though he did not altogether re- | 
cover from this accident, he was engaged in j 
active life until a few weeks before his death. 1 
He died at Powderham Castle on 18 Nov. | 
1888, and on 24 Nov. was buried in the 
family vault in the chancel of Powderham 
church. He married, at Filleigh, Devonshire, 
on 27 Dec. 1830, Lady Elizabeth Fortescue, 
youngest daughter of Hugh, first earl F'or- ; 
tescue. She was born in 1801, and died on i 
27 Jan. 1867. Memorials of her and her | 
husband are in Powderham church. They j 
had issue three sons and one daughter. j 

( liurke's Peenige ; Foster's Peerage ; Foster's j 
Alumni Oxon. ; Barker and v^tenning's Wei»t- [ 
miiisicr School ; Men of the Timr, ed. 1887 ;| 
Times, 19 Nov. 1888. p. G; Devon and Exeter i 
Daily Gazette, 19-26 Nor. 1888; Speaker Deui- | 
son's Notes from my Journal, 1900, P. 2-**] | 

w. P. C. 

COVENTRY, ANDREW (1764-1832), 
agriculturist, born in 17(>4, was eldest son of 
(teorge Coventry, minister of Stitchell in 
lioxburghshire. * Through his mother, whose 



in- 



maiden name was Horn, he inherited tha 
estate of Shan well, near Kinrr.au <.»,! -r>ij|0 
other landed projHjrty in I ' -.vae 

educated at tho univer.-i _ 
and on lo Dec. 1782 he was el 
ber of tho Medical Society <>: 
(List of Members of the Medical > 
JEdifidurt/h, 1820). In September 1 
graduated M.D. {List of Graduates in Medi- 
j cine in University of Edinburt/h^ 1867) for a 
I thesis, ' De Scarlatina Cynanchica.' It is 
I not clear whether he ever practised ae a 
[ physician ; but he appears to have specialised 
j in the sciences bearing upon agriculture. 
I On 7 July 1790 Sir William Pulteney 
I took the first steps towards endowing a 
j chair of agriculture in the Edinburgh Lni- 
; versity, nominating at the same time Coven- 
I try to be the first professor. Hitherto oc- 
, casional lectures on this subject had been 
delivered by other professors, e.g. by the 
professor of chemistry. Dr. William Cullen 
[q. v.], at the instigation of Lord Kames. A 
much fuller course had also been given by 
John Walker (1731-1803) [q.v.l, then pro- 
fessor of natural history, in 1788. 

The foundation of the new cliair appears 
to have been regarded with a good aeal of 
jealousy ; the professor of natural history 
protesting that he was not to be hindereu 
thereby from teaching * any branch of 
natural science,' to which the professor of 
botany objected as infringing his rights; 
while Coventry on his part insisted that 
none but himself had the right to give * a 
separate course of georgical lectures.' More- 
over, the endowment and patronage of a 
chair by a private individual was at that date 
without precedent in the university, and ap- 
pears to nave aroused feelings of opposition. 

In spite of the.<*e obstacles Coventry be- 
came, on 17 Nov. 1790, the first professor of 
agriculture in the university, and continued 
to hold the post until 1831. The endow- 
ment of the chair amounted to only 50/. oer 
annum; but Coventry supplemented nis 
work as a teacher by many other duties. 
' He was constantly called on to arbitrate in 
land questions, and to give evidence l>efore 
the court of session and before committees 
of the House of Commons ; the drainaj^e of 
Loch Leven and the reclamation ol the 
pnfr.>Mn.lii>(r l.iiul< w »»re Carried out under 
li Grant, Stnry of the 

I ra/,. ]«l, i. 34>)-7). 

Coventry l the royal 

commission _ » investigate 

the condition o( the universities and colleges 
of Scotland, when he said that he had de- 
livered thirty-two courses, some of them 
consisting of more thou 140 lectures each. 



Cowden-Clarke 



72 



Cowen 



Although the subject he taught was not 
ATaikbie for graduation, he had attracted 
clmrn Tarying in number from thirty to 
•6Teiity-€ight. Towards the end of his 
tenure of office, however, he appears to have 
lectured only in alternate years, ' persuading 
persons who wished to attend him during 
any session when he was to be absent to put 
off doing so, and to attend the classes of 
chemistry and botany in the meantime.' 
The royal commission, which concluded its 
labours in 1880, recommended among other 
reforms that the chair of agriculture should 
be abolished * unless a class could be pro- 
Tided for it, and taught regularly.' 

Coventry, who was now sixty-three, ac- 
cordingly resigned, and was succeeded by 
David Low (1786-1859) [q. v.]on 16 March 
1831. He died in the next year. 

He wrote, in addition to the thesis re- 
ferred to above : 1. * Remarks on Live Stock 
and relative Subjects,' 1806 (not in British 
Museum, but in library of Faculty of Advo- 
cates). 2. * Discourses explanatory of the 
Object and Plan ofthe Course of Lectures on 
Agriculture and Rural Economy,' 1808. 
3. * Notes on the Culture and Cropping of 
Arable Land,' 1811. The treatises attributed 
to him by Grant, on ' Dairy Produce ' and 
'The Succession of Crops and the Valuation 
of Soils,' are not to be found either in the 
British Museum or in the library of the 
Faculty of Advocates. They are perhaps 
identical with (1) and (3) above. 

The Andrew Coventry who in 1829 
edited, and presented to the Bannatyne 
Club, Petruccio Ubaldini's 'Descrittione del 
re^o di Scotia' was a different person, in 
spite of the direct statement made against 
his name in the British Museum Catalogue ; 
he was an advocate, and would appear, from 
the list of members of the Bannatyne Club 
published in 1846, to have been still living 
in that Tear. A third Andrew Coventry, 
also declared in the British Museum Cata- 
logue to be the professor of agriculture, de- 
livered the Ulbster Hall lecture ' On some 
of the most curious inventions and dis- 
coveries in recent times,' which was printed 
for private circulation in I806. 

f Alex. Grant's Story of the University of 
Edinburgh, 1884, i. 345-7. ii. 456; Cat. of the 
l^ihrary of the Faculty of Advocates ; authorities 
cited above.] E^ C-b. 

/iSS^y^^-^^^^E' Mbs. MARY 
(1W»-1898), writer on Shakespeare. [See 

COWENj JOSEPH (1829-1900), poli- 
tician and journalist, bom at Stella Hall, 
iilaydonK)n-Tyne, on 9 July 1831, was eldest 



son of Sir Joseph Cowen, who represented 
Newcastle in parliament from 1865 to his 
death in 1873, and was knighted for per- 
sonal services extending over many years on 
the River Tyne commission with the result 
of rendering the river navigable for sea- 
going ships instead of for coal barges merely. 
His ancestors came from Lindisfarne, and 
they lived, laboured, and died on Tyneside 
during three centuries, many being employed 
at Winlaton in Sir Ambrose Crowley's fac- 
tory for smith's wares. Their employer is be- 
lieved to be the Sir John Anvil of Addison's 
' Spectator.' 

Cowen's grandfather was the last member 
of the Cowen family in Sir John's employ- 
ment, and, on the closing of the factory in 
1816, this grandfather began business on his 
own account at Blaydon Burn. The works 
there were devoted to making fire-bricks and 
gas retorts; Sir Joseph Cowen greatly en- 
larged them. Cowen himself, who derived 
a very large income from them, sold them 
shortly before his death. 

Cowen was educated, first at a private 
school in Ryton, and secondly at the uni- 
versity of Edinburgh. His university career 
was chiefly remarkable for his pre-eminence 
in the debating society. While a student he 
interested himself in the revolutionary move- 
ments on the continent in 1848, and made 
Mazzini's acquaintance by letter. He took 
no degree. 

After leaving the university Cowen joined 
his father in business ; but he still continued 
to promote revolution throughout Europe. 
His movements were closely watched by 
spies in the service of foreign police in order 
that they might discover how revolutionary 
documents were imported into their respec- 
tive countries. These papers were really 
smuggled among the shipments of fire-bricks 
which were made from Blaydon Burn to 
foreign parts. Cowen numbered among his 
guests and friends Mazzini, Kossuth, Louis 
Blanc, and Ledru Rollin; Wysocki, who 
was a leader of the insurgent Hungarians ; 
Mieroslawski and Worcell, who were Poles 
in revolt against Russia; and Herzen and 
Bakunin, who were Russians and the de- 
clared enemies of the Russian government. 
Without his aid the lot of many foreign 
refugees in England would have been far 
harder, his purse being always open to help 
them, while his pen was always ready to 
advocate their cause and encourage their 
efforts. At home Cowen sympathised with 
chartists, and strenuously laboured on their 
behalf. He was an active member of the 
northern reform league, which was founded 
on 3 Jan. 1858, and existed till 1862. In 



Cowen 



73 



Cowie 



18(W) it was reorganised with Cowen as 
chairmftn. 

lie wrote much for the public press, being 
a contributor from boyhood to the * New- 
castle Chronicle,' of which, in later life, he 
became proj)rietor and editor. He also esta- 
blished a monthly, the * Northern Tribune.' 
On his father's death in 1873 he succeeded 
him as member for Newcastle, having a 
majority of 1,003. He was chosen again at 
the general election in 1874. His maiden 
speech was delivered in 1870 on the Royal 
litles Bill, and it produced a strong im- 
pression on the House of Commons, Disraeli 
sending his compliments. Cowen did not 
conceal his satisfaction that a political oppo- 
nent should have done so, nor his chagrin 
that Gladstone, whom he supported, had dis- 
paragingly referred to one of his speeches as 
smelling of the lamp. Indeed, all his speeches 
were carefully prepared and very rhetorical 
in form, as were his writings. It was ob- 
vious that he had adopted too many of the 
mannerisms of Macaulay. In the House of 
Commons his delivery was marred by a 
strong Northumbrian accent ; but this was 
no defect when he addressed his constituents. 
His popularity was somewhat lessened by 
what was considered to be his erratic con- 
duct, such as the support he gave to the 
tory government in the case of the Russo- 
Turkish war; but he always cherished his 
right to independence in judgment and ac- 
tion. A home ruler before Gladstone took 
up the question, Cowen remained so to the 
end of his life, but he also remained an im- 
perialist of a pronounced type. He cultivated 
independence in all relations of life. His 
customary dress was that of a Northumbrian 
miner on a Sunday, which was then a novelty 
in the House of Commons. He had an 
aversion to society, yet, being very rich, open- 
handed, and well read, he was a welcome 
guest everywhere. 

When entering a public meeting of the 
electors of Newcastle on 18 March 1880 he 
"was crushed and injured internally, never 
wholly recovering from the effects. Re- 
elected in 1880, he retired at the general 
election in l88o, refusing to be a candidate 
again. He continued to conduct the ' New- 
castle Chronicle ' till his sudden death 
on 18 Feb. 1900. In 1854 he married Jane, 
the daughter of John Thompson of Fat- 
field, Durham, and he left behind him a 
son and daughter. A portrait of Cowen is 
prefixed to his 'Life and Speeches,' by 
(Major) Evan Rowland Jones, 1885. 

[Supplement to Newcastle Chroniclo, 19 Feb. 
1 900 ; The Times of same date ; Life and Speeches, 
by Major E, R, Jones, 1885.1 F- R* 



cowie,hi:njamin morgan (isitt- 

1900), dean of Exeter, born in Bermondaej, 
Surrey, on 8 June 1816, wm the joungett 
son of Robert Cowie, a merchant and in- 
surance agent, descended from a Cornish 
family long settled in London. When about 
eight years old he was placed at a pen- 
sionnat at Passy under an instructor named 
Savary, and was taught mathematics for 
four years by two Savoyards named Peix 
and Sardou. He was admitted to St. John's 
College, Cambridge, as a sizar in July I "^33, 
and as a pensioner on 12 Oct. He graduated 
B.A. as senior wrangler in 1839, M.A. in 

1842, B.D. in 1855, and D.D. in 1880. In 
1839 he was chosen second Smith's prize- 
man, being placed below Percival Frost 
[q. V. Suppl.], who was second wrangler. 
Cowie was admitted a fellow of St. John's 
College on 19 March. He was admitted a 
student of Lincoln's Inn on 8 Nov. 1837, 
but relinquished the study of the law and 
was ordained deacon in 1841 and priest in 
1842 by Joseph Allen, bishop of Ely. He 
resided for some years in college, and during 
this period prepared his * Descriptive Cata- 
logue of the Manuscripts and scarce Books 
in the Library of St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge ' (Cambridge, 4to), which was issued 
by the Cambridge Antiquarian Society in 

1843. In that year he vacated his fellowship 
by marriage, and became curate at St. Paul's, 
Knightsbridge, under William James Early 
Bennett [q. v. Suppl.], with whose high- 
church views he was in sympathy. In 1844 
he was appointed principal and senior mathe- 
matical lecturer of the recently founded 
college for civil engineers at Putney, and 
during his residence there he acted as hono- 
rary secretary to the committee of manage- 
ment of St. Mark's College at Chelsea for 
training parochial schoolmasters, then under 
the principalship of Derwent Coleridge [q.v.l 
Upon the dissolution of the college for civil 
engineers in 1851 he took up his residence 
for four or five years at the Manor Housh, 
Stoke D'Abemon,Cobham, Surrey. In 1852 
and again in 1856 he was chosen select 
preacher at Cambridge. His sermons, 

? reached at Great St. Marv's, Cambridge, in 
856, were published un(ier the title * On 
Sacrifice ; the Atonement, Vicarious Obla- 
tion, and Example of Christ, and the Punish- 
ment of Sin' (Cambridge, 8vo). In 18 V{ 
and 1854 he was Hulsean lecturer, and his 
lectures, entitled * Scripture Difficult ie?«,' 
were published in two volumes, the first in 
1853 and the second in 1854. In 1855 he 
was appointed professor of geometry at 
Gresham College. On 28 Nov. 1856 he was 
apix)inted fifth minor canon and succentor 



Cowper 



74 



Cowper 



of St. Paul's Cathedral, and on 17 March 
1867 he waa preaented to the rectory of St. 
Lawrence Juwry with St. Mary Magdalene, 
Milk Street, by the dean and chapter of St. 
Paur*. He showed his sympathy with 
high-church tendencies by developing an 
elaborate ritual, without showing any marked 
sympathy with Roman doctrine. He acted 
as gOTemment inspector of schools from 
1867 to 1872, and on 14 Jan. 1871 he was 
appointed chaplain in ordinary to the queen. 
In 1866 he was Warburton lecturer on 
prophecy at Lincoln's Inn, publishing his 
lecture in 1872 under the title ' The Voice 
of God ' (London, 8vo). 

In October 1872 he was nominated by 
Gladstone dean of Manchester, and in 1880 
he was chosen prolocutor of the lower house 
of the convocation of York, an office which 
he filled for three years. As dean of Man- 
dietter Cowie was custodian of the colle- 
fpate church, and the restoration of Chetham 
chapel was due to his efforts. He did good 
service in Manchester in the cause of educa- 
tion, acting as a governor of the grammar 
school and as a member of the council of 
Owens College. In 1879, after the death of 
Francis Robert Raines [q.v.], he was elected 
a feoffee of Chetham College. Upon the 
death of Turner Crossley he undertook the 
completion of the supplementary catalogue 
of Chetham's library. 

In 1883 Cowie was appointed dean of 
Exeter. He died in London on 3 May 
1900. On 10 Aug. 1843 he was married at 
Poughill, Cornwall, to his cousin, Gertrude 
Marv (A 15 March 1860), second daughter 
of Thomas Camsew of Flexbury Hall, 
Poughill. l\y her he had several children. 

Besides the works already mentioned, 
Cowie was the author of numerous published 
letters, and addresses, and contri- 
essay on * Toleration ' to the second 
of the * Church and the Age ' (Lon- 
don, 1874, 8vo), edited by Archibald Weir 
and William Dalrymple Maclagan. 

r I.', .,- ^-:nel900;Time8,4 May 1900; Boase's 
; ub. 1890; Men and Women of the 

'1 . . Henncssy's Novum Report. Eccles. 

Ibyb, pp. 64, 267 ; Crockford's Clerical Direc- 
«o7] E. I. C. 

COWPER (afterwards COWPER-TEM- 
PLE), WILLIAM FRANCIS, Babon 
Mou5T-TEMPLK(1811-1888),bom at Brocket 
Hall, Hertfordshire, on 13 Dec. 1811, was 
second son of Peter, fifth Earl Cowper (1778- 
1837), and his wife, Emily Mary, sister of 
WilUam Lamb, second Viscount Melbourne 
r.j, the prime mini.«»ter. His elder brother, 
— Augustus Frederick (1806-1856), 



succeeded as sixth Earl Cowper, and was 
father of the present earl. The fifth earl, 
died on 27 June 1837, and on 11 Dec. 1839 
his widow married as her second husband. 
Henry John Temple, third viscount Palmer- 
ston [q. v.] ; her salon as well as her wit and 
charm materially aided Palmerston in his 
career; she died on 11 Sept. 1869. 

Her son, William Francis, was educated 
at Eton, where he afterwards remarked that 
he learnt no English whatever, and in 1827 
entered as a cornet the royal horse guards ; 
he was promoted to be lieutenant in 1832, 
captain (unattached) in 1835, and brevet 
major in 1852. In 1835 he became private 
secretary to his uncle, Lord Melbourne, then 
prime minister, and was returned to parlia- 
ment as member for Hertford, which he con- 
tinued to represent until 1863. In 1841 he 
was appointed a junior lord of the treasury, 
and when the whigs returned to office in 
1846 he became a lord of the admiralty. He 
held this post until March 1852, and again 
from December 1852 to February 1855, when 
he was made under-secretary for home afiairs. 
Six months later he was appointed president 
of the board of health and sworn of the 
privy council ; from February 1857 to 1858 
he combined with this office the newly 
created vice-presidency of the committee of 
council on education. In 1858 he passed 
the Medical Practitioners Act establishing 
the Medical Council, and his speech explain- 
ing its provisions was published in the same 
year. In August 1859 Cowper became vice- 
president of the board of trade, and in Fe- 
bruary 1860 commissioner of works, an office 
he continued to hold until 1866. 

In this capacity Cowper did much useful 
work ; in 1862 he carried the Thames Em- 
bankment Bill, and in 1863 the Courts of 
Justice Building Bill. He initiated the 
practice of distributing for charitable pur- 
poses flowers from the London parks, and 
was keenly interested in the effi)rts to check 
enclosures. In 1866 he carried the Metro- 
politan Commons Act, the first measure 
which empowered a local authority to under- 
take the care and management of a common 
as an open space, and in February 1867 he 
became first president of the Commons Pre- 
servation Society, which had been started 
in 1865. In 1869, as chairman of the select 
committee on the enclosure acts, he was 
instrumental in preserving many rural com- 
mons, and to his action in 1871 was largely 
due the failure of the attempt to enclose 
Epping Forest. Cowper also waged war 
with many of his neighbours in the New 
Forest over the same question. His action 
may have been stimulated by his friend 



Cox 



75 



Cox 



Jolui liut*kin [i\. V. Suppl.], and iu 1871 
Cowpor and (Sir) Thouius Dyko Aclaiid 
[q. V. Suppl.] were the original trustees of 
liuskin's guild of St. George. 

In 1860 C(Avi)er ceased to be first com- 
missioner of woi-ks when the conservatives 



apprenticed at tlie London docks, wh«?re his 
father was employed, but on the ♦•v.. ,..,..;,... 
of his indentures resigned his po 
entered tlie Ste])ney College to pr* ; 
self for the baptist ministry. Aft' 
the college course and matricn. 



under Derby returned to power, and he was , London University, Cox became in lo62 
not included in Gladstones first acministra- pastor of the baptist chapel in St. Paul's 
tion in 1808. liis mother died on 11 Sept. , Square, Southsea. In 1854 he accepted an 
1869, and Cowper inherited under Palmer- ; invitation to Hyde, Isle of Wight, where he 
ston's will many of his estates in Ireland i remained till 1859. A disorder in the throat 
and Hampshire, including Jiroadlands, near i compelled him to desist from preaching, and 
Ilomsey. 13y royal license, dated 17 Nov. I caused him to turn his attention seriously 
1809, he assumed the name Temple in addi- j to literature. He wrote for the 'Freeman,' 
tion to Cowper, and he represented South . the organ of the baptists, and occasionally 
Hampshire from 1868 till his elevation to acted as editor, and became a contributor to 
the peerage. i the * Nonconformist,' the * Christian Spec- 

In the parliament of 1868 to 1874 Cowper- | tator,' the ' Quiver,' and other religious 
Temple took an important part in the debates i periodicals. In 1861 he was appointed 
on education. As first vice-president of the secretary to the committee for arranging the 
committee he had interested himself in the bicentenary of the ejectment in 1662. But 
subject, and an address he delivered at Liver- I the throat delicacy proved less permanent 



pool in October 1858 was published in the 
same year by the National Association for 
the Promotion of Social Science. After the 
second reading of Forster's Education Bill in 
1870 Cowper-Temple put down an amend- 
ment to exclude from all rate-built schools 
every catechism and formulary distinctive of 
denominational creed. The government ac- 
cepted the amendment, and it became famous 
as the Cowper-Temple clause. On 25 May 
1880 he was, on Gladstone's recommenda- 
tion, created Baron Mount Temple of Mount 
Temple, co. Sligo. During his later years 
he confined himself mainly to philanthropic 
activity, advocating such measures as the 
Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1887. He 
died at Broadlands on 16 Oct. 1888, and 
was buried at Komsey on the 20th. 

Mount Temple married, first, on 27 June 
1843, Harriett Alicia, daughter of Daniel 
Gurney of North Kuncton, Norfolk ; she died 
on 28 Aug. following, and on 21 Nov. 1848 
he married (leorgiana, daughter of Vice- 
admiral John Richard Delap Tollemache. 
I" ' r wife had he any issue; the title 

inct on his death, and the property 

li»- iiiuri lit d from Lord Palmerston passed to 

his nephew, the Right Hon. Evelyn Ashley. 

' '•••-'•< - r ' <), K, C[okayne]'8 PetTagee; The | 

J. and :i3 Oct. 1888 ; Mon of the 

-;'7, Ann. Register, 1870, pp. 63, 
66; Ashley's Life of Palmerston; Collingwood's 
Life of Ruskin; Rodder's Life and Work of 
the f-eventh Earl Shaftesbury, ii. 41, 79, 226, 
iii. 185, 188; Brit. Museum Cat.] A. F. P. 

COX, SAMUEL (1826-1893), theologi- 
cal writer, was born on 19 April 1820 near 
London, and educated at a school at Stoke 
Newiugjon. At the agu of fourteen he was 



than had been feared, so that in 1863 he 
ventured to accept a call to the pastorate of 
the Mansfield Road baptist chapel, Notting- 
ham, a position he occupied successfully 
and happily till 1888, when failing health 
compelled his resignation. He then retired 
to Hastings, where he died on 27 March 
1893. He was buried in the general ceme- 
tery at Nottingham. In 1873 he married 
Eliza Tebbutt of Bluntisham, Huntingdon- 
shire. 

Although Cox's ministry was effective and 
zealous, his chief activity was as a writer. 
His resumption of ministerial work in 1863 
did not interfere with his literary energ>-, 
which led to his undertaking in 1875 the 
editorshit) of the ' Expositor.' Tlie concep- 
tion of this monthly magazine was evolred 
by Cox from his own work as a preacher 
and writer on the Bible. He was editor till 
1884, being responsible for volumes i. to xx., 
some of which he wrote almost entirely him- 
self. But he gathered round him a distin- 
guished staff, including such men as Drs. 
Magee, Farrar, ^larcus Dods, and l*rofessor 
Robertson Smith. The influence of the 
magazine upon religious thought in England 
can hardly be over-estimated. Its general 
tendency is perhaps best indicated by a sen- 
tence in Cox's own exposition of his aims in 
the first number : ' Our sole purpose is to 
expound the scriptures honestly and intelli- 
gently by ptiiiilf tiii»/ t]i.«m to explain them- 
selves ; n*: 1 pen them miracles 
which th«'\ .r dofrma.s t<> which 
they lend no support, nor vent ie»- 
tion the doctrines thcv obvi* It or 
the miracles which tliey plainly atlirm/ 
Cox's services to learning received the re- 



Cox 



76 



Coxwell 



markable recoffnit ion of nearly simultaneous 
offers from Aberdeen, Edinburgh, and St. 
Andrews Universities of their degree of D.D. 
Cos accepted in 1882 the offer of the last- 
named, but found himself compelled after 
1884 to resign his editorship because the 
breadth of his views had become displeasing 
to the proprietors of the magazine. Cox 
ba« stated that he was the writer of thirty 
Tolames and the editor of twenty more. 
Among his more important works are : 
1. * llie Secret of Life : being eight Ser- 
BODS preached at Nottingham,' London, 
1868, 8vo. 2. • The Private Letters of St. 
Pkttl and St. John. By S. C.,' London, 1867, 
8vo. This book, being enthusiastically re- 
Tiewed by Dr. George Macdonald in the 
'Spectator,' was Cors first success as an 
aathor. 8. ' The Quest of the Chief Good : 
Ezpontory Lectures on the Book Eccle- 
•iaatea. ... By S. C.,' London, 1868, 8vo; 
this was rewritten for the 'Expositor's 
Bible ' and published in 1890 as ' The Book 
of Eccleaiaetes, with a New Translation.' 
4. *The Resurrection. Twelve Expository 
Essays on the Fifteenth Chapter of St. 
Paul s First Epistle to the Corinthians,' 
Ix)ndon, 1869, 8vo. 6. 'Sermons for my 
Curates, by T. T. Lynch. Edited by S. C.,' 
London, 1871, 8vo. 6. *An Expositor's 
Note-Book ; or. Brief Essays on Obscure or 
Misread Scriptures,' London, 1872, 8vo. 
7. * Biblical Expositions ; or. Brief Essays on 
Obecure or Misread Scriptures,' London, 
1874, 8vo ; this is • virtually a second vo- 
lume' of No. 6. 8. * The Pilgrim Psalms, 
an Exposition of the Songs of Degrees,' 
London, 1874, 8vo. 9. * The Book of Ruth. 
A Popular Exposition,' London, 1876, 8vo. 
10. * Expository Essays and Discourses,' 
London, 1877, 8vo. 11. ' Salvator Mundi ; 
or, Is Christ the Saviour of all Men?' Lon- 
don, 1877, 8vo. Of all Cox's works this was 
the most widely read and the most in- 
fluential. It was followed in 1883 by a 
Mquel, * The Larger Hope,' London, 16mo ; 
in which the author defined his position with 
ranrd to universalism, and answered some 
ofnM critics. Among counterblasts to Cox's 



ling ma^ be mentioned * The Doctrines 
of AnnihiUtion and Universalism . . . With 
eritical notes and a Review of "Salvator 
Mundi"' (London, 1881), by Thomas Wood. 
The poatacript of this challenges Cox's im- 
partiality as editor of the * Expositor,' and 
affords an instance of the kind of complaints 
which brought about his resignation. 12. * A 
Commentary on the Book of Job, with a 
Translation,' London, 1880, 8 vo. 13. 'The 
Qmais of Evil, and other Sermons, mainly 
KiKffmtorj; London, 1880, 8vo. 14. * Ba- 



laam : an Exposition and a Study,' London, 
1884, 8vo. 15. * Miracles: an Argument and 
a Challenge,' London, 1884, 8vo. 16. ' Ex- 
positions,' London, 1885, 8vo ; this was con- 
tinued till four volumes were issued. 17. ' The 
Bird's Nest and other Sermons for Children of 
all Ages,' London, 1886, 8vo. This volume 
occupies a unique position among collec- 
tions of sermons for children. 18. ' The 
House and its Builder, with other Dis- 
courses,' London, 1889, 8vo. 19. ' The He- 
brew Twins : a Vindication of God's Ways 
with Jacob and Esau. By S. Cox, D.D. 
Prefatory Memoir by his wife (Eliza Cox),' 
London, 1894, 8vo. 

[The prefatory memoir of (19) above is the 
main authority for the facts of Cox's life. See 
also obitunry notices in the Freeman, 7 April 
1893; Independent, 6 April 1893; British 
Weekly, 30 March 1893; Christian World, 
30 March 1893; Cox's prefatory matter in (5) 
and (Ifi) above.] R. B. 

COXWELL, HENRY (TRACEY) (1819- 
1900), aeronaut, youngest son of Commander 
Joseph Coxwell of the royal navy, and grand- 
son of the Rev. Charles Coxwell of Abling- 
ton House, Gloucestershire, was born at the 
parsonage at Wouldham, on the Medway, 
on 2 March 1819. He went to school at 
Chatham, whither his family moved in 1822, 
and in 1836 he was apprenticed to a surgeon 
dentist. His boyish imagination was greatly 
excited by balloons, and he spared no efforts 
to witness as many ascents as possible ; 
among the aeronauts he admired and envied 
as a boy were Mrs. Graham, Charles Green, 
Cocking, and John Hampton. The success- 
ful voyage of the Nassau balloon from 
Vauxhall Gardens into Germany stimulated 
his enthusiasm, but it was not until 19 Aug. 
1844 that he had an opportunity at Penton- 
ville of making an ascent. In the autumn 
of the following year he projected and edited 
'The Balloon, or Aerostatic Magazine,' of 
which about twelve numbers appeared at 
irregular intervals. In 1847, at Vauxhall, 
he ascended in Gypson's balloon in company 
with Albert Smith, during a heavy storm, 
the descent being one of * the most perilous 
recorded in the annals of aerostation.' An 
enormous rent was discovered in the bal- 
loon, and the lives of the passengers were 
only saved by Coxwell's readiness in con- 
verting the balloon, as far as possible, into a 
parachute. In 1848 he was entrusted with 
the management of a balloon, the Sylph, in 
Brussels, and subsequently made ascents at 
Antwerp, Elberfeld, Cologne, and Johan- 
nisberg m Prussia ; in 1849 he exhibited his 
balloon at KroU's Gardens, Berlin, and de- 
I monstrated the ease with which petards 



Coxwell 



77 



Crake 



could be discharged in the air ; in Septem- 
ber he madt> excursions to Stettin, Breslau, 
and llaniburtf. At Hanover, in the sum- 
mer of 18r)(), he had a narrow escape, owing 
to the proximity of lofty trees, and during 
this year and the next he took up many pas- 
sengers at Berlin, I'rague, Vienna, Leipzig, 
and elsewhere. In 1852 he returned to 
London and made ascents at Cremorne Gar- 
dens. In Se])tember 18o4 he made some 
demonstrations in signalling from a balloon 
at Surrey Gardens. 

In June 1802 he made some interesting 
meteorological observations in the capacity 
of aeronaut to Dr. James Glaisher, F.R.S. 
On 5 Sept. in the same year Coxwell and 
Glaisher attained the greatest height on re- 
cord, somethingbetween thirty-six and thirty- 
seven thousand feet, or 'fully seven miles.' 
Glaisher became insensible, and Coxwell lost 
all sensation in his hands, but managed just 
in time to pull the valve-cord with his teeth. 
The balloon dipped nineteen thousand feet 
in fifteen minutes, and a final descent was 
safely made near Ludlow (from Wolver- 
hampton). Between these two famous as- 
cents Coxwell made his first experiments in 
military ballooning at Aldershot in July 
1862. In 1863, in company with Henry 
Negretti, he made the first aerial trip in 
England for purposes of photography. In 
1864-5, in the Ilesearch, he made some very 
successful ascents in Ireland, and gave some 
lectures upon aerostation. When the Franco- 
German war broke out in 1870 he went to 
manage some war-balloons for the Germans. 
He formed two companies, two officers, and 
forty-two men, at Cologne, and his assistant 
went on to Strassburg, but the town sur- 
rendered before much service was rendered. 

On 17 June 1885 he made his last ascent 
in a large balloon, the City of York. He had 
made an annual display at York for several 

? rears, and there he bade farewell to a pro- 
iatsion of which he had been one of the 
most daring exponents for over forty years. 
His immunity from serious accidents was 
due to his instinctive prudence, but still 
more to his thoroijgh knowledge of balloon- 
ing tackle. After his retirement he lived 
for a time at Tottenham, but migrated 
thence to Seaford in Sussex, where he died 
on 5 Jan. 1900. During 1887-9 Coxwell 
collected together in two volumes a numl>er 
of interesting but ill-arranged and confus- 
ing chapters upon his career as an aeninaut, 
to which he gave the title * My Lifi» and 
Balloon Experiences ; * to vol. i. is added a 
supplementary chapter on military ^-i'—"- 
ing. As a frontispiece is a pli 
portrait, reproduced in the 'ill,.. .„>.J 



London News' Hd Jan. 1900) as that of 
the foremost balloonist of the last half- 
century. 

[Times, II Sept. 1862. 6 Jan. 1000; lllostr. 
London News, 13 Jan. 1900; (ilainher'a TrareU 
in the Air, 1871; Coxwell'a My Life and Bal- 
loon Experiences, 1887-9; Ilatton Turoor's 
Astra Castra ; De Fonvielle's Courses en Ballon, 
1890; Men and Women of the Time, 15th 
edit.] T. S. 

CRAKE, AUGUSTINE DAVID (1836- 

1890), devotional writer and story-teller, 
the eldest son of Jesse Crake, was bom on 
1 Oct. 1836 at Chalgrove, Oxfordshire, where 
his father kept a middle-class school. Break- 
ing away from the strong calvinistic sur- 
roundings amid which he was brought up, 
Crake was baptised into the church of Eng- 
land in 1858, and gaining a position as a 
teacher was enabled to secure a degree at 
London University (matriculated 1862, B.A. 
1864). He was ordained deacon by Bishop 
Wilberforce in ]8Go, and was appointed 
second master and chaplain of the church 
of England middle-class school of All 
I Saints', Bloxham, near Banbury, a position 
I which he retained from 186'> to 1878. He 
I was senior curate of St. Michael's, Swan- 
j more, in the Isle of Wight, 1878-9, and 
j vicar of St. Peter's, Havenstreet, in the 
I island from 1879 to 1885, when he effected 
I an exchange and became vicar of Cholsey, 
' near Wallingford. He was chaplain at 
Moulsford Asylum, 1885-6. At Cholsey he 
was beginning to gather some pupils round 
him, but he was cut off' prematurely on 
18 Jan. 1890, at the age of tifty-three. He 
was buried in Cholsey graveyard on 23 Jan. 
when many of his old Bloxham pupils 
followed his remains to the grave. He 
! married in 1879 Annie, daughter of John 
i Lucas of the Oxford Observatory. 
[ Crake was the author of a long series of 
I historical story books, written to illustrate 
the trials and triumphs of the church in 
I Britain ; these stories, in which Crake's 
topographical knowledge of Oxfordshire 
j and Berkshire is used to advantage, were 
I related orally in the first instance to the 
I boys of Bloxham school, by whom they were 
I much appreciated. Thej bare been de- 
scribed as not unworthy succeoorsof thesiroi- 
lar tales of John Xason Neale [q.r.] In 1 '-. :^ 
he published a ' Historyof the Church un !• r 
the Roman Empire,* a more ambit iousetlort, 
! which obtainea a large circulation, being 
' greatlyindemandbystudent^v'- '-•»—' I 
! brevity of treatment. His < 
books and stories were : 1. * - 
for School Boys/ Oxford. !- \ 1-: 
j2. *Tbe Bread of Life,' Oxfrl, l-'>; itii 



Crampton 



78 



Crampton 



ed. 1872. 8. * Simple Prayers,' 1870. 
4. *Aeinilius: a Tale of the Decian and 
Valerian Persecutions,' 1871. 6. * Evanus: 
ft Tale of the Days of Constantino the 
Great; 1872, 1^*86. 0. 'The Garden of 
Life' (a devotional primer), Oxford, 1873. 

7. « Edwv the Fair ; or, the First Chronicle 
of Aewjendune,' 1874; 5th ed. 1885. 

8. • Alfgar the Dane' (a sequel to 7), 1874. 

9. «The Camp on the Severn,' 1875. 

10. * The Andreds- Weald ' (a tale of the 
Norman Conquest), 1877. 11. ' The Rival 
Heins' 1882. 12. ' Fairleigh Hall' (great 
wbellion in Oxfordshire), 1882. 13. ' The 
Laat Abbot of Glastonbury,' 1884. 14. * The 
Victor's Laurel,' 1885. 15. * The Doomed 
City ' (temp. St. Augustine), 1885. 16. 'The 
Hottse of Waldeme,^1886. 17. ' Brian Fitz- 
Count, a Storv- of Wallingford Castle,' 1887. 
18. * Yule Log Stories,' 1887. 19. ' Stories 
from Old English History,' 1887. 20. ' The 
Heir of Treheme.' 

He edited * Offices for the Hours of Prime, 
Sext, and Compline ; with special Antiphons 
and Chapters for the Seasons of the Church,' 
Oxford, 1871, 8vo. Crake was moreover 
joint-editor with Joseph Oldknow of the 
• Priest's Book of Private Devotion ' (Oxford, 
1872, numerous editions). 

[Guardian, 29 Jan. 1890; Church Times, 
24 Jan. 1890; Athenaeum, 1890, i. 150 ; Crock- 
ford'f Clerical Directory; Allibone's Diet, of 
Sagliah Literature ; Crake's Works.] T. S. 

CRAMPTON, THOMAS RUSSELL 
(1816-1888), railway engineer, was born at 
BroftdaUirs, Kent, on 6 Aug. 1816, and, after 
receiving a private school education, was 
articled on 21 May 1^31 to John Hague, a 
well-known engineer of Cable Street, Well- 
eloae Sauare, London, where he had Sir 
Fraderick Bramwell as a fellow-student. 
After Mnring his time he acted from 1839 to 
1844 M aaaiatant to the elder Brunei, and 
mbtequently to (Sir) Daniel Gooch, under 
wboM directions ne prepared the drawings 
fcr the first locomotive for the Great Western 
Railway. Four years were then spent under 
John and George Rennie, until, in 1848, 
Crampton commenced business on his own 
•eooont as a civil engineer. In the battle of 
Um ffauges he took an active part in favour 
of the narrow gauge. Between 1842 and 
1848 he made improvements in the details 
of locomotive machinery, and in 1843 he 
embodied lus main ideas in the design of an 
engine, which he patented and wluch bears 
lua name. The characteristic features of the 
CrapCon en^ne are a long boiler, outside 
eylinders set in the middle of the engine's 
uagth, and large driving wheels placed 



quite in the rear of the firebox. His ideas 
were expounded at length in an important 
paper read before the Institution of Civil 
Engineers, 24 April 1849, ' Upon the Con- 
struction of Locomotive Engines, especially 
with respect to those Modifications which 
enable additional Power to be gained with- 
out materially increasing the Weight or un- 
duly elevating the Centre of Gravity.' He 
stated that, owing to the extraordinary in- 
crease of traffic on some of the principal 
railways, it had been found necessary to 
employ engines of much greater power and 
consequently greater weight than those 
hitherto used ; while at the same time the 
adoption of large driving wheels rendered 
the engines very lofty and seriously impaired 
their stability. To obviate these defects 
Crampton designed an engine, the * Liver- 
pool,' which was built in 1848 by Bury, 
Curtis, & Kennedy for the London and North- 
western line. The boiler had three hundred 
tubes, the driving wheels were eight feet in 
diameter, and the weight was thirty-five 
tons. The special features were a low centre 
of gravity, accessibility of working parts, 
and very liberal bearing surfaces. It hauled 
180 tons at fifty miles an hour, and was 
without doubt the most powerful engine of 
its time, surpassing in this respect Trevi- 
thick's ' Cornwall ' of 1847 [see Tkevithick, 
Richakd]. It was shown at the Great 
Exhibition of 1851, and gained the gold 
medal. Unfortunately its weight was too 
great for the permanent way of the period, 
and on this account it was opposed by 
Stephenson and Brunei, and was with- 
drawn in 1852. The ' machine Crampton ' 
was, however, adopted by the ' Compagnie 
du Nord ' of France in 1848, and for forty 
years from this date the light express trains 
of the Northern and Eastern railways of 
France were worked by these engines. As 
a recognition of the value of his design 
Crampton was made an officer of the legion 
of honour by Napoleon III in 1855. 

The most distmguished work of Cramp- 
ton's professional life was perhaps the lay- 
ing in 1851 of the first practical submarine 
cable between Dover and Calais. After the 
failure of a previous cable laid by Brett in 
1850, a second cable was prepared in 1851 ; 
but the laying was surrounded by serious 
difficulties, pecuniary and otherwise. The 
period of concession was within seven weeks 
of expiration when Crampton, contributing 
with his friends the capital required, under- 
took the responsibility. He devised a new 
method of sheathing the cable, which was 
laid in the Blazer during the early part of 
September, and the operations were success- 



Craven 



79 



Craven 



fully concluded before the time specified, the 
day of tho closing of the Great Exhibition, 

26 Sept. IHol. 

Among other works carried out by Cramp- 
ton were the Berlin waterworks, jointly 
with Sir Charles Fox ; tho Smyrna railway, 
the Varna railway, and various lines in 
Kent. These were merged into the London, 
Chatham, and Dover Railway, for which he 
designed six pioneer locomotives in 18.57. 
The outside firebox shells used upon these 
and upon the majority of modern engines 
are still known as Crampton's. 

He also invented a rotary dust-fuel fur- 
nace, which was used for sometime in Wool- 
wich arsenal (see Proc. Inst. Meckan. En- 
gineers, 1870, p. 244), brick-making ma- 
chinery, and an automatic hydraulic tunnel- 
boring machine. This last was designed 
with special reference to the Channel Tunnel 

Eroject, and was described in a lecture given 
y Crampton to the Institution of Mechani- 
cal Engineers at Leeds in 1882 {ib. 1882, 
p. 440). 

Crampton took a lively interest in the pro- 
gress of his native place. In 1851 he started 
the Broadstairs gasworks, subscribing a 
large portion of the capital, and eventually 
constructing the works. He also originated 
and built the waterworks there, and pre- 
sented the church with its clock. lie died 
at 19 Ashley Place, Westminster, on 
19 March 1888, and was buried in Kensal 
Green cemetery. He was twice married, 
and left six sons and one daughter, who 
married Sir Horace llumbold, ambassador 
at Vienna. 

Crampton was elected an associate of the 
Institute of Civil Engineers on 3 March 
1840, and was transferred to the roll of 
members on 7 March 1854, his nomination 
paper being sicned by the greatest engineers 
of tho day. He was an original member of 
the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in 
1847, became a member of council in 1879, 
and a vice-president in 188.3. He was on 
the council of the Society of Telegraph En- 
gineers, and was an officer of the Ftussian 
order of the lied Eagle. 

[Engineering, 21 Aug. 1885, 19 Feb. 1886, 

27 April 1888; Railway Elngineer, April 1888 ; 
Engineer, 27 April 1888; Proc. Inst. Mechan. 
Engineers, July 1888; Iron, 27 April 1888; 
Proc. In«t. Civil EnqnnpeTS, vols, viii. xvii. xlvi.; 
Pet:; ■ ' ;.'ering. pp. 21, 
20." thoLocomotiTe. 

. liv/ , '..I .11 i..._,nui't.-uiu, B.v, 'Crampton ; * 
ime«, 25 April 1888.] T. S. 

CRAVEN, Mrs. PAULINE MAKIE 
AUMANDE AGLAfi (1808-1891), au- 
thoress, was bom on 12 April 1808 at 



^ 



36 Manchester Street, London, and wm btp- 
tised in the French chapel, King StTMt, 
Portman Square. Her parents were French 
6migr6s ; she was the eldest daughter. Her 
fat her, Comte Auguste Marie de La Ferronars, 
was of Breton stock, and is mentioned for hiw 
uprightness and tolerance by Chateaubriand 
in the 'M6moires d'Outro-Tombe.' Her 
mother, also of good family, was Marie 
Charlotte Albertine de Sourches de Monso- 
reau. The Comte de la Ferronays returned 
to France with the Due de Berri in 1814. 
When a quarrel with the duke drove him 
from court he was appointed ambassador to 
St. Petersburg, a post he filled for eight 
years. In 1827 he returned to Paris a.«« 
minister for foreign affairs under Charles X. 
Thus Pauline, then nineteen years old, was 
launched on all the brilliant society of the 
Restoration. In 1828 her father resigned 
the French foreign office, and was appoint<^'d 
French ambassador to Kome. The joum» y 
thither, via Pisa and Florence, was made in 
the company of Kio, the art critic, who per- 
suaded l*auline to put her impressions of 
a visit to the catacombs on paper. The re- 
volution of 1830 obliged her father to resign 
the French public service, and the family 
went to live at Naples. On 10 Feb. 1832 
she seems to have formed one of a party 
who, in company with Sir Walter Scott, 
visited Pompeii (cf Scott, ./oMrTia/, ed. 1891, 
p. 876). At Naples Pauline met Augustus 
Craven, son of Keppel Richard Craven [q.v.J 
and grandson of Elizabeth, Marpavine of 
Anspach [q. v.], an attach6 to the British 
legation at Naples. They became engaged, 
and Craven had to overcome his father's op- 
position to his marriage with a Roman catho- 
lic ; but the elder Craven finally agreed to 
settle 17,000/. on the couple. The marriage 
took place on 24 Aug. 1834 in the chapel of 
the Acton Palace at Naples. Mr. and Mrs. 
Craven went immediately to Rome, where 
the former was received into the Roman 
catholic church. 

A series of family sorrows now overtook 
Mrs. Craven. Her brother Albert died in 
183G, her father and two sisters in 1842, and 
in 1848 she lost her mother. Craven was 
for a while paid attach6 at Lisbon, and in 
1843 was appointed secretary of legation at 
Stuttgart. During his period of office they 
lived partly at Carlsruhe, partly at Baden. 
In 1847 they spent some time in Paris, 
Craven art in? for a while as secretary to 
Lord N British ambassador in 

Paris. N Mrs. Craven often risited 

EnglanI ' guest of Lord 

Palmer-' . ;ind Lord Gran« 

ville. ^i IK I iiirMu> 111 t HIS countryi among 



Craven 



80 



Craven 



whom were Aubrey de Vere, Fanny Kem- 
Ue, Sir Mountstuart Grant Duff, and Lord 
Houffhton, testified to the charm of her per- 
MoimtT and to her power of inspiring last- 
ing afieetion. Craven had scarcely made a 
•ooceMof bin profeasion ; but after the death 
of his father in 1851, on the strength of his 
inheritance, a bouse was taken in Berkeley 
8qaar«. The next year he unsuccessfully 
stood for the parliamentary representation 
of Dublin. In 18o3 they settled at Naples, 
and devoted much time and money to at- 
t«mpt« at improving the social conditions of 
the town. During this period Mrs. Craven 
wrote the ' H6cit d'une Soeur.' It relates 
the history of her family while they lived 
at Rome and Naples, from 1830 to 1836, and 
it a book of great charm, breathing a fervent 
devotion to the Roman catholic faith. 

After some difficulty in obtaining the con- 
sent of her family and friends, the * R6cit 
d'une Soeur ' was published on 6 Jan 1866. 
It went through nine editions in a few 
months. It was reviewed by Emile Mon- 
t^gut in the 'Revue des deux Mondes' 
(April 18(J6), and was crowned by the 
academy, gaining a prize of 80/., under the 
auspices of Villemain. It was translated 
into English, with the title * A Sister's 
Story,' in 1868. There were other editions 
in 1869 and 1874. Mr. Aubrey de Vere 
wrote two sonnets on it (cf. In Antar and 
Xara, and other Poems, 1877, p. 327). 

Mrs. Craven's first novel, * Anne Severin,' 
began to appear in the * Correspondant ' in 
March 1867. It was published in book form 
in 1868 and passed through twenty-two 
editions. It imitates the work of Lady 
Oeorgiana Charlotte Fullerton [q. v.], to 
whom it is dedicated, and by wliom it was 
translated into English in 1869. 

In 1867 Mr. and Mrs. Craven gave up 
their house at Naples and spent some time 
in Piiris and Rome. Craven's affairs went 
fton bad to worse, and it became necessary 
for Mrs. Craven to earn money by her pen. 
•Flenrange* was ready in 18t0, but it was 
difficult to find a French publisher. Mrs. 
Craven thought of trying her skill in Eng- 
lish, but had not command enough over the 
lanjfuage to write a book in it. In 1871 
* Fleurange ' was accepted by the ' Corre- 
•oondant.' It was in a fifth edition by 
1872, waa crowned by the French academy, 
and was translated into English by E. Bowles. 
But, notwithstanding this success, the pecu- 
niary circumstances of the Cravens were very 
•trained. An annuity from the Bavarian 
goremment in lieti of a claim of Craven's 
grandmother does not seem to have helped 
much, and so in 1880 Mrs. Craven made 



an arrangement with her publisher Didier to 
pay her 240/. a year for six years on works 
already published, and to pay as before for 
any new ones. 

In 1883 Mrs. Craven visited Queen Vic- 
toria at Osborne, and the queen afterwards 
requested Mrs. Craven to send her all her 
works, after writing her name in each. 
Craven died at Monabri, near Lausanne, in 
1884, and was buried at Boury, the family 
seat of the Ferronays, near Gisors in Nor- 
mandy. Mrs. Craven began to write her 
memoirs under the title of ' Le Chemin Par- 
couru,' but made little way with them. In 
1890 she became paralysed and lost the 
power of speech ; her intellect, however, re- 
mained unclouded. After lingering for ten 
months she died at Paris on 1 April 1891 
and was buried at Boury with her husband. 

Mrs. Craven's books are as n^uch read in 
England and America as in France, and, 
although she does not take high rank as a 
novelist, the * R6cit d'une Soeur ' is almost 
unique in its line, as a record of domestic 
events in a family of singular charms and 
devout religious earnestness. Her style has 
all the limpid clearness and charm of the 
best French writers. 

A portrait of Mrs. Craven forms the 
frontispiece of Mrs. Bishop's ' Memoir ' (cf. 
Mrs. Bishop, Memoir, ii. 356). 

The following are the works by Mrs. 
Craven not already mentioned : 1. * Adelaide 
Capece Minutolo,' a biography, 3rd edit. 
1869 ; translated into English under the title 
' A Noble Lady,' by E. Bowles, 1869, and 
by M. S. Watson, 1890. 2. ' Pelerinage de 
Paray-le-Monial,' 1 873. 3. ' Le Mot d'Enigme,' 
5th edit. 1874 ; translated into English by 
E.Bowles and entitled ' The Story of a Soul,' 
1875. 4. *Deux Incidents de la Question 
Catholique en Angleterre,' 1875. 5. * La 
Marquise de Mun,' 1877. 6. ' La Soeur 
Natalie Narischkin,' 3rd edit. 1877 ; trans- 
lated into English by Lady Georgiana 
Fullerton. 7. 'Reminiscences. Souvenirs 
d'Angleterre et d'ltalie,' 1879. 8. ' La Jeu- 
nesse de Fanny Kemble,' translated from 
the English, 1880. 9. ' Une annee de Medi- 
tations,' 1881 ; English translation same year. 

10. ' Eliane,' 1882 ; translated into English 
by Lady Georgiana Fullerton, same year. 

11. 'LaValbriant,' 6th edit. 1886; translated 
into English same year by Lady Herbert of 
Lea under the title of * Lucia.' 12. ' Lady 
Georgiana Fullerton : sa vie et ses oeuvres, 
1888 ; English translation by H. J. Coleridge, 
same year. 13. ' Le Pere Damien,' 1890. 

[Memoir by Mrs. Bishop, 2 vols. 1894 ; Pao- 
lina Craven e la sua Frtmiglia, by T. Filangieri 
Ravaschieri Fieschi, 1892.] E. Iv 



Crawley 



8i 



Crealock 



CRAWLEY, RICHARD (1840-1893), 
scholar, born at Hryiipwyn rectory on 20 Dec. 
1840, was eldest son of William Oawley, 
archdeacon of Monmouth, by his wife, Mary 
Gertrude, third daughter ot Sir Love Jones 
Parry of Madryn, Carnarvonshire. From 
1851 to \Hi)\ he was at Marlborough College. 
lie matriculated from University College, 
Oxford, as an exhibitioner on 22 May 18(51, 
and graduated 13. A. in 186(), having taken 
a first class both in moderations and in the 
school of It't. hum. In 1806 he was elected 
to a fellowship at Worcester College, which 
he held till 1880. Called to the bar at Lin- 
coln's Inn on 7 June 1860, Crawley never 
practised owing to ill-health, which com- 
pelled him to reside abroad for many years. 
lie was thus free to cherish unhampered 
a native love of literature. At length, in 
April 1875, he became director of a life 
assurance company, and that business largely 
occupied him until his death on 30 March 
1893. 

Crawley had an admirable literary taste 
and a wide knowledge of literature. In 
the ample leisure of his early manhood he 
perseveringl}^ essayed various brandies of it. 
In 1868 he published 'Horse and Foot,' a 
■witty satire on contemporary literary effort 
in the manner of Pope, which is now of his- 
torical value. A more serious endeavour, 

* Venus and Psyche and other Poems,' which 
appeared in 1871, proved less distinctive. 

* The Younger Brother,' a play in the style 
of the Elizabethan drama, which Crawley 
dedicated to his father, followed in 1878. 
Crawley contributed some sparkling verse to 
conservative newspapers during the general 
election of 1880. These he collected in a 
volume called 'Election Rhymes' in the 
same year. But his most notable performance 
was a translation of Thucydides's ' History of 
the Peloponnesian AVar.'* His rendering of 
the first book came out in 1806, and the 
whole was issued in 1874. It was an able 
and vigorous piece of work, although it 
secured little recognition. 

[Ath«»n»ura, 8 April 1893 ; Times, 8 April 
1893 ; private ioformation.] S. L. 

CREALOCK, IlENTiY HOPE (1831- 
18<>1), soldi^T, artist, and author, born on 
31 March 1831, was the second son of Wil- 
liam Bet ton Crealock of I.4ingeston in 
Devonshire. Crealock entered Uugby school 
in February- 1844 and obtained a commission 
in the iKhh light infantry on 13 Oct. 1848. 
He obtained his lieutenancy on 24 Dec. 
1852, and his captaincy on '29 Dec. 1854. 
On 5 Dec. he lancled at Balaklava and served 
at the siege of Sebaatopol. He was men- 

TOL. II.— 6UP. 



tioned in the despatches for his gallant con- 
duct during the attacks on the Redan oa 
18 June and 8 Sept. 1855, and was appointed 
deputy adjutant nuartermaster-general at 
headmiarters on 1 / Sept. and at Constan- 
tinople in December. For his services be 
received the brevet rank of major, a medal 
with a clasp, and the fifth class of the 
Turkish order of the Medjidie with a medal. 
On 26 Dec. 1850 he attained the rank of 
major, and in March 1857 he was appointed 
deputy adjutant quartermaster-general to 
the China expeditionary force. He was 
present at the whole of the operations at 
Canton in December 1857 and January 1858, 
and received the brevet rank of lieutenant- 
colonel and a medal with a clasp. On 20 July 
1858 he reached the regimental rank of lieu- 
tenant-colonel. He served in the Indian cam- 
paigns of Rohilkhand, Biswara, and Trans- 
Gogra during 1858 and 1859 on the staff of 
Sir William Rose Mansfield (afterwards 
Baron Sandhurst) [q. v.], was present at the 
actions of Bareilly and Shajehanpur, was 
mentioned in the despatches, and received a 
medal with a clasp. In March 1860 he was 
appointed military secretary to Lord Elgin 
during his Chinese embassy [see Bbuce, 
James, eighth Earl Elgin]. He was at- 
tached to the headquarters of the army 
during the war that followed ; was present 
at the action of Sinho, the capture of the 
forts at Tangku and Taku, the engagement 
at Palichau, and the capture of Pekin ; and 
received a medal with two clasps. On 
6 July 1864 he received his colonelcy, and 
on 2 Jan. 1870 was gazetted major-general. 
During the Austro- Prussian war ne was 
military attache at Vienna, and from 1874 
to 1877 he served as quartermaster-general 
in Ireland. In the Zulu war of 1879 he 
commanded the first division, and for his 
services was created C.M.G. and received a 
medal with a clasp. He was also a C.B. 
Crealock retired from the army on 4 Sept. 

1884 with the rank of lieutenant-general. 
Crealock was an accomplished draughts- 
man, and his sketches of scenes in the Indian 
mutiny and China campaign aro Talaable 
records. He furnished many sketchea of the 
Zulu campaign to the ' Illustrated London 
News.* He illustrated * Wolf-Hunting, or 
Wild Sport in I^wer Brittany ' (1875), and 
Whyte-Melville's 'Katerfelto' (1876). In 

1885 he republished a series of paners which 
had appeared between 1870 ana 1879 on 
'The Eastern Question' (London, 8vo), 
written from a point of view hostile to 
Russia. .\t the time of his death Crealock 
was engaged on his most important work, 
' Deer-Stalking in the Highlands of Scotland/ 



Creighton 



82 



Creighton 



which appeared in 1892 under the editor- 
ahipof hiB >mitli..r, Major-generalJohn North 
Oroalock >•">). The book,which is pro- 

fusely ill trom Crealock's drawings, 

may be considered the most ample and au- 
thoritative work on this subject. He was 
k enthusiastic follower of the sport 
poMCoaed a thorough knowledge of every 
detail in reffard to it. He died in London, 
before the book was entirely completed, on 
31 May 1891, at his residence, 20 Victoria 
Square. 

[TimM, 4 June, 1891 ; Elgin's Letters and 
Papers, pp. 326, 358, 381 ; Rugby School Re- 
gbtar; Athe and Edgell's Story of the Zula 
Campaign, 1880, pp. 194, 196, 198-9, 266-7, 
3M-6 ; Illustrated LondoD News, 13 June 1891 
<with portrait).] E. I. C. 

OREIOHTON, MANDELL (1843- 
1901), scholar, historian, and bishop suc- 
cessively of Peterborough and London, was 
the eldest son of Robert Creighton of Car- 
lisle, and Sarah, daughter of Thomas Man- 
dell of Bolton, Cumberland. He was born 
in Carlisle on 5 July 1843, and was edu- 
cated first at the cathedral school in that 
town, afterwards as a scholar at the gram- 
mar school, Durham, at the time under the 
control of Dr. Holden. In 1862 he gained 
apostmastership at Merton College, Oxford, 
and commenced residence at the university 
in the autumn of the same year. As an 
undergraduate he threw himself vigorously 
into the social life of the college, rowed in 
the college boat, and made many friends. 
He had no taste for sport, but took long 
walks, nlayed whist, and conversed freely 
with all sorts and conditions of men. His 
religious opinions were those of a high 
churchman, his political views those of a 
moderate liberal. While enjoying to the 
full the varied interests of university life, 
he read hard and steadily, and his diligence 
was rewarded by a first class in 'modera- 
tiona,' a first in the final school of literce 
kitmaniores, and a second in law and history 
— the last gained on six months' reading. 
In December 1H60 he was elected a fellow 
of Merton, and in 1867 he was admitted to 
the B.A. degree. Shortly afterwards he be- 
came a tutor of his college, and settled down 
to academic life as a ' don.' 

He soon became the leading spirit of the 
college common-room, and one of tlie most 
influential of the younger tutors in the uni- 
▼jrsitv. Among his pupils were the Duke 
of Albany, with whom he became intimate, 
1 J-"* liandolph Churchill, in whom he 
early discerned the promise of political suc- 
oeea. After lecturing for a short time for 

gieeta, he devoted himself to historical 



work, and lectured chiefly on ecclesiastical, 
Italian, and Byzantine history. It was largely 
due to his initiative, in combination with 
Mr. Laing (of Corpus) and Mr. Shadwell (of 
Oriel), that the intercollegiate system of 
lectures in historywas established at Oxford. 
In 1870 Creighton was ordained ; he took 
priest's orders in 1873. In 1872 he married 
Louise von Glehn, youngest daughter of 
Robert von Glehn, a London merchant, who 
came from Reval in the Russian Baltic pro- 
vinces. In order to retain him as fellow and 
tutor, Merton passed a special statute en- 
abling four of their fellows who held office 
to marry. He was therefore under no pres- 
sure to withdraw from college life; and, 
had he remained at Oxford, success and dis- 
tinction were within his reach. But he 
desired to gain experience of clerical and 
especially parochial work, and he wished 
for leisure and quiet in order to carry on 
his historical studies. He accordingly ac- 
cepted the college living of Embleton, on 
the coast of Northumberland, and in March 
1875 left the academic stir of Oxford for what 
many of his friends regarded as the banish- 
ment of a remote country village. 

The parish of Embleton is large in area 
and contains a scattered population of about 
sixteen hundred ; there are four schools and 
many small villages in it. It was therefore 
no light task which he had undertaken ; but 
he threw himself into it with great energy, 
and discharged his parochial duties wnth 
devotion and success. He made a point of 
knowing every one in the parish, and won the 
confidence of his Northumbrian parishioners, 
who consulted him on all sorts of occasions. 
He instituted services in two of the more 
distant villages. He preached twice a Sun- 
day — simple ethical discourses, dealing little 
with dogma, but stimulating and suggestive, 
salted with a shrewdness which appealed 
forcibly to his north-country audience. In 
fact, whether in private or in the pulpit, he 
spoke to his people not only as a clergyman 
but as a man of affairs. He soon became 
intimate with the leading families of the 
neighbourhood, especially with the Greys of 
Howick and Fallodon. As guardian of the 
poor, and chairman of the board for his 
union, he regularly attended the conferences 
of the poor-law unions of the four northern 
counties, and read several papers on educa- 
tional questions. He was also (from 1877) 
chairman of the school attendance commit- 
tee, and (from 1879) rural dean of Alnwick, 
in which town he frequently gave lectures 
on historical or literary subjects. When the 
diocese of Newcastle was founded (in 1881) 
he took a prominent part in its organisation, 



Creighton 



83 



Creighton 



and became Tm 1882) examining chaplain to 
IVialiop Wilborforce. In iHH.'i ho was inudo 
an honorary canon of Newcastle. Moan- 
while he kept up his connection with Ox- 
ford by examininjf for the historical school 
(1876-0 and 1.S88-4); and he was select 
nreacher at St. Mary's for several years. 
Duriuj? the summer months he was also in 
the habit of receiving- two or three younff 
men into his house as private pupils, to read 
for university degrees. 

So many and such varied occupations 
would have absorbed the energies of most 
men ; but sucli was Creighton's capacity for 
economising time and disregarding inter- 
ruptions that he was able, during his resi- 
dence at Embleton, to accomplish in addi- 
tion a great deal of literary work. In the 
same year (1875) he published, in a series 
edited by J. R. Green, a successful primer 
of Roman history. In 1876 there appeared 
several short works: 'The Age of Elizabeth,' 
* The Life of Simon de Montfort,' and an ele- 
mentary * History of England.' He also 
edited, while at Embleton, two series of his- 
torical handbooks, the * Epochs of English 
History' and 'Historical 13iographies,' and 
contributed frequently to the 'Academy' 
and other journals. But a larger task had 
long occupied his main attention, the result 
of which was the appearance (in 1882) of 
the first two volumes of his * History of the 
Papacy.' 

It was the publication of this important 
work, establishing his position as an eccle- 
siastical historian, which led to his next 
move. The foundation of the Dixie profes- 
sorship of ecclesiastical historyat Cambridge 
was an outcome of the act of 1877; and 
Creighton, on whom the university of Glas- 
gow had recentlv conferred the honorary de- 
gree of LL.D., became (in 1884) the first 
occupant of the chair. The professorship 
being partly endowed by a fellowship at 
Emmanuel, he became at the same time a 
fellow of that college. At Cambridge the 
neighlwurhood of the university library was 
an advantage the want of which had been a 
serious drawback in the north. Continuing 
his researches into the papacy he brought 
out, in 1887, the third and fourth volumes 
of his ' Ilistorv,' and nearly finished the 
fifth volume. He wrote (in the series of 
• English Statesmen ') the ' Life of Cardinal 
Wolsey,' and (in the series of 'Historic 
Towns') the ' History- of Carlisle.' He also 
edited a series entitled ' Epochs of Church 
History,' which comprises fifteen volumes. 
In 1886 the * English Historical Review ' 
was founded. Creighton became its first 
editor, and at once established its high posi- 



tion as a scientific journal. He retained the 
editorship till 18U1. His loctures, which 
were delivered in almost every term durinf^ 
his tenure of the Dixie professorship, were 
largely attended. They dealt usually with 
ecclesiastical history, or else with some sub- 
ject or period rich in ecclesiastical interest. 
In his ordinary lectures he kept his deeper 
learning in the background, but in address- 
ing advanced students he gave it full play. 
Some of his most stimulating work was done 
in ' conversation classes ' — more or less an 
imitation of the German professorial 'semi- 
nar.' With his better pupils he was on 
friendly and even intimate terms, often in- 
viting them to his house and taking long 
] walks with them in the country. He took 
a keen interest in the movement for the 
higher education of women, showed much 
kindness to his female pupils, and was for 
some time a member of the council of Newn- 
ham College. He did not, however, support 
' the proposal to grant the B.A. degree to 
I women; still less was he in favour of con- 
ferring upon them the political franchise. 
While a fellow of Emmanuel he took a full 
share in the general life of the college, 
dining frequently in hall, preaching in 
chapel, and attending college meetings. 
He did not take a very active part either 
in college or in university business, but he 
became a prominent figure in Cambridge 
society, and brought a wholesome intellec- 
tual stir into every company in which he 
found himself. So fully did he identify 
himself with his adopted college that he 
was chosen in 1880 to represent it in Ame- 
rica, when Harvard — originally founded bv 
an Emmanuel man — celebrated its 250th 
anniversary. On this occasion he was the 
guest of Professor Norton, and won golden 
opinions by his ready wit, afiability, and 
many sided sympathy. 

The canonry in Worcester cathedral, 
which had been conferred upon Creighton 
in 1885, added considerably to his labours, 
but gave him an opportunity to develop his 
powers as a preacher. During the weeKS of 
his residence he preached every Sunday 
evening to large congregations in the cathe- 
dral. He took an active interest in all that 
concerned the welfare of the city, esp»?cially 
in the King's school andeducaticnial matters 
generally ; and he acted f<ir several years as 
examining chaplain to Bishop Philpot. In 
1890 he was promoted to a canonry at Wind- 
sor, where he hoped it might be possible to 
find more leisure for his literari- work. But, 
before his installation could take place, he 
was called to a far more important position 
in the bishopric of Peterborough (vacant 

- o2 



Creighton 



84 



Creighton 



by the tranrfation of Dr. Magee to York), 
to which he waa appointed in February 
1891. From this time forward the demands 
of administrative work absorbed almost all 
his energies. He made it his business to 
become thorouffhly acquainted with his dio- 
cese, and eepecially with its most important 
parta, the populous towns of Leicester and 
rforthampton, in which he resided for some 
-weeks every year. In these busy industrial 
and commercial communities, in which the 
BOQConformist element is very powerful, his 
wide sympathies and quick intelligence, 
combined with liberal views and a large 
religious tolerance, made him deservedly 

Cpular. In his earlier years Creighton had 
sn a follower of Gladstone, and in the 
feneral election of 1880 he supported the 
candidature of Mr. G. Howard at Carlisle, 
strongly condemning the foreign policy of 
Lord Beaconsfield. But the adoption of 
the home-rule programme inclined his sym- 
pathies to the unionist side ; and on the oc- 
casion of Lord Salisbury's visit to Cam- 
bridffe in 1891 Creighton appeared on the 
pUtrorm among his supporters. He did not, 
nowever, take a very keen interest in pass- 
ing political questions, and in general avoided 
— especially after he became a bishop — any 
public reference to party politics. To edu- 
cational questions, on the other hand, he 
always devoted much attention. In this 
connection he deprecated partisan agitation, 
whether political or religious, striving to in- 
duce the public to abandon a fruitless strife 
over details of organisation and control, and 
to devote its attention to those larger edu- 
cational problems which are really important 
to the child. While approving the legisla- 
tion of 1870, he was a strong supporter of 
denominational education and of the system 
of voluntary schools. These opinions, though 
differing from those of nonconformists in 
general, did not prevent Creighton from 
aehiering popularity and influence among 
all clasees m his diocese— an influence which 
aaabled him to intervene with decisive 
•ftct when (in 1896) a great strike in the 
boot trade threatened the prosperity of Lei- 
cester. His intervention was welcomed by 
the leaders on both sides, and a satisfactory 
compromise was the result. In this episode 
be showed both the mastery of details and 
the grasp of general principles which mark 
the statesman and administrator. Shortly 
afterwards his reputation was further en- 
hanced by his b#'ing selected to represent 
the Knfflish church at the coronation of the 
Emperor Nicholas II at Moscow in May 
1 Wtf. For a duty of this description he was 
•dmirably fitted, both by the urbanity of his 



demeanour and by his sympathetic feelings 
towards other churches. He was very well 
received, conversed with the emperor, had 
interesting interviews with M. Pobiedonost- 
zeif, and was the only person not a Russian 
subject invited to the state banquet which 
followed the coronation. 

Meanwhile episcopal duties had been so 
engrossing as to give a serious, if not a 
complete, check to Creighton's literary 
activity. He was obliged to give up the 
editorship of the ' Historical Review,' which 
was taken over by Dr. S. R. Gardiner. On 
the other hand he became, in 1894, the first 
president of the Church Historical Society, 
founded in that year, and he continued to 
preside over it till his death. He succeeded, 
with no little difficulty, in bringing out the 
fifth volume of his ' History of the Papacy,' 
but there the work stopped — an unfinished 
fragment. He produced an admirable study 
of personal character in the * Life of Eliza- 
beth,' brought out first in a large and 
splendidly illustrated edition, afterwards in 
a cheaper form. At Cambridge he delivered 
a course of Hulsean lectures (1893-4), sub- 
sequently published, on the congenial sub- 
ject of • Persecution and Tolerance,' in which 
he drew largely on his stores of historical 
knowledge. He also gave the Rede lecture 
at Cambridge (1895) on ' The Early Renais- 
sance in England ' — a study mainly of lite- 
rary history ; and the Romanes lecture at 
Oxford (1896) on 'The English National 
Character ' — a subject which afforded him a 
good opportunity :^or the display of a genuine 
but discriminating patriotism, for shrewd 
generalisation, and brilliant epigram. 

If the occupation of the see of Peter- 
borough precluded the devotion of much 
time to literature, Creighton's translation to 
London put an end to the hopes of those 
who still looked forward to further contri- 
butions to historical science from his pen. 
Creighton was as much a statesman and a 
churchman as an historian ; and, when the 
call was so obvious and the choice so fully 
justified, it was only natural and right that 
church and state should take precedence. 
What is, however, to be regretted is that, 
while he might have continued to apply hia 
great gifts to the elucidation of history for 
many years, his life was undoubtedly short- 
ened by the mental and physical strain of 
his work as bishop of London. 

His promotion to that see took place in 
January 1897, after the appointment of 
Bishop Temple to the primacy on the death 
of Archbishop Benson. The extravagances 
of some of the ritualistic clergy were already 
attracting attention; and while they caused 



Creighton 



85 



Creighton 



moderate churchmen to regret that men of j 
eiitluisiaam and ffenuino devotion Hhoidd bo 
unable to avoid inuiscret ions, t hoy were begin- 1 
ning to rouse in extreme protestant sections , 
deep suspicion and indignation. Tlie bi.shop, 
by his strong common-sense and intellectual | 
tteuteness, his wide learning combined with ; 
tolerance, his knowledge of character and | 
persuasive manners, and not least by his sense : 
of humour, was eminently qualified to deal \ 
with this ditlicult sitiuition. lie had formed 1 
no definite conclusions before his arrival in 
the diocese, and he took time to familiarise 
liimself with its conditions ; but after about \ 
A year of residence he came to the conclu- 
sion that steps must be taken to prevent 
the mischief from spreading further. During 
1898 the public mind was still further ex- 
cited by Sir William Ilarcourt's letters to 
the * Times,' in which endeavour was made 
to convict the episcopate of neglect of duty 
in failing to restrain the excesses of the ex- 
treme high church party. The bitter feel- 
ings thus excited on both sides did not 
facilitate the task of compromise and con- 
ciliation to which the bishop had set himself. 
lie pursued his course, however, without 
yielding to clamour on one side or obstinacy 
on the other, and upheld the true principles 
of the Reformation and the church of Eng- 
land between the two extremes. By the 
wisdom and moderation of his charges and 
addresses, no less than by their clearness 
and decision, he inspired confidence and re- 
asserted episcopal authority. But it was 
rather on private conference and gentle per- 
suasion that he chiefly relied in his en- 
deavours to bring back the recalcitrants 
within legal limits. In these efforts he was 
almost completely successful, and before his 
death he had, with rare exceptions, restored 
order and obedience throughout bis diocese. 
llis view of the position of the English 
church was that it was neither the mediaeval 
church nor a church of the continental type, 
nor yet a mere compromise between two 
extremes of religious opinion ; but that it 
was a church holding a unique position, as 
* resting on an appeal to sound learning.' This 
he further explained to mean that the Eng- 
lish reformers, learned in the scriptures and , 
in history, and undisturbed by influences 
which distorted the movement elsewhere, ' 
were able to strip ofl' mediteval accretions ' 
in doctrine and ceremony, and to restore j 
primitive simplicity, based upon the bible 1 
And the early fathers of the church. Con- 
«eq^uently, while willing to allow all possible 
latitude and even welcoming divergences as 
natural and stimulative, he insisted that * a 



recognisable type ' of service should bo 1 



maintained, and that no doctrine should bo 
publicly taught which indicated any tendency 
to return to Romanism or mcdiievalism, or 
to depart from the distinctive features of 
the English church, as agreeable to the 
national character. In maintaining this 
rule he made it clear that the episcopal 
authority must be obeyed, while at tho 
same time he recognised that, in the case of 
an established church, the state must have 
the final voice in determining the nature of, 
and in giving authority to, ecclesiastical 
courts. He approved the proposal to submit 
differences as to ritual and ceremony to. the 
informal decision of the two archbishops, and 
supported the judgments given at the' Lam> 
beth hearing ' of 1899. In the last year of 
his life, at the request of the London Dio- 
cesan Conference, ne summoned to Fulham 
a meeting of leading divines and laymen — 
subsequently known as the * Round Table 
Conference — for the purpose of discussing 
different views of the holy communion. He 
did not anticipate that this would lead to 
an agreement, but he was satisfied with 
having done something to clear up the 
points at issue and to produce a better 
mutual understanding. 

In addition to the work entailed on him 
by the ritualistic crisis, and to the heavy 
duties which ordinarily fall on a bishop of 
London, Creighton was active and as- 
siduous in other directions. He was a mem- 
ber of the commission which drew up the 
statutes of the new university of London. 
He regularly attended the meetings of the ec- 
clesiastical commissioners and of the trustees 
of the British Museum. He was in great 
request at all sorts of public functions ; he 
went much into society ; and he spoke on 
many occasions and on a large variety of 
topics. Nor did he altogether give up his 
literary pursuits, though his work during^ 
this period was mainly confined to the re- 
issue of sermons and addresses, and the 
writing of prefaces or introductions to volumes 
composed by others. Perhaps the most 
notable publication of this period wa«*The 
Story of some English Shires,' a collection of 
papers previously published in the ' Leisure 
Hour,* on sixteen English counties through 
which he had travelled, mostly on foot. The 
strain of such an active and absorbing life told 
eventually upon a constitution rather ner- 
vous and wiry than robust. Chronic dys- 
{>epsia undermined his strength, and at 
ength induced internal ulceration and 
htemorrhage, to which, after an illness of 
some four months, borne with great courage 
and patience, he succumbed at Fulham 
ralace on Monday, 14 Jan. 1901. On the 



Creighton 



86 



Creighton 



Thnnday following he was buried in the 

crrpt of St. Paul's Cathedral. 

In person Creighton was tall, spare, and 

upright; and his lithe and wiry figure 

showed great capacity for enduring fatigue. 

His features were rt'gular and finely cut; 

his hands long and well-shaped, and he wore 

akNigbeard. Extremely scrupulous about his 
and personal appearance, he was not 
} to a certain degree of external mag- 
loe on proper occasions, and generally 
his mitre as bishop. Hospitably in- 



with a large circle of friends, he was 
always accessible, and never appeared hur- 
ried or preoccupied. His conversation was 
•parkling and witty, and he had a large fund 
ofhiunQfoas anecdote. A certain love of 
paradoT, a shrewdness which some mistook 
wr cynicism, a notable lack of unction, and 
occasional lapses into flippancy as a protest 
against cant or a refuge from boredom, some- 
times conveyed a wrong impression, conceal- 
ing the natural kindliness, the wide sym- 
pathy, the deep inner seriousness of a man 
who was more highly appreciated the more 
fttllv he was known. His domestic life was 
of the happiest, and he left a family of three 
sons and four daughters. Creighton was a 
D.D. of Oxford and Cambridge ; hon. LL.D. of 
Glasgow and Har\'ard ; hon. D.C.L. of Ox- 
ford and Durham ; hon. Litt.D. of Dublin. 
He was a corresponding member of the 
Hatsaehusetts Historical Society and of the 
American Church History Society, and a 
fellow of the SocietA Romana di Storia 
Patria. 

In accordance with the decision of a com- 
mittee formed at the Mansion House, Lon- 
don, in February 1901, with a view to com- 
memorating Creighton's public services, a 
monument by Mr. llamo Thomeycroft, R. A., 
is to be placed in St. Paul's Cathedral, and 
a portrait by Mr. Hubert Herkomer, R.A., 
in Folham Palace. A painting by Mr. 
Harris Brown, now in the possession of Mrs. 
Creighton, is destined for the palace at 
Pleterboroiigh. 

Few men engaged in administrative work 
hare to tempered and enlarged their minds 
Vy hiatoricaf study ; few have adopted more 
frankly or more effectively, in dealing with 
nrnotical questions in church and state, the 
historical point of view. Few historians, on 
the other hand, have brought to bear on 
their literary work a mind Bfore statesman- 
like, more sagacious, more devoid of preju- 
dice. Creighton's chief work is the work of 
a man at once practical and scientific, of a 
•tudent and a man of letters who was also a 
consummate man of affairs. He never lived, 
like a Gibbon, a Freeman, or a Ranke, solely 



to write history ; the composition of his books, 
far from engrossing his mind to the exclu- 
sion of other interests and pursuits, never 
occupied even the larger part of his working 
day. Work done under such conditions both 
gains and suffers by them. On the one hand 
there breathes through Creighton's volumes 
the healthy air of an active practical life. 
There is an unerring sense of proportion, an 
admirable^aeV for the true causes of events, 
a searching insight into motives, combined 
with great caution in attributing them, a 
full appreciation of conditions as limiting 
action, with due acknowledgment of the 
capacity of character to override conditions. 
A wholesome scepticism pervades the work, 
as of a man who has had frequent occasion 
to note the inaccuracy of contemporary re- 
ports, and who knows that a chronicler is 
not to be implicitly trusted because he is an 
ambassador, nor to be hastily condemned 
because he is a friar. It is also distinguished 
by an absence of rhetoric, a contempt for 
mere picturesqueness, a simplicity, terseness, 
and directness of expression, as of a man 
whose business it is to lay a clear statement 
before enlightened councillors, and who is 
anxious rather to provide materials for judg- 
ment than to judge. On the other hand, 
although Creighton goes further than 
his predecessors in the same field, it can 
hardly be said that his work is exhaustive 
or final, even in the sense in which the work 
of the above-mentioned historians can be 
called complete or final. In some respects 
it has been superseded by the work of Pastor, 
who had larger access to manuscript sources. 
It also suffers from a certain want of finish ; 
and the style, though easy, clear, and vigorous, 
is not elegant and is occasionally even care- 
less. 

If the occupations of the writer have thus 
left their mark upon the work, still more 
obviously is this the case with his character. 
The chief merits of the 'History of the 
Papacy ' are width of reading, clearness of 
statement, soundness of judgment, selection, 
compression, and impartiality. Creighton 
chose a subject for the elucidation of which 
he was, by training and temperament, emi- 
nently suited. His independence and intel- 
ligent sympathy, his subtlety and his sense of 
humour, enabled him to deal both acutely 
and fairly with events and persons too often 
misrepresented by partisan bigotry. He had 
thought much about religion on the practical 
side, and about politics as affected by per- 
sonal character and religious motives. He 
rightly regarded the Reformation as the 
capital event of modern times, the main 
source from which modern, as distinct from 



Creighton 



87 



Creighton 



medirovftl, Europe has spriinf? ; but he saw 
also that to treat it exclusively as a re- 
li<fious movement, even to exaggerate its 
religious importance, was fatal to a true 
understanding of it. A believer in character 
as the most potent of social forces, he found 
in the motives and octions of the men with 
whom he dealt the main causes of great 
events, rather than in uncontrollable circum- 
stances or inexorable laws of social develop- 
ment. The personal element therefore plays 
an unusually large part in his narrative ; and 
his personages are no mere shadows. A 
follower of Ranke, whom ho seems to have 
regarded as the greatest of modern his- 
torians, he sought in archives and docu- 
ments the leading clues to the historical 
labyrinth, the main links of cause and effect 
connecting great events. But the persons 
by or for whom these documents were com- 
piled were, after all, more important to him 
than the documents themselves ; and the 
consequence is that his actors assume a 
clearness and a vitality which they rarely 
display in the pages of the great German 
writer. At the same time his characterisa- 
tion is sober and cautious, rather analytical 
than synthetic. He produces no brilliant 
gallery of portraits in the manner of 
Macaulay ; rather he allows his characters 
to unfold themselves gradually through a 
succession of actions and incidents, as in a 
great romance or drama. On these the 
attention of the reader is concentrated. 

That in the religious and political de- 
velopments of the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries the conduct of the papacy is the 
central and permanent factor is indisput- 
able; and Creighton set himself to trace 
and estimate its action. So vast is the field 
that only by a strenuous avoidance of 
digression could this end be satisfactorily 
attained ; and nothing is more remarkable 
in the book than the austerity with which 
the author resists the temptation to dilate, 
for instance, on the art and literature of the 
Kenaissance. To him personally these sub- 
jects were of the highest interest, but they 
did not fall within his immediate province, 
which was not the history of the Keforma- 
tion and all that led to it, but the history of 
the papacy. There is no doubt that this 
severe concentration of purpose gives a 
certain dryness to Creighton's work. 
The narrative flows steadily on with an 
unbroken current, never pausing to catch 
an adventitiojis charm, but relying for its 
interest solelv on the greatness of the sub- 
ject and the intellectuality of its treatment. 
The somewhat sombre and monotonous 
effect is heightened by the constant im- 



partiality of the author's judgraentii. He 
never attempts to point a moral, holdinff 
that sufficient praise and blame are implied 
in a clear and cool exposure of action.H and 
results. Even in the case of a liorgia 
we are shown how the degenerate standard 
and the average conditions of the day must 
be taken into account in judging the de- 
linquent. The faults and blunders of the 
best are shrewdly detected and impartially, 
if tenderly, exposed. The whole treatment 
of the * tragedy ' of Savonarola and his con- 
flict with Alexander VI is an admirable ex- 
ample of Creighton's method. 

Still, in spite of his impartiality, the 
author's predilections are fairly clear. It is 
Erasmus, the reforming humanist, who has 
his sympathy rather than Luther, though he 
does full justice to Luther's powers. With 
Wolsey — his * Life * of whom may be regarded 
as a sort of continuation of the 'Papacy' — 
he seems to feel a close affinity. >iowhere 
have the character and policy of this Mira- 
beau of the English Reformation been more 
clearly and sympathetically treated. The 
'Life of Elizabeth' carries on the same story 
another stage; and here again, while the 
contemporary fusion of religion and politics 
supplies a problem specially adapted to his 
genius, the strangely complex character of 
the queen, in all its strength and weakne&p, 
is made to dominate the scene, and the last 
of the Tudors affords a convincing illustra- 
tion of the truth of his central maxim — that 
character rules events. 

Creighton's principal works are: 1. 'Primer 
of Roman History,' 1875. 2. * The Age 
of Elizabeth' (Epochs of History), 1876. 
3. 'Simon de Montfort' (Historical Bio- 
graphies), 1876. 4. 'History of England' 
(Epochs of Engl ish H istory), 1 879. 5. ' H istoiy 
of the Papacy during the Reformation* 
(1 378-151^7), 5 vols. 1882-94. 6. ' Cardinal 
Wolsey' (Twelve English Statesmen), 1888. 
7. 'Carlisle' (Historic Towns), 1889. 8. 'A 
Charge' (Peterborough), 1S94. 9. ' Persecu- 
tion and Tolerance' (Hulsean Lectures, 
1893-4), 1895. 10. ' The Earlv Renaissance 
in England' (Rede Lecture). 1895. 11. 'The 
English National Character' (Romanes Lec- 
ture), 1896. 12. ' Queen Elizabeth,' 1896. 
13. * The Heritage of the Spirit,' and other 
sermons, 1896. 14. 'Church and State' 
(Oxford House Pap«'rs), 1897. 15. 'The 
! Story of some English Shires' (Religious 
I Tract Society), 1897. 16. * Lessons from 
; the Cross' (Addresses &c.), 1898. 17. ' The 
I Position of the Church of England' (an 
I Address), 1899. 18. 'The Church and the 
I Nation' (a Charge), 1900. 
1 To the early volumes of this Dictionary 



Creswick 



88 



Crofts 



Creighton was a frequent contributor. To 
the first volume he contributed four articles, 
including those on St. Aidan and Pope 
Adrian iV. Among his articles in subse- 

3 uent volumes were those on Chillingwortb, 
ohn Richard Green, Archbishop Grindal, 
Sir George Grey, three Thomas Howards, 
iMpectively second, third, and fourth dukes 
ofNorfolk, and Bishop Jewel. His latest 
contribotion dealt with Lady Mary Keyes, 
and was published in the thirty-first volume. 
[Obimary notice? ; Quarterly Review, April 
1901 ; personal knowledge and private informa- 
lioo.] ^' ^' ^• 

CRESWICK, WILLIAM (1813-1888), 
actor, was bom on 27 Dec. 1813 nearCovent 
Garden, London. As Master Collins he ap- 
pealed in 1831 at a theatre in the Commer- 
cial Road, playing an Italian boy in a drama 
on the subiect of ' burking.' After practice 
with travelling companies in Kent and Suf- 
folk, he played leading business on the York 
circuit, whe're he met Miss Paget, whom sub- 
sequently he married. His first appearance 
in London was at the Queen's theatre, 
Tottenham Street, under Mrs. Nisbett, on 
16 Feb. 1835, as Horace Meredith in Jerrold's 
* Schoolfellows.' He took part in a failing 
experiment under Penley at the Lyceum, 
then returned into the country. On 25 July 
1846 he joined Phelps's company at Sadler's 
Wells, playing Hotspur, and afterwards one 
or two other parts. On the reappearance of 
Mrs. Butler [see K em ble, Frances Ann] he 
played in April 1847, at the Princess's, Master 
Walter in the 'Hunchback' to her Julia, 
and subsequently sup|K)rted her in other 
characters. At the same house he played 
with Macready. At the Haymarket he ap- 

?»ared in July as Claude Melnotte to the 
auline of Helen Faucit. On 4 Oct. he was 
the first Vivian Temple in Marston's * Heart 
and the World.* He was also seen as True- 
worth in the ' Love Chase,' Mordaunt in the 
* Patrician's Daughter,' Proteus in *Two 
Gentlemen of \erona' (December 1848), 
Ghost in * Hamlet,' and Cassio. With 
Richard Shepherd he began, 17 Sept. 1849, 
the manaffement of the Surrey, opening as 
Alasco in Knowles's ' Rose of Arragon.' At 
the Surrey he appeared as the Stranger, 
Virginius, Richelieu, Hamlet, &c. ; was, 
18 Feb. 1849, the first Laromie in H. F. 
Chorley's ' Old Love and New Fortune,' and 
was seen as Damon in ♦ Damon and Pythias,' 
Adam Bede, &c. Retiring from manage- 
ment in 1862, he played at Drury Lane and 
other theatres Othello, lago, Macbeth, and 
lachimo. Joining again Shepherd in 1866, 
be played, on 8 Sept., Martin Truegold in 



Slous's prize nautical drama, ' True to the 
Core.' In 1871 he went for the second time 
to America, made his first appearance as Joe 
in * Nobody's Child,' a part in which he had 
been seen at the Surrey on 14 Sept. 1867, 
and played with Charlotte Cushman and 
Edwin Booth. In 1877, after accepting at 
the Gaiety a benefit, in which he played 
Macbeth, he went to Australia, where he 
opened at Melbourne as Virginius, and was 
very popular. Creswick was occasionally 
seen in London, chiefly in Shakespeare. 
For his farewell benefit he appeared at 
Drury Lane on 29 Oct. 1885, in a scene 
from * Lear,' forming part of a miscellaneous 
entertainment. Other parts in which he was 
accepted were King John, Joseph Surface, 
Vamey in 'Amy Robsart,' and Cromw^ell 
in Wills's ' Buckingham.' Creswick died on 
17 June 1888, and was buried at Kensal 
Green. He belonged to the old-fashioned 
and oratorical school, of which he was one 
of the last survivors. He was popular in 
tragedy, and won acceptance in melodrama, 
but had little subtlety or insight. 

[Personal knowledge; Pascoe's Dramatic 
List ; Scott and Howard's Blanchard ; Dramatic 
and Musical Eeview; Era, 23 June 1888 ; Sun- 
day Times, various years.] J. K. 

CROFTS, WILLIAM, Baeon Crofts op 
Saxham (1611 P-1677), born about 1611, was 
the eldest son of Sir Henry Crofts (d. 1677) 
of Saxham Parva, Suffolk, and his wife 
Elizabeth {d. 1642), daughter of Richard 
Wortley of Wortley, co. York. His sister 
Cicely was by 1630 a maid of honour to 
the queen, Henrietta Maria, and Crofts 
about the same time entered her service ; 
possibly he owed his rise in some measure 
to his aunt, Eleanor Wortley, ' the old 
men's wife,' who married successively Sir 
Henry Lee, Edward Radclifi'e, sixth earl of 
Sussex, and Robert Rich, second earl of 
Warwick [q.v.] In 1635 Crofts was sent 
on some mission to Elizabeth of Bohemia, 
then at the Hague, who, on his return, * re- 
commended him to both king and queen 
that he may have some good place about her 
nephew the prince ' (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1635, p. 267). In the same year he was 
prosecuted before the Star Chamber for 
quarrelling with George, lord Digby [q.v.], 
but before the outbreak of the civil war he 
seems to have become captain of the guards 
of Henrietta Maria. In 1642 the commons 
demanded his removal from court as ' a per- 
son of evil fame, and disafi'ected to the public 
peace and prosperity of the kingdom ' (ib. 
1641-3, p. 878; Clarendon, Rebellion, iv. 
222). 



Crofts 



89 



Croll 



Durinff the civil war Crofts continued 
in atten(Tance on the kinp^ or queen, and in 
March 1644-5 he was granted ns a reward 
K»>veral manors in Ksaex and Siiflblk; ho 
iiuist, liowever, be distinguished from Sir 
William Crofts,' the ablest of the Hereford- 
shire royalists,' who was killed at Stokrsay 
on 8 June 1G45 (Webb, Civil War in Here- 
fordshire^ passim ; Gakdinek, Civil War, ii. 
*l>r)9). In 1(548 he was sent to the Earl of 
Warwick, then in command of the parlia- 
mentary fleet, to tempt him into communica- 
tion with the royalists; but in spite of his 
relationship to Warwick he was sent back 
without an mterview (Clarendon, xi. 70). In 
September 1649Crofts was sent by Charles II 
to seek aid in the north-east of Europe, and 
his accounts ' from 20 Sept. 1649 to 22 Feb. 
16r>]-2 in the king's service in Poland, 
Dantzig, Lithuania, and Konigsberg ' are 
extant among the Clarendon State Papers 
{Cal. Clar. State Papers, ii. 124). As a 
reward for his efforts he was, in April 1652, 
appointed gentleman of the bedchamber, 
which made Ilyde * mad and weary of his 
life ' {ib. ii. 130). At that time Charles was 
said to be ' wholly governed by Lord Wil- 
mot, Mr. Crofts, and Mr. Coventry,' who 
were described as his * chief counsellors ' 
{Nicholas Papers, i. 304). 

In 1652 Crofts, who seems to have been 
better provided with means than his fellow- 
exiles, took a house in the country near 
Paris, where he entertained Charles II for a 
month, April-May 1654. He also, accord- 
ing to Clarendon, endeavoured to promote 
a marriage between Charles and the Duchesse 
de Chastillon, to whom he was himself 
attached; but Grammont gives a more scan- 
dalous turn to the story (Clarendon, lie- 
hellio7i, xiv. 96; Grammont, Memoires, edit. 
1889, ii. 16). The Duke of Gloucester also 
stayed with Crofts, who seems to have used 
his influence to prevent the duke's conver- 
eion to Roman Catholicism. In January 
1657-8 it was known that Charles was about 
to make Crofts a peer, but the patent of 
this creation as Raron Crofts of Saxham was 
not passed until 18 May following. To- 
wards the end of the year, after Lucy 
Walter's death, Crofts undertook the care 
of Charles's illegitimate son, James [see 
Scott, James, Duke of Monmouth], who 
was now represented as Crofts's kinsman 
and passed by his name. At the Restoration 
Crofts brought James to England, and on 
18 Jan. 1664-5, whfn he was created Duke 
of Monmouth, Crofts was one of the com- 
missioners nominated to manage his aflfairs 
and estates. 

Meanwhile, in 1660, Crofts had been sent 



to Poland to announce Charles Il't ■cow 
sion ; in 1661 ho went on behalf of the 
Duke of York to congratulate Ix)uis XIV 
on the birth of the dauphin, and in April 
1662 he sailed with Edward Montagu, tirst 
earl of Sandwich [q.v.], to fetch Catherine 
of IJraganza from Portugal. f)n the last 
occasion he distinguished himself, according 
to Pepys, by his fright during a storm. In 
1667 he succeeded to his father's estates, 
and in 1668 he entertained Charles II at 
Saxham, when the king, Sir Charles Sedley 
[q.v.], and others got drunk. Crofts died 
without issue on 11 Sept. 1677, when the 
peerage became extinct ; he was buried at 
Saxham on the 13th. He married, first, 
Dorothy, daughter of Sir John Ilobart, bart., 
and widow of Sir John Hele; she died 
before 25 Feb. 1662-3, and Crofts married, 
secondly, Elizabeth (1616-1672), daughter 
of William, baron Spencer of Wormleighton, 
and widow of (1) John, lord Craven (<f. 
1049) [see under Craven, Sir William, 
1548 .P-1618], and (2) of Henry, son of Tho- 
mas Howard, first earl of Berkshire ; she 
died on 11 Aug. 1672, and was buried at 
Saxham on the 18th. 

[Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1630-72 ; Cal. Clar. 
State Papers, vols, i, and ii. ; Nicholas Papers, 
Vemey Papers, and Letters to Sir Joseph Wil- 
liamson (Camden 80c.) ; Clarendon's Rebellion, 
ed. Macray ; M^moires de Grammont, ed. 1 889 ; 
Pepys's Diary, ed. VVheatley ; Evelyn's Diary, 
ed. Bray; Roberts's Life of the Duke of Mon- 
mouth ; Burke's Extinct and G, E. C[okHyne]*s 
Complete Peerages; Gage's Suffolk, i, 134 sqq.l 

A. F. P. 

CROLL, JAMES (1821-1890), physical 
geologist, was born on 2 Jan. 1821, the 
second of four sons of David Croll, a stone- 
mason of Little AVhitefield, Perthshire, and 
his wife, Janet Ellis of Elgin. The boy 
went to the village school, and his first 
impulse to real study came, when about 
eleven years old, from accidentally falling 
in with the ' Penny Magazine.' After an 
apprenticeship to a wheelwright at Collace 
he got work at Banchory as a joiner. His 
constitution, however, was not sound, and 
a boil on the elbow, accidentally injured 
when he was about ten years old, never 
healed, and in 1846 became so serious that 
he was compelled to seek a less laborious 
occupation, and next year opened a shop at 
Elgin. On 1 1 Sept. 1848 he married Isa- 
bella, daughter of .John Macdonald of Forres. 
Then came an illness, which substituted an 
ossified joint for an inflamed elbow. But it 
injured his business, and in the summer of 
1850 he left Elgin for Park, and earlv in 
1862 he opened a temperance hotel at Bfair- 



Croll 



90 



Cromwell 



gowrie, making much of the furniture him- 
self. That, however, was not a success, and 
in 1853 he became an agent for the Safety 
life Awurance Society, residing at Glasgow, 
•t Edinburgh, and then at Leicester. A 
•eriouB failure in his wife's health obliged 
him to Ttsign this appointment and return to 
Seotknd, where, in 1858, he got work on the 
'Commonwealth/ a weekly paper, and was 
g|ipointed in the following year Keeper at the 
Anderaonian University and Museum, Glas- 
gow. He had already begun to write, and 
cortanded his studies, working mostly at phy- 
motl questions and at the glacial deposits of 
South-western Scotland, publishing his first 
■Ventitic paper, the forerunner of a long 
■eriet, on an experiment of Ampere, in the 
* Fhilooophical Magazine' for 1861. 

la September 1867 he was appointed to 
Ibe G^eological Survey of Scotland, as keeper 
of the maps and correspondence. He now 
panned his studies, especially in physical 
geology, with even ^eater ardour, but in 
the fiioe of unusual difficulties. His health 
had nerer been good ; from boyhood he had 
fofleved from pains, apparently neuralgic, in 
the head, and afterwards in the eyes. Still, 
by husbanding his powers and living by rule, 
he succeeded in writing many papers, and 
produced his most important book, ' Climate 
and Time,' in 1875. The following year he 
was elected F.R.S., and received from St. 
Andrews the degree of LL.D. But in 1880 
another trivial accident did some permanent 
injury to the brain, and obliged him to retire 
from the Geological Survey. The treasury 
adhered to the letter of the law in regard to 
hi« pension ; two prime ministers of opposite 

r>l i t ics refused him one from the civil list ; so 
r'.ll. with a world-wide reputation, retired 
ded with less than 60/. per annum. 
r rully efforts, however, slightly augmented 
his income, and with his scanty savings from 
literary work he purchased an annuity of 
65/. on the joint lives of himself and his 
wife. For some time he moved from place 
to place in searcli of health, but at last, 
about 1886, settled down near Perth. There 
htB died, after much suffering, but with un- 
doiided mind, and working, so far as he 
eoald, to the last, on 16 Dec. 1890. 

Besides the distinctions already mentioned 
Oroll three times received complimentary 
•wards of funds from the Geological Society 
of l»ndnti. He wrote three books: 'The 
riiilfi*oohy of Theism,' 1857; ' Climate and 
Tim»«; 1875; and 'The Philosophic Basis 
of Evolution,'. 1890, besides about ninety 
separate papers, the majority on questions 
in physical geology, such as ocean currents, 
climate, and, the causes of the glacial epoch. 



The last subject is discussed at length in 
' Climate and Time,' Croll maintaining that 
the low temperature occurred when the 
eccentricity of the earth's orbit had a high 
value, but was modified by the precessional 
movement of the earth's axis. Croll's ad- 
vocacy of this hypothesis, whatever be its 
ultimate fate, was characterised by patient 
research and acute reasoning, and will give 
his name an honourable place in the history 
of geology. Many of his writings, as may 
be supposed, were controversial, but his in- 
dustry, energy, and love for truth won for 
him the respect of adversaries, who, even if 
they could not accept his views, thought 
them worthy of careful consideration. 

[Obituary notice, Nature, xliii. 180, by [Sir] 
A. G[eikie], and James Croll's Life and Work, by 
James Campbell-Irons, 1896. This volume (with 
a portrait) contains an incomplete autobio- 
graphy, with many additions by the author, and 
an interesting selection from Croll's correspon- 
dence.] T. C. B. 

CROMWELL, RALPH, fourth Baron 
Cromwell (1394P-1456), lord treasurer of 
England, is said (G. E. C[oe:ayne], Com- 
plete Peerage, ii. 430) to have been born 
about 1403, but as he is described as twenty- 
six years of age in 1420 {Inq. post mortem, 
7 Henry V, No. 72) and was a member of 
the council in 1422, he can hardly have been 
born later than 1394. The mistake, repeated 
by all the peerages, arose from Dugdale's 
misreading of the above inquisition. His 
grandfather, Ralph de Cromwell, second 
baron {d. 1398), whose exact relationship 
to John de Cromwell {d. 1365 .P), styled 
first baron, is uncertain, married Maud, 
daughter of John Bernake of Tattershall, 
Lincolnshire, thereby acquiring considerable 
property in that county, and was summoned 
to parliament as a baron from 28 Dec. 1375 
to 6 Nov. 1397. He died on 27 Aug. 1398, 
leaving by his widow (d. 10 April 1419) one 
son, Ralph, third baron (1368-1417), who 
by his wife Joanna was father of the subject 
of this article. 

Cromwell first appears as serving in Henry 

Vs retinue at the battle of Agincourt on 

15 Oct. 1415 (Nicolas, Agincourt, p. 378), 

! and throughout the reign he continued 

I fighting in France. On 4 Sept. 1418 he 

I was present when Henry took Caen by 

[ assault (Hardy, Motuli Normannice, p. 195), 

\ and in the following March, when Henry 

retired to Caen and Bayeux, ' leaving the 

' subjugation of Normandy to be prosecuted 

I eastwards and westwards by Clarence, Glou- 

^ cester, and Huntingdon,' Cromwell acted as 

j Clarence's lieutenant and constable of the 

1 army. He was present at the capture of 



Cromwell 



91 



Cromwell 



Courtonno on (5 March, of Chambrays on the 
9th, and of Hivie«ro-Thibonvillo on the llth 
{ib. y\). L>Or>, -JOl), 'J<U, .'JO.'J ; Hymku, Fadera, 
ix. 541), 051-2, r)r)4; lUTkisAY, Lancaster and 
York, i. 'J-i^, 257). IIo is tliroughout these 
operations styled 'chivaler,' though his father 
is said to haVe died in 1417. In May 1420 
lie was one of the commissioners who assisted 
Henry in negotiating the peace of Troyes with 
the (Jueen of France and the Duke of Bur- 
gundy (Rymkr, ix. 910). 

Cromwell had during IlenryV's reign never 
been summoned to the privy council, though 
he is spoken of as taking part ' in curia nostra 
militari ' (i6. ix. 551). But he had gained 
the confidence of Henry V and of his brother 
John, duke of Bedford, and during the mi- 
nority of Henry VI he at once assumed, in 
spite of his youthfulness, an important posi- 
tion among the lords of the council. He was 
first summoned to parliament on 29 Sept. 
1422, and in November he was one of the 
lords appointed in parliament to form the 
council of regency {Hot. Pari. iv. 175 ; 
Nicolas, Ord. P. C. in. 16). Soon afterwards 
he was appointed chamberlain of the ex- 
chequer, and on 29 Jan. 1426 he was one of 
those sent to mediate with Ilumfrey, duke 
of Gloucester and reconcile him with Cardinal 
Beaufort. He seems to have generally sided 
with Beaufort against Gloucester, and on 
1 March 1432, during Beaufort's absence in 
France, Gloucester seized the opportunity 
to remove the cardinal's friends from office. 
Cromwell lost the charaberlainship of the 
exchequer, and John Tiptoft, baron Tiptoft 
[q. v.], the stewardship of the household. 
In the following May he was warned not to 
bring more than his usual retinue to parlia- 
ment, but on 16 June, following Beaufort's 
example, he laid his case before the House 
of Lords. He complained that he had been 
dismissed without cause shown and con- 
trary to the ordinances of 1429, by which 
the council's proceedings were regulated. 
He appealed to testimonials from Bedford 
as to tne value of his services in France, but an 
assurance that he left office without a stain 
on his character was all the satisfaction he 
could get (Pot. Pari. iv. 392; Stubbs, iii. 
115 ; Kamsay, Lancaster and York, i. 439). 

In the summer of 14.33 Bedford returned 
to England, and during his visit the disgraced 
ministers were restored to power. Crom- 
well was made lord treasurer, and during the 
prorogation of parliament he 'prepared an 
elaborate statement of the national accounts' 
(Stubbs, iii. 117). This important statement 
was laid before parliament on 18 Oct. (Pot. 
Pari. iv. 433-8 ; Ramsat, i 452), and led to 
various attempts at financial reform (Stubbs, 



iii. 118). But after the death of Bedford in 
j 1435 Gloucester's opposition prevented any 



I satisfactory measures. In 1486 Cromwell 
led a contingent to the relief of Calais, which 
was then besieged by the Duke of Burgundy. 
In the same year he was appointed master 
of the king's mews and falcons, and in 1441 
he was one of the commissioners nominated 
to inquire into the alleged sorceries and 
witchcraft of the Duchess of Gloucester 
(Enr/lish Chron. ed. Davies, p. 68). 

In July 1443 Cromwell resigned the 
treasury', for reasons that are not quite clear. 
Possibly his resignation was due to jealousy 
of the rising influence of William de la Pole, 
first duke of Suffolk [q. v.], who now suc- 
ceeded Beaufort as the most influential 
adviser of the king. In 1445 Cromwell was 
made constable of Nottingham Castle and 
warden of Sherwood Forest, but he does not 
again come prominently forward until 1449, 
when he led the attack on Suffolk. One of 
Suflblk's partisans was William Tailboys, a 
Lincolnshire squire, with whom Cromwell 
had had some local disputes (see Pastern 
Letters, i. 96, 98) ; and on 28 Nov. 1449 as 
he was entering the Star-chamber Cromwell 
was hustled by Tailboys. Cromwell accused 
Tailboys and Suffolk of intending his death; 
they denied the charge, but Tailboys was 
sent to the Tower, and two months later 
Suffolk's connection with Tailboys was one of 
the charges brought against him (William 
WoRCESTf:R, p. 766 ; Paston Letters, i. 96, 97; 
Rot. Pari. V. 181, 208 ; Stubbs, iii. 145 n.) 

The fall of Suff'olk let loose a flood 01 
personal jealousies, and among Cromwell's 
enemies were Yorkists as well as Lan- 
castrians, though he seems to have belonged 
to the former party. He demanded security 
from parliament against Henry Holland, 
duke of Exeter (Pot. Pari. v. 264), but he 
was also at enmity with Warwick (Paston 
Letters, i. 345). When in 1455 the Duke of 
York was dismissed from the protectorship 
Cromwell seems to have joined him, and 
possibly fought at the first battle of St. 
Albans on 22 May. In July following he 
was accused of treason by Robert Collinson, 
a priest, as having instigated 'the male 
journey of Seynt Albons ' (ib.) Nothing 
seems to have come of the charge, ana 
Cromwell died on 4 Jan. 1456-6 (ib. iii. 
425). 

Cromwell's will, dated at Collyweston, 
Northamntonshire, was proved on 19 Feb. 
1455-6. He founded a college at Tattershall, 
where he was buried. A letter from him to 
Sir John Fastolf [g.v.1 is printed in the 
*Paston Letters' (in. 425-6), and from the 
fact that Fastolf's wardrobe contained a 



Crowe 



92 



Crowe 



robe of Cromwell's livery, it might be in- 
ferred that be was at one time in Cromwell s 
8er\'ice. Fastolf also left money by his will 
to provide for prayers for Cromwell's soul, 
and Cromwell seems also to have been known 
to William Woroester [q. v.] 

He married, before 1433, Margaret, daugh- 
t«r of John, baron Deyncoiirt. She was seven- 
teen jean of age at her marriage, and died on 
16 Sept. 1454, leaving no issue. The barony 
on Cromwell's death fell into abevance be- 
bis two nieces, daughters of his only 

Maud, who was second wife of Sir Ri- 

cbard Stanhope (d. 1436) of Rampston. The 
elder was Maud, who married Robert, baron 
Willoughby de Eresby,and died on 30 Aug. 
1497; the 'younger, Joan, married, firstly, 
Sir Humphrey Bourchier (son of Henry 
Ilourchier, first earl of Essex fq. v.]), who 
was summoned to parliament from 1461 to 
1471 as Lord Cromwell or Lord Bourchier 
de Cromwell ; and secondly, Sir Robert 
Radcliffe of Hunstanton, co. Norfolk. She 
died on 10 March 1490. 

[Rotali Parliamentorum, vols. iv. v. ; Kymer's 
FcBdera, origioal edition, vols. ix-x. ; Nicolas's 
Proceedings of the Privy Council; Palgrave's 
Antient Kalendars and Inventories ; Hardy's 
Rotali Normannife; Stowe MS. 146, f. 1 ; Wil- 
liam of Worcester ( Rolls Ser.) ; Paston Letters, 
ed. Oairdner, passim ; English Chronicle, ed. 
Daries ; Stubbs's Constitutional History, vol. iii.; 
Ramsay's Lancsister and Yorl;, vol. i. ; art. by 
Mr. W. H. Stevenson in Brown's Nottingham- 
■biro Worthies, pp. 75-84 ; G. E. C[okaynej'8 
Complete Peerage.] A. F. P. 

CROWE, Sir JOSEPH ARCHER 
(1825-1896), journalist, commercial attache, 
and art historian, second son of Eyre Evans 
Crowe [q.v.] and Margaret Archer, his wife, 
was bom at 141 Sloane Street, London, on 
20 Oct, 1825. Shortly after his birth his 
father removed with his family to France, 
where Crowe's childhood was spent, princi- 
pally in Paris. He returned with his father 
to England in 1843, and followed his father's 
Tocation as a correspondent for the press for 
the * MominjE^ Chronicle ' and the * Daily 
New*.* During the Crimean war Crowe 
acted as correspondent for the ' Illustrated 
London News.' Crowe was from his child- 
hood a student of art, and on his return from 
the Crimea he received an offer to direct an 
art school in India, whither he repaired. 
The art school, however, did not prove 
available, and Crowe's energies were again 
deToted to war correspondence, and he 
assisted the ' Times' in this capacity through- 
oat the Indian Mutiny. His career in India 
was cut short by ill-health, and he was 
forced to return to England. In 1859 he 



again acted as correspondent for the * Times ' 
during the war between Austria and Italy, 
and was present at the battle of Solferino. 
Gaining the confidence of Lord John Russell, 
Crowe was appointed in 1860 consul-general 
for Saxony, and in this capacity he repre- 
sented French interests at Leipzig during 
the Franco-Prussian war in 1870. In 1872 
he was appointed consul-general for West- 
phalia and the Rhenish Provinces, and in 
1880 commercial attach^ to the embassies at 
Berlin and Vienna. In 1882 he was pro- 
moted to be commercial attache for the whole 
of Europe, to reside at Paris. Crowe's valu- 
able knowledge and experience in commercial 
matters led him to be appointed to serve on 
several commissions or conferences for the 
solution of important international questions. 
For these services he was created a C.B. on 
14 March 1885, and K.C.M.G on 21 May 
1890. 

Crowe died on 6 Sept. 1896, at Gamburg- 
on-the-Tauber, Baden, a few months after 
he had retired from his post as commercial 
attach^ in Paris. He married early, in 
1861, at Gotha, P'raulein Asta von Barby, 
daughter of Gustav von Barby and Eveline 
von Ribbentrop, and stepdaughter of Otto 
von Holtzendorff, Oberstaatsanwalt at Gotha, 
and by her was the father of three sons 
and four daughters. 

Crowe is best known for his histories of 
painting. Ever an assiduous student of the 
works of the great painters, he had in 1846, 
at the suggestion of his father, begun to 
collect materials for a history of the early 
Flemish painters. In 1847, while on a 
journey to Berlin and Vienna, Crowe made 
a chance acquaintance with a young Italian 
art student, Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle. 
This acquaintance was renewed later, and 
cemented into friendship in London, where 
Crowe found Cavalcaselle a penniless and 
homeless political refugee. Cavalcaselle, 
who owed everything to Crowe on his first 
introduction to London, shared his views 
and enthusiasm for art history, and the 
two friends determined to collaborate in 
the work on early Flemish painters, which 
Crowe had in hand. For a time they 
resided together in the same house. They 
visited collections and searched manuscripts 
together, and no detail was decided until it 
had been fully debated between them. 
Finally the whole narrative was written by 
Crowe, since Cavalcaselle did not speak or 
write English. In this way the following 
series of art histories were composed, which 
made the names of Crowe and Cavalcaselle 
jointly famous throughout the literary and 
artistic world. 



Crovvther 



93 



Gumming 



1. « The Early Flemish Painters : Notices 
of their Lives nnd Works,' published on the 
last day of iHoO ; this work, of which a tliird 
edition appeared in 1H79, was translated 
into French by O. Delepierre in 18()2. 2. 'A 
New History of Paintinp in Italy, from the 
Second to the Sixteenth Century,' published 
in three volumes, 1864-8. 3. * A History 
of Paint injr in North Italy, Venice, Padua, 
Vicenra, &c., from the Fourteenth to the 
Sixteenth Century,' published in two volumes 
with illustrations in 1871. 4. 'Titian: his 
Life and Times,' two volumes published in 
1877, and a second edition in 1881. /). * Ra- 
phael : his Life and Works,' published in 
two volumes in 1883-/3. These works were 
all translated into German. Crowe also 
edited J. lUirckhardt's 'Cicerone, or Art 
(fuide to Painting in Italy ' (1873-9), and 
Kugler's ' Handbook of Painting : the Ger- 
man, Flemish, and Dutch Schools ' (1874). 
In 1865 he published ' Reminiscences of 
Thirty-five Years of my Life.' 

The works of Crowe and Cavalcaselle 
caused a complete revolution in the general 
style of criticism with which the paintings 
of the old masters had been wont to be re- 
ceived. Their method of examination not 
only called attention to the immense wealth 
of paintings, almost unknown, which existed 
in North and Central Italy, but recalled into 
existence numberless painters whose works 
liad been overshadowed or submerged by 
those of their better known and more suc- 
cessful contemporaries. Since the publi- 
cation of their works art history and the 
criticism of the * old masters ' have been ex- 

fanded and developed into many directions, 
t is not likelv that such pioneers in criticism 
as Crowe and Cavalcaselle should invariably 
be found to be infallible, but the greater 
part of their work has maintained its au- 
thority. That their works should be con- 
sidered at all out of date some thirty years 
or more after publication is a tribute to the 
great impetus which these works gave to 
the study of the subject with which they 
were concerned. A new edition of the * His- 
tory of Painting in Italy ' had been prcv 
jected by Crowe, but only one volume had 
been completed at the time of his death ; the 
new edition has, however, been continued 
under the editorship of Mr. S. A. Strong. 

[Crowe's Works cited in the text; private 
information and personal knowledge.] L. C. 

CROWTHER, SAMUEL ADJAI 
(1809?-1892), bishop of the Niger territory, 
was bom of negro parents about 1809 at 
Oshogun, in the 'ioruba country, West 
Africa. In 1821 the village was raided by 



Fulahs, and Adjai carried off aa a slave. 
The vessel on which he was shipped Was 
captured by a British cruiser, and Adjai 
landed at Sierra Leone in June 1822. There 
he entered tlie Ciiurch Missionary Society's 
schools, and in 1825 was baptised, taking 
the name of Samuel Adjai Crowther. In 
1820 he was brought to England, and on 
his return entered as the first student at 
Fourah Bay College, Sierra Leone. He 
showed so much aptitude that in 1834 he 
was made tutor ot the college. In 1841 
Crowther was chosen to join the expedition 
sent up the Niger by the British government, 
and discharged his part so well that the 
Church Missionary Society invited Crowther 
to England, where he was ordained bv the 
bishop of London in 1843, the first African 
associated with the Church Missionary 
Society to receive holy orders. From 1843 
to 1851 Crowther worked as a missionary 
in the Yoruba country. Coming to Eng- 
land in 1851 he was presented to the queen, 
and then returned once more to his own 
land. In 1854 he accompanied the Niger 
expedition of the African Steam Naviga- 
tion Company; and when a third expedi- 
tion was formed in 1856, Crowther went 
with it as the head of a missionary party. 
In 1804 he was again summoned home, and 
consecrated bishop of the Niger territory. 
His subsequent life was devoted to evange- 
listic and organising work in his diocese, 
varied by an occasional visit to England. 
Towards the end difficulties arose in connec- 
tion with the life and administration of the 
native church, which had grown up under 
Crowther 's care ; but he himself retained to 
the full the confidence and afl^ection which 
he had won in earlier life. He died at Lagos 
on 31 Dec. 1892. He married an African 
girl, who was rescued with him from the 
slave ship and afterwards baptised Susanna. 
They had several children, among them 
Dandeson Coates Crowther, archdeacon of 
the Niger Delta. 

[Stock's History of the C.M.S.; Headland's 
Brief Sketches of C.M.S. Workers. No. ii.; 
Page's Samuel Crowther, 1888.] A. R. B. 

GUMMING, Sir ARTHUR (1817- 
1893), admiral, son of General Sir Henry 
Gumming, K.C.B., was bom at Nancy in 
France on 6 May 1817. He entered the 
Royal Naval College at Portsmouth in Janu- 
ary 1831, and having passed through the 
course was discharged, 8 Aug. 1832, to the 
Rover sloop in the Mediterranean. He after- 
wards served on the Lisbon and on the 
North American stations; passed his exami- ^ 
nation in 1837. and in 1840 was a mate of 



Gumming 



94 



Cunningham 



the Cyclops steamer on the coast of Syria, 
where he repeatedly distinguished himself, 
especially at the storming of Sidon on 
96 Sept. ; his promotion to lieutenant was 
dated on the 28th. lie was shortly after 
a{)}M.inted to the Frolic brig on the coast of 
s.iith America, and in September 1843 was 
cruising to the southward of Kio Janeiro in 
command of the Frolic's pinnace, when, on 
the t;th, off Santos, he fell in with the pirati- 
cal slaTer Vincedora, a large brigantine with 
a crew of thirty men. Finding the pinnace 
in a position to intercept her retreat, the 
brigantine attempted to run it down. At the 
last moment the slavers' hearts failed them, 
and the helm was put hard over. At the 
critical moment Gumming shot their captain, 
and in the consequent confusion got along- 
side of the brigantine and sprang on board, 
followed by a marine and six men. No more 
could get on board at the time ; but Gum- 
ming with his seven men held the whole 
crew at bav, cowed them, drove them below, 
and put tke hatches on. When the rest of 
his men got on board, he had the prisoners 
shackled to the chain cable, and took the 
prif e to Rio. Two other slavers in company 
with the Vincedora might have put Gum- 
ming in a very awkward position, but they 
seemed to think themselves well off in being 
permitted to escape. Gonsidering the very 
exceptional nature of the affair, and how 
easQy, without great daring and coolness, it 
might have ended in disaster. Gumming 
always felt aggrieved in its being reported 
to the admiralty as the commonplace capture 
of a slaver with a cargo of slaves. He had 
hoped for promotion ; all that he got was a 
WTwe attack of smallpox, which was raging 
on board the prize, and for which he was 
invalided. 

He was promoted to be commander on 
9 Not. 1846; and from 1849 to 1851 com- 
manded the Rattler on the west coast of 
Africa. On 19 April 1854 he was promoted 
to be captain of the Gonflict, in which he 
rendered good service in the Baltic, espe- 
cially at Libau and Riga. In the spring of 
I '^•")') he was appointed to the Glatton float- 
iuif battery, which he took out to the Black 
8ea, and brought homo again in the spring 
of 1856. From 1859 to 1863 he commanded 
the Emerald in the Channel fleet. He was 
nominated a C.B. on 13 May 1867; on 
27 Feb. 1870 he was promoted to be rear- 
admiral, and from 1872 to 1875 was com- 
mander-in-chief in the East Indies. On 
22 March 1H76 he was made vice-admiral ; 
admiral on 9 Jan. 1880; and K.G.B. on the 
occasion of the queen's jubilee, 21 June 1887. 
On May 1882 he was put on the retired 



list, after which he lived for the most part 
at his seat, Foston Hall, near Derby. He 
died in London on 17 Feb. 1893. He mar- 
ried in 1853 Adelaide, daughter of Charles 
Stuart, and left issue. 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biogr. Diet. (2nd edit.) 
Army and Navy Gazette, 18 Dec. 1886, 25 Feb 
1893; Annual Eegister, 1893, pt. ii. 151 ; certi 
ficates of Servitude in the Public Record Office 
Navy Lists; private information. The capture 
of the Vincedora is told in Hobart Pasha's 
' Sketches of my Life,' and attributed to himself 
[see Hobabt-Hampdei^, Augustus Charles]. 
Hobart was at the time in the Dolphin in lati- 
tude 42° 55' N., long. 13° 18' W. (Dolphin's 
log).] J. K. L. 

CUNNINGHAM, Sie ALEXANDER 

(1814-1893), soldier and archaeologist, se- 
cond son of Allan Gunningham (1784-1842) 
[q.v.] and brother of Joseph Davey Gun- 
ningham [q. v.], Peter Gunningham (1816- 
1869) [q.v. J, and Francis Gunningham [q.v.], 
was born in Westminster on 23 Jan. 1814. 
Together with Joseph, he received his early 
education at Ghrist's Hospital, and both 
brothers were given Indian cadetships 
through the influence of Sir Walter Scott. 
After passing through Addiscombe, Alex- 
ander obtained a commission as second lieu- 
tenant in the Bengal engineers on 9 June 
1831, and then, according to the custom of 
those days, spent six months at Ghatham 
for technical training, landing in India on 
9 June 1833. His first three years were 
passed with the sappers at Delhi and in 
other ordinary duties. Lord Auckland, on 
his arrival in India as governor-general in 
1836, appointed him to be one of his aides- 
de-camp. For four years he served on the 
staff, and his identity can be detected under 
his initials in Emily Eden's pleasant book 
of gossip * Up the Gountry.' It was during 
this period that he paid his first visit to 
Kashmir, then almost a terra incor/nita. On 
his marriage in 1840 he was glad to accept 
the appointment of executive engineer to 
the king of Oudh. While laying out the 
new road from Lucknow to Cawnpore, he- 
was called away in 1842 to his first active 
service. This was to assist in suppressing a 
rebellion in Bundelkhand, headed by the 
raja of Jaipur, who had risen on the news of 
British disasters in Kabul. He was next ap- 
pointed to the new militarv station of Now- 
gong, in Gentral India. In December 1843 he 
was present at the battle of Punniar, fought 
against the rebellious troops of Gwalior, 
where he had the pleasure of turning the 
enemy's guns against themselves. For his 
services on this occasion he received a bronze 
star, six months' batta (extra pay), and the 



Cunningham 



95 



Cunningham 



promise of brevet rank. During the next 
two years (1H44 ond 1845) he ncted as 
oxecutivo enj^ineor at (iwnlior, where he 
loft as- a memorial u stono bridge of ten 
urclies over the river Morar. In February 
Hl»» ho was sumnionod to join the army of \ 
Siitk»j, Just boforo tho decisive battle of j 
S.il laon. ilif* special work was to throw 
t wo bridges of boats across the river Bias 
for tho passage of the troops, by which he 
established his reputation as a field en- 
gineer. As one of the results of the first 
Sikh war the entire tract between the Sutlei 
and Bias rivers was annexed and placed 
under the charge of John Lawrence, who 
nominated Cunningham to the responsible 
task of occupying the hill tracts of Kangra 
and Kulu. In reward for his successful 
conduct of this business, and probably also 
because of his previous acquaintance with 
the country, he was chosen to demarcate 
the frontier between the Kashmir province 
of Ladakh and independent Tibet, far amid 
the Himalayan ranges. At first he had to 
return, but ultimately he accomplished the 
task, in compau}' with Sir Richard Strachey. 
In the meantime he had also settled the 
boundary between the Rajput state of Bi- 
kanir and the Muhammadan state of Baha- 
walpur, which meet in the Indian desert. 
The second Sikh war (1848-9) saw Cun- 
ningham again serving as field engineer, in 
command of the pontfX)n train. He was 
pn sent at the two battles of Chilianwala and 
( iiiirrat, was mentioned in despatches, and 
received a brevet majority. On the restora- 
tion of peace he returned to Gwalior, and 
it was during this period that he explored 
the Buddhist monuments of Central India. 
In 1853 he was transferred to Multan, where 
he designed the monument to l*atrick Alex- 
ander Vans Agnew J"q. v.] and W. A. An- 
derson, whose treacherous murder formed 
the prelude to the second Sikh war. In 
1856, now lieutenant-colonel, he was ap- 
pointed to the higher post of chief engineer 
in Burma, which province was then freshly 
annexed. He had to extricate the accounts 
from confusion and organise a public works 
department. This he did within two years, 
finding time also to visit every out-station 
in the province from Toungoo to Tavoy. It 
was thus his fate to be absent from India 
during the mutiny. After its suppression 
he was apiwinted (November 1858) chief 
engineer in the North- Western IVovinces, 
where similar work of reorganisation had to 
be performed. He retired from the army 
with the rank of major-general on 30 June 
1861, after a continuous Indian service of 
twenty-eight years. 



In the very year of his retirement Ctan* 
ningham commenced a new career of activitj, 
by which lie is better known than as a 
soldier or administrator. Lord Canning. 
having resolved to create the new poet of 
arclueological surveyor to the ffOTemment 
of India, found Cunningham ready to fill it. 
In his early days Cunningham had formed 
tho acquaintance of James Prinsep fq. v.], 
the founder of the scientific study of Indian 
coins and inscriptions. The first of his 
many contributions to the ' Journal of the 
Bengal Asiatic Society ' consists of an aiH 
pendix to Prinsep's paper in 1834, on the 
relics discovered in tne Manikyala Toj)e, in 
the Punjab, then and long afterwards Sikh 
territory. In 1837 he excavated on his own 
responsibility — as was the fashion of the 
time — the group of Buddhist ruins near 
Benares, known as Sarnath, and made care- 
ful drawings of the sculptures. His visits 
to Kashmir and work on the boundary com- 
mission bore fruit in two monographs — 
* Essay on the Arian Order of Architecture 
as exhibited in the Temples of Kashmir' 
(Calcutta, 1848), and 'Ladakh: Physical, 
Statistical, and Historical' (1854), the 
latter of which, published at the expense of 
the court of directors, won the commenda- 
tion of the French Geographical Society. 
The results of his exploration in Central 
India with his friend Colonel Maisey, * The 
Bhilsa Topes' (also 1854), forms the first 
serious attempt to reconstruct the history of 
Buddhism from its architectural remains. 
On his appointment to his new post of 
archaDological surveyor, Cunningham was 
therefore equipped not only with knowledge 
but also with a store of accumulated ma- 
terials, which enabled him to produce four 
valuable reports within as many years. In 
1865, in a cold fit of parsimony, his depart- 
ment was abolished, and he came home to 
England. His leisure was occupied in 
writing * The Ancient CJeographv of India,' 
Part i. 'The Buddhist Period' (1871), 
which he intended to follow up with another 
volume (never written)on the Muhammadan 
period. This book, which deals mainly with 
the campaigns of Alexander and the itine- 
raries of the (*: l^rims, is absolutely 
indispensable t ian. In 1870 Lord 
Mayo re- * ' ui»- archajological sur- 
vey, and > 1 ningham back to India 

with the t t.v.-, ..-..1 ?-'r)r fifteen 

years raor' ly carried 

OUttli-il: '')^'>A<tOn 

he ni im- 

raen- , .adia, 

from Taxila on the west to Gaur on the 
east. Of twenty-four annual reports, thirteen 



Cunningham 



96 



Cunningham 



embody the resulte of his own personal dis- 
coTeries, while the remainder were written 
by hi« Msiatants under his supervision. A 
ttsefol index to the whole series was compiled 
by Mr. Vincent Arthur Smith (1871). It 
WM al«o during this period that Cunningham 
published vol. i. of the 'Corpus Inscriptio- 
Bam Indicarum' (Calcutta, 1877), contain- 
inff the first collected edition of the edicts 
of Ajoka ; ' The Stupa of Bharhut' (1879) ; 
and* The Book of Indian Eras ' (Calcutta, 
1883), with tables for calculating dates. In 
September I880 he finally retired. 

After his return to England Cunningham 
woi^ed at his favourite studies to the very 
last In 1892 he brought out a magnifi- 
cently illustrated volume on * Mahabodhi,' 
the great Buddhist temple near Gaya in 
Bengal, which is to this day the most sacred 
0oal of Buddhist pilgrimage. But the chief 
uitereet of his closing years was in numis- 
matics. While in India he had taken ad- 
vantage of his exceptional opportunities to 
fonn a collection of coins which has never 
been equalled either in extent or in the 
rarity of many of its specimens. His vast 
experience had given him an intuition about 
coins that was almost infallible, while his 
imagination enabled him to interpret their 
leesons for history. An example of his 
method of treatment may be found in the 
paper which he contributed to the Oriental 
Conffress in 1892, on ' The Ephthalites or 
White Huns,' in which he first collects the 
literary evidence, and then illuminates the 
whole subject from his stores of numismatic 
learning. In 'Coins of Ancient India' (1891) 
he unfolds original views about the origin 
of money, and maintains that coined money 
was known to the Indians before the in- 
vasion of Alexander. This was followed by 
a posthumous volume on 'The Coins of 
Mediwal India' (1894), and by a series of 
papers in the 'Numismatic Chronicle' on 
the coins of the Indo-Scytbians. It should 
be stated that a large part of his collection, 
chiefly copper coins, together with his papers 
and notebooks, had been unfortunately lost 
in the steamship Indus, which foundered off 
the coast of Ceylon in 1885. The gold and 
silver pieces escaped, having previously been 
shipped to England. During his own lifetime 
General Cnnnmorham allowed the authorities 
of the British Museum to select the choicest 
examples and all those needed for the national 
collection, virtually at the price which they 
had cost him in India. After his death 
those which he had subsequently acquired 
irere handed over on the same terms. In 
the medal room of the British Museum a 
taUet commemorates hU generosity. 



Cunningham died on 28 Nov. 1893 at his 
residence in Cranley Mansions, South Ken- 
sington, after a lingering illness ; he was 
buried in the family vault in Kensal Green 
cemetery. He was appointed C.S.I, when 
the order of the Star of India was enlarged 
in 1871, CLE. in 1878, and K.C.I.E. when 
the jubilee honours were distributed in 1887. 
In 1840 he married Alice, daughter of Martin 
Whish, of the Bengal civil service, who pre- 
deceased him. He left two sons, one of 
whom followed his father into the Bengal 
engineers, while the other is in the Bengal 
civil service. 

[Royal Engineers Journal, 1 March 1894.] 

J. o. C 

CUNNINGHAM, JOHN (1819-1893), 
historian of the Scottish church, son of 
Daniel Cunningham, ironmonger, was born 
at Paisley on 9 May 1819. Educated at two 
preparatory schools and the grammar school 
in Paisley, he matriculated at Glasgow Uni- 
versity in 1836, and earned high distinction 
in a curriculum of four sessions. In 1840 he 
became a student in Edinburgh University 
under Sir William Hamilton and Professor 
Wilson, and was gold medallist with both, 
besides gaining Wilson's prize for a poem on 
' The Hearth and the Altar ' (Beown, Paisley 
Poets, ii. 117). Completing at Edinburgh his 
studies for the church of Scotland, Cunning- 
ham was licensed to preach by the presbytery 
of Paisley in the spring of 1845, and, after a 
short assistantship at Lanark, was ordained in 
August of that year parish minister of Criefi^, 
Perthshire. Holding this charge for forty- 
one years he became one of the leaders of 
the church, his pulpit ministrations and his 
ecclesiastical and public work evincing dis- 
tinct individuality, freshness, and vigour. 
He was prominent in promoting the act of 
parliament which opens appointments in the 
church of Scotland to members of all Scot- 
tish presbyterian bodies, and he also helped 
strenuously to secure the act which simplifies 
for ministers and elders the signature of the 
confession of faith. He was a pioneer among 
Scottish theologians in advocating the intro- 
duction of instrumental music into church, 
and the ' Crieff organ case ' in the church 
courts of 1867 stirred much excitement and 
controversy. He ultimately won, and the 
example was soon widely followed. 

Crieff becoming a fashionable health resort, 
the handsome church of St. Michael's, with 
a new organ, was substituted for the old 
parish church, and presently an assistant 
was^ appointed to lighten the work of the 
minister. Active for the welfare of his 
parish, Cunningham was chaplain of the 



Cureton 



97 



Cureton 



local volunteers from 1859 to 1888, and for 
fortv-two years ho was a trustor and jfovemor 
of 'faylor'a Educational Instittition, Crirff. 
In 1886 he was chosen moderator of the 
general assembly of the church of Scotland, 
and in the same year he was appointed ])rin- 
cipnl of 8t. Mary's College, St. Andrews, in 
succession to IVmcipal Tulloch. He received 
the degree of D.D. from Kdinhurgh Univer- 
sity in 180<), and that of LL.D. from Glas- 
gow in lH8t). Trinity C'ollege, Duhlin, also 
conferred on him its honorary LL.I). in 
1887. He died at St. Andrews on I Sept. 
1893, and was interred in the cathedral bury- 
ing-ground. 

Cunningham married, in 1846, Susan 
Porteous, daughter of William Murray, 
banker, Crieff, and was survived by her and 
two sons and two daughters. The younger ' 
son, Dr. I). J. Cunningham, became distin- j 
guished as professor of anatomy at Dublin i 
University. 

In 1859 Cunningham published in two 
\ •luraes' Church History of Scotland,' carry- 
lug the narrative to 1881. In a second re- 
vised edition (1882) he reaches 1843, cha- 
racteristically describing the Free Church 
secession. Displaying due narrative power 
and discrimination, and strengthened and 
illuminated by courageous individuality of I 
opinion and relevant flashes of humour, 
Cunningham's * H istory ' is a work of abiding 
interest and authoritative value. * The 
Quakers, an International Historv,' appeared 
in 1869; 2nd edit. 1897. Metaphysical from 
his youth, and an occasional contributor of 
])hilosophical articles to the ' Westminster* 
and * Edinburgh ' Keviews, Cunningham 
published in 1H74 a suggestive but not spe- 
cially convincing treatise — which, however, 
he thought his best book — entitled 'New 
Theory of Knowing and Known.* lie was 
the author of two numbers in the renowned 
'Scotch Sermons' of 1880. In his Croall 
lectures on * The Growth of the Church,' 
1886, he recognised the potency of evolution 
in ecclesiastical development, discrediting at 
the same time the prelatical theory of the 
divine right of ministers. 

rprivato information; Scotsman, 2 Sept.; 
Athenseum of 9 Sept. 1893; personal know- 
ledge.] T. B. 

CURETON, CHARLES ROBERT 

(1789-1848), brigadier-general and adjutant- 
general of the qtieen's forces in the East 
Indies, son of a Shropshire gentleman, was 
horn in 1789. He obtained an ensigncy in 
the Shropshire militia on 21 April I806,and 
was soon promoted to be lieutenant. Extra- 
vagant habits led to embarrassment, which 

VOL. II.— 8T7P. 



compelled him to fljr from hif creditors. DU- 
guising himself as a sailor, and Iwaving his 
regimentals on the teabeach, he embarked 
for London, where he enlisted as Charles 
Roberts in the 14th light dragoons in 1808. 
His friends concluded that he was drowned 
while bathing. 

In the following year he was sent to join 
the head(juarters of the regiment at Porta- 
legre in Portugal, carrying with him very sa- 
tisfactory recommendations from theofhcers 
under whom he had served at home. His 
merits and gallantry in action obtained pro- 
motion for him to the rank of corporal and 
sergeant. He took part with his regiment 
in the battles of Talavera on 27 July 1809, 
and Busaco on 27 Sept. 1810. On 1 Oct. 
following he was wounded in the right leg 
by a ritle ball in crossing the Mondego near 
Coimbra. At the battle of Fuentes d'Onor 
on 3 and 5 May 1811 he received on the oth 
a severe sabre cut on the head which frac- 
tured his skull, and another on his bridle- 
hand. In March and April 1812 he took 
part with his regiment in the third siege 
and capture on 6 April of Badajos, in the 
battle of Salamanca on 22 July, the capture 
of Madrid on 14 Aug., and the battle of Vic- 
toria on 21 June 1813. 

Having b?©n sent on some duty to St.-Jean 
de Luz in this year, he was recognised by an 
officer on the Duke of Wellington's staff as 
an old comrade of the Shropshire militia. 
Wellington made him sergeant of the post 
to the headquarters of the army, and on 
24 Feb. 1814, in recognition of his services, 
he was gazetted, in his proper name, ensign 
without purchase in the 40th foot. He served 
with his new regiment at the battles of Orthes 
on 27 Feb. 1814, Tarbes on 20 March, and 
Toulouse on 10 April. 

On 20 Oct. 1814 Cureton exchanged into 
the 20th light dragoons, was promoted to be 
lieutenant and appointed adjutant on 27 June 
1810, and when tlie regiment was disbanded 
on 25 Dec. 1818, on the withdrawal of the 
troops from the occupation of France, he wis 
placed on half-pay, but was brought into the 
l6th lancers as lieutenant and adjutant on 
7 Jan. 1819. His further commissions were 
dated: captain 12 Nov. 1826, major 6 Dec. 
1833, brevet lieutenant-colonel 23 July 1839, 
regimental lieutenant-colonel 21 Aug. 1889, 
and brevet colonel 3 April 1846. 
I He went to India with his regiment in 
1822, when he resigned the adjutancy and 
ser^ ed at the second siege of Bhartpur under 
Viscount Combermere from December 1825 
to its capture on 18 Jan. 1826, receiving the 
medal. 
i In 1839 Cureton accompanied his regiment 



Cureton 



98 



Cureton 



to Afghanistan in the army of the Indus 
under Sir John (afterwards Lord) Keane. 
He was appointed assistant adjutant-general 
of cavalry, was specially selected to com- 
mand the advanced column of the army 
through the Bolan pass, marched to Kan- 
dahar, was present at the assault and capture 
of Ghaxni on 23 July. He commanded a 
force in advance of the army which seized 
the enemy's guns, and secured possession of 
the citadel of Kabul in August 1839. For 
his services he was mentioned in despatches, 
receiTed from the amir of Afghanistan the 
third class of the order of the Durani em- 
pire, was promoted to a brevet lieutenant- 
colonelcy, and awarded the medal. 

In the (twalior campaign Cureton com- 
manded a brigade of cavalry at the battle 
of Maharajpur on 29 Dec. 1&43, was men- 
tioned in despatches for his distinguished 
•ervices, was awarded the medal, and on 
S May 1844 was made a companion of the 
Bath, military division. In the Satlaj cam- 
paign he commanded the whole of the cavalry 
in the force under Sir Harry George Wakelyn 
Smith [q. v.], and took part in the reduction 
of Dharm-Kote on 18 Jan. 1846, in the ad- 
vance towards Ludiana, and in the action 
near Badowal on the 22nd, when it was due 
to the admirable efforts of the cavalry that 
Smith only lost a large portion of his baggage. 
Cureton commanded the cavalry at the 
battle of Ali wal on 28 Jan., when he smashed 
up a large body of the celebrated Ayin troop 
trained by General Avitabile, and utterly 
routed the Sikh right, the 16th lancers 
breaking a well-formed infantry square of 
AvitabUe*8 regiment, and, notwithstanding 
the steadiness of the enemy, reforming and 
charging back repeatedly. Sir Harry Smith 
signally defeated the Sikhs, and in his 
despatch of 30 Jan. said : ' In Brigadier 
Cureton her majesty has one of those officers 
rarely met with ; the cool experience of the 
veteran soldier is combined with youthful 
activitv; his knowledge of outpost duty and 
the able manner he handles his cavalry under 
the heaviest fire rank him among the first 
caralrv officers of the age; and I beg to 
draw his excellency's marked attention to 
this honest encomium;' while Sir Henry 
flardinge, the governor-general, observed: 
* This officer's whole life has been spent in 
the most meritorious exertions in Europe 
and Asia, and on this occasion the skill and 
intrepidity with which the cavalry force was 
handled obtained the admiration of the army 
which witnessed their movements.' Cureton 
commanded a brigade of cavalry at the battle 
of Sobraon on 10 Feb., and was again honour- 
ably mentioned in despatches. For his ser- 



vices in the campaign he received the thanks 
of parliament, the medal and clasp, and was 
made an aide-de-camp to the queen, with 
the rank of colonel in the army, on 3 April. 

On 7 April 1846 Cureton was appointed 
adjutant-general of the queen's forces in the 
East Indies. In the Punjab, or second Sikh 
war, Cureton commanded the cavalry division 
and three troops of horse artillery at the 
action at Ramnagar on 23 Nov. 1848, and 
was killed when leading the 14th light 
dragoons to the support of the 5th light 
cavalry. He was buried -with military 
honours. He was a strict disciplinarian, 
but a most genial and popular officer with 
all ranks. 

Several of his sons survived him, and 
two were distinguished soldiers. Edwaed 
Bpegoyne Cureton (1822-1894), lieutenant- 
general, colonel of the 12th lancers, became 
an ensign in the 13th foot on 21 June 1839. 
He was made brevet colonel 28 Dec. 1868, 
major-general 29 Sept. 1878, lieutenant-gene- 
ral 1 July 1881, colonel of the 3rd hussars 
19 April 1891, and was transferred to the 
colonelcy of the 12th lancers 30 April 1892. 
He exchanged from the 13th foot into the 3rd 
light dragoons; served with the 16th lancers 
at the battle of Maharajpur on 29 Dec. 1843, 
and received the bronze star ; served with 
his own regiment at Mudki on 18 Dec. 1845, 
when he was severely wounded, and at So- 
braon on 10 Feb. 1846, receiving the medal 
and clasp for the campaign. Having ex- 
changed with the 12th lancers, he served with 
them in the Kaffirwarof 1851-3, wasthanked 
for his services in general orders {London 
Gazette, 1 June 1852), and received the medal. 
He went through the Crimean campaign from 
31 July 1855, took part in the battle of the 
Tchernaya, in the siege and capture of 
Sebastopol, and in the operations around 
Eupatoria, was mentioned in despatches, re- 
ceived a brevet majority, the war medal with 
clasp, and the Turkish medal. He retired 
from the active list in 1881, He died at 
Hillbrook River, Dover, on 9 Feb. 1894. He 
married in 1856 a daughter of Captain John 
Swindley. 

Sir Charles CrRExoN (1826-1891), gene- 
ral, Bengal staff corps, was born on 25 Nov. 
1826. He received a commission as ensign 
in the East India Company's army on 22 Feb. 
1843. He became brevet colonel 14 Feb. 
1868, lieutenant-colonel 22 Feb. 1869, major- 
general 22 Feb. 1870, lieutenant-general 
1 Oct. 1877, general 1 Dec. 1888. He was 
appointed adjutant of the 12th regiment of 
irregular cavalry on 14 Jan. 1846, having 
arrived in India on 24 June 1843. He served 
in the Satlaj campaign, was present at the 



Cure ton 



99 



Curtis 



battle of Aliwal on 28 Jnn. 1346, rccciyinp: 
tlu' inodnl and cliisp. In tlio Piuijab cnm- 
pni^n ho wa« nitl«'-d«'-cainp to Ijih futhor 
until his death at th»> hatflo of Ivamnapfnr 
on 22 Nov. IHiS, wlioro ho was hiins«jlf 
slightly wounded. Ho took part in the 
passaffo of the Clienab on 2 and 3 Dec, in 
the battle of Oujrat, 21 Feb. 1849, and in 
the pursuit, under Sir Walter Gilbert, of 
tho iSikh array, the capture of Attak, and 
the occupation of Peshawar, receiving the 
medal and clasp. 

He served in the north-west frontier cam- 
paign of 1849 to 1852, including the expedi- 
tion to the Usafzai in 1849, and the opera- 
tions against the Mohmands in 18'')l aiid 
1802, receiving the medal and clasp. On 
4 May 1852 lie was appointed second in 
command of the 2nd irregular cavalry. He 
took part in the suppression of the Sonthal 
rebellion in l85(i, and in the Indian mutiny 
in 1857. He served against the Sealkote 
mutineers, and took part in the action of 
Trimu Ghat, also against the Gogaira rebels. 
He raised and commanded Cureton's Mul- 
tani cavalry, and continued to command it 
after it became the 15th Bengal cavalry. 
He served with it, and had charge of the 
intelligence department throughout the cam- 
paigns in Uohilkhand and Uude in 1858 
II nd 1859, and was present at the actions of 
Bhagwala, Najina, Bareli, Shahjehanpur, 
Banai, Shahabad, Bankegaon, Mahodipur, 
Kasalpur, Mitaoli, and Biswa, was eleven 
times mentioned in despatches published in 
general orders, and received the medal and 
brevets of major and lieutenant-colonel. He 
distinguished himself as a cavalry leader, 
and performed many acts of great ])ersonal 
braverv ( Dmdon Gazette, 17 and 28 Julv and 
10 Aug. 1858, and 31 Jan. and 4 Feb. 1859). 
He served in the north-west frontier cam- 
paign of 18()0, and on 2 June 1809 was made 
a companion of the order of the Bath, military 
division. 

He commanded the Oude division of the 
Bengal army for five years from 22 Oct. 
1879. He was promoted to be knight com- 
mander of the order of the Bath, military 
division, in May 1891. He died at East- 
bourne, Sussex, on 11 July 1891. He 
married a daughter of the llev. Dr. W. A. 
Holmes of Templemore, co. Tipperary, by 
whom he left three sons, two of whom are 
in the army. 

[India Office R<»cords ; Despatches ; Times, 
24 Jan. 1849. 14 July 1891, and 13 Fob. 1894; 
Gent. Mag. March 18*9 ; United Service Jotirnjil. 
March 1849; Cannon's Historical Records of 
the 12th Lancers, tho 14lh Light Dragoons, and 
the 16th Lancers; Napier's Hist, of the War 



in tho Peninsula: Kayo's Hi«r -' ''- '^*^rs.7 fn 
AfghanlNtari, 183H-42 ; Knyn m I •.,, 

War; Malloson's Hist, of tli< i ..uiiu), 

Timckwell's Second Sikh War ; Archer' 11 Punjab 
Cumpaigi), 1848-9; The Sikhs and the Sikh 
"Wars by Gough and Innes ; Army Lists. 1 

R. IL V. 

CURTIS, JOHN (1791-1802), entomo- 
logist, born at Norwich on 3 Sept. 1791, was 
son of Charles Curtis, an engraver on stone 
and a sign painter, who died when John 
was four years old. As a child Curtis wa« 
drawn to the study of insect life. While 
studying as a boy with Kicliard Walker, a 
; local naturalist, the botany and entomology 
I of the ponds and marshes in the neighbour- 
I hood of Norwich, he contracted a severe 
attack of rheumatic fever. When about 
sixteen years of age Curtis was placed in a 
lawyer's oflice as a writing clerk, but, finding 
the position distasteful, went in 1811 to live 
at Costessey, a village near Norwich, with 
[ Simon Wilkin [q. v.], where he met many 
I scientific naturalists, the Rev. William 
I Kirby [fl. v.], the Rev. John Burrell, and 
' others. During this period Curtis was placed 
for a time with a Mr. Edwards of Bungay to 
learn engraving, and, becoming acquainted 
! with the works of Latreille, began sys- 
' tematically to dissect, draw, and describe 
insects, and to engrave them on copper. His 
first published work was on the plates to 
Kirby and Spence's * Introduction to Ento- 
mology,' 1815-20. 

Diiring a visit to Kirby at Barham, near 
Ipswich, Curtis made the acquaintance of 
j William Spence [q. v.] and Alexander Mac- 
leay [q.v.], secretary of the Linnean Society, 
; and assisted Kirby in bringing out descrip- 
tions of Australian insects, published in the 
* Transactions of the Linnean Society,' and 
in other work. In 1817 Curtis accompanied 
Kirby to London, and was presented to Sir 
Joseph Banks, president of the Royal Society, 
who granted liim the free use of his library, 
and introduced him to Dr. William Elford 
j Leach [q. v.], keeper of the zoological colhc- 
! tion in the British Museum, with whom 
Curtis studied shells. At Dr. loach's house 
, he met James Charles Dale, of Glanville 
Wotton, Sherborne, called 'the father of 
j British entomology ' (Newman's Entomolo- 
[ ffisf, vi. 56), and Dale (d. (> Feb. 1872) be- 
1 came his lifelong friend and patron. 
! During his early days in I^ndon, Curtis 
executed much hot iiiIimI <lrawing and en- 
graviuiT for the II il and Linnean 

Societies. He b»'< i )W of the Lin- 

nean Society in 1622, and, after meeting 
I Baron Cuvier and Latreille, began his great 
I work * British Eutomology/ the first number 

h2 



Curtis 



lOO 



Curwen 



of which appeared in 1824, dedicated to 
Kirby. The work extended to sixteen 
Tolomes, and was completed in 1839; it 
appeared in 193 parts, with 770 plates ex- 
qnisitely drawn, the figures of the rarer and 
mow beautiful species being coloured, and 
in toMBj instances the plants upon which 
ihey are found. In the production of this 
monumental work Curtis was greatly assisted 
by his friend J. C. Dale, with specimens, in- 
formation, and pecuniary aid. In the * Bri- 
tish Entomology ' Dale's name is on almost 
e^ery page* *nd it was from his collection 
that Curtis derived a vast portion of the 
material from which his elaborate work was 
drawn up. The two worked hand in hand, 
and their names came to be considered 
•ynonyms. . . t^ 

Cuvier pronounced Curtis's * British En- 
tomology ' to be ' the paragon of perfection,' 
but its success was much hindered by the 
attacks of James Francis Stephens [q. v.] in 
his * Illustrations of British Entomoloory ' and 
elsewhere. Curtis was defended by Dale in 
Loudon's ' Magazine of Natural History.* 
In June 1825 Curtis and Dale made an ex- 
pedition to Scotland, and in Edinburgh met 
Sir Walter Scott, arrayed in the uniform of 
the Scots royal bodyguard. After a tour 
which includied some of the western islands, 
they returned to Edinburgh on August 20, 
having added more than thirty new species 
to the list of British insects. In 1830 Curtis 
visited France, and collected insects from 
Bordeaux to Fr6jus with great results, in- 
vestigating the (quarries of Aix in Provence, 
where were obtamed the fossil insects col- 
lected by Lyell and Murchison. Curtis's 
entomological collection was sold by auction 
and transported to Melbourne; but Dale's 
collection, on which he worked with his son, 
Mr. C. W. Dale, remains in this country, 
and * enables the student in many cases to 
verify Curtisian species that would be other- 
wise doubtful ' {Entomologists' Monthly 
Magazine, viii. 255). 

tor many years Curtis made a special 
study of the habits and economy of the 
various species of insects injurious to garden 
and farm produce, and communicated the 
results of his investigations to the 'Gar- 
dener's Chronicle' under the signature * Ruri- 
cola,' and to the 'Journal of the Royal 
Agricultural Society.' These were published 
in a volume entitled ' Farm Insects : being 
the natural History and Economy of the In- 
sects injurious to the Field Crops of Great 
Britain and Ireland, and also those which 
infest Ilarns and Granaries. AVith sugges- 
tions for their destruction. Illustrated with 
numerous engravings,' Glasgow, 1860, 8vo ; 



2nd edit. London, 1883. Curtis had been 
awarded, on 25 Nov. 1841, a civil list pen- 
sion of 100/., which was increased by 50/. 
on 16 April 1861, when his eyesight failed 
through the strain of his microscopical in- 
vestigations. He was president of the En- 
tomological Society in 1855, one of the aix 
honorary members of the Entomological So- 
ciety of France, and a member of various 
other learned societies in Europe and Ame- 
rica. Curtis died at Belitha Villas, Isling- 
ton, London, on 6 Oct. 1862, leaving a widow 
and several children. His elder brother, 
Charles M. Curtis, who predeceased him,, 
was employed by J. F. Stephens as his first 
artist in the earlier volumes of his ' Illus- 
trations of British Entomology.' 

Besides the works referred to above Curtis 
wrote: 1. * A Guide to the arrangement of 
British Insects ; being a Catalogue of al! 
the named species hitherto discovered \n 
Great Britain and Ireland,' London, 1829,. 
8vo ; 2nd edit, enlarged, London, 1837, 8vo. 
2. ' The Genera of British Coleoptera, trans- 
ferred from the original figures in 256 plates 
of "British Entomology,'" London, 1858,. 
4to. 3. * The Genera of British Lepidoptera,. 
transferred from the original figures in 193^ 
plates of ''British Entomology,"' London,. 
1858, 4to; and very numerous papers contri- 
buted to various scientific journals, the- 
' Transactions ' of the Linnean and Entomo- 
logical Societies, also an appendix on the in- 
sects of the Arctic region in Ross's ' Journal.'' 

[Chambers's Norfolk Tour, 1829, introduction, 
p. 60; Freeman's Life of the Rev. W. Kirby^ 
1852, p, 426; Athenaeum, 1862, ii. 462; Notice 
sur John Curtis, by J. 0. Westwood in Annales 
de la Societe Entomologique de France, 4th ser. 
tome 3, trimestre de 1863 ; private information. _p 

J. H-R. 

CURWEN, HENRY (1845-1892), Anglo- 
Indian journalist and author, was descended) 
from the Curwens of Workington Hall, a 
well-known family in Cumberland. He was- 
son of Henry Curwen, rector of Working- 
ton, a younger son of Henry Curwen (1783- 
1860) of Workington, by Dora, daughter of 
General Goldie, and was born at Workington 
Hall in 1845. He was educated at Rossall 
School, and then settled for a time in Lon- 
don, where he worked for John Camden 
Hotten [q. v.], the publisher. He had a 
chief hand in compiling several books which 
bear only the publisher's name on the title- 
page. Among these was the ' Golden 
Treasury of Thought.' His first literary 
production under his own name was a 
volume of translations of French poetry 
called 'Echoes from French Poets,^ and 
published by Hotten in August 1870. It 



Cunvcn 



lOI 



Cusins 



contained verse translations from Alfred de 
I^IuRset, Lainnrtine, Baudelaire, and others, 
which showed insight into, and apprcrifttion 
of, French pot^try. Edgnr Allan Poo ot- 
tracted him, and ho translated from the 
French liaudelaire'« 'Study of the Life and 
Writings of l*oo* in 1872. He also contri- 
buted a very symnathetic account of Poe's 
career to the * Westminster Review,' in 
which he also wrote some elaborate articles 
on other ne^flected poets, viz. Henri Murder, 
Novalis, Petofi, Balzac, and Andr6 Chenier. 
These articles, which appeared between 1871 
and 187.3, were published collectively in two 
volumes in December 1874, under the title 
of ♦ Sorrow and Sonj^ ; Studies of Literary 
•Strug-gle.' Towards the close of ]87.'5 Cur- 
wen published a readable account of English 
booksellers and publishers, under the title 
of * A History of Booksellers ; the New and 
the Old.' In 1870 there followed a volume 
of short stories, the first of many, called 
■* Within Bohemia, or Love in London.' 

In 1876 Curwen left England for India, 
which was thenceforth his home. General j 
Nassau Lees [q. v.], who had then recently j 
Acquired the ' Times of India,' an Anglo- \ 
Indian paper published in Bombay, selected , 
€urwen as assistant editor, under Mr. Grattan ' 
Geary, the editor. Curwen, soon after his ^ 
arrival, described in the paper a tour through 
the districts stricken by the great famine of . 
187(V7. I 

Though immersed in Journalism, Curwen j 
found time to continue his literary eftbrts. ' 
In August 1879 was published ' IModding 
on ; or, the Jog Trot to Fame and Fortune,' j 
the last volume that appeared under his 
name. A short anonymous novel, called ' 
*Zit and Zoe,' an imaginative description of 
the earliest condition of mankind from the j 
Darwinian point of view, was reprinted from , 
'Blackwood's Magazine' in 1886. It was | 
followed in 18M8 by a longer story in two i 
volumes, called ' Lady Bluel>eard,' a story of ' 
modem society. Curwen's last effort in fie- | 
tion appeared in 1891, under the title of 
* Dr. Hermione.' It is marked by the same ' 
characteristics as the other two — slightness 
of plot, picturesque description of scenery, 
and insight into character. 

Meanwhile in 1880 Curwen became chief 
editor of the • Times of India.' He con- 
ducted the paper in a scrupulous spirit of 
fairness, and raised it to a high rank among 
Anglo-Indian journals. General Lees, the 
proprietor of the paper, who died in 1889, 
offered Curwen by will th«» first refusal of 
the whole concern. This Curwen accepted, 
And became proprietor with his managpr, Mr. 
Charles Kane. Soon afterwards his health 



failed. He died on 22 Feb. 1892, on board 
the P. & O. steamship Haveniia, three days 
after leaving Bombay. He waa buried at 
sea. A brass mural tablet was placed m 
St. Thomas's Cathedral, Bombay, by hU 
friends. Curwen was unmarried. 

[Personal information; obituary noticM in 
the Indian press, privately collected and printed 
at the Times of India press, 1892; Calcutta 
Review, October 1893, article by Professor M. 
Macmillan (reprinted in author's Olobe-Trotter 
in India and other Essays, 1895). The pres«!nt 
writer'K Kssays on English History is dedicated 
to Curwen's memory.] R. P. K. 

CUSINS, Sir WILLIAM GEORGE 
(I83^i 1893), pianist and conductor, waa 
born in London on 14 Oct. 18.33. For a 
short time he was one of the children of the 
Chapel Royal, St. James's, but at the age of 
eleven he entered the Brussels Conservatoire 
of Music, where for two years he studied 
composition, pianoforte, and violin under 
F6tis and others. In December 1847, at the 
age of fourteen, Cusins won a king's scholar- 
ship at the Royal Academy of Music (I^n- 
don), to which he was re-elected in 1849 ; 
his teachers at the Academy were Cipriani 
Potter, Charles Lucas, Sterndale Bennett, 
and Sainton. Doubtless through the in- 
fluence of his uncle, George Frederick An- 
derson, master of the music to Queen Vic- 
toria, Cusins was appointed organist of Queen 
Victoria's private chapel at Windsor in 1849, 
and in the same year he entered as a violinist 
the orchestra of the Royal Italian Opera, 
where, and at the Philharmonic, he played 
under Costa. In 18'5I he was made an as- 
sistant professor of the Royal Academy of 
Music, and subsequently professor. From 
1807, in succession to Sterndale Bennett, 
to 1883, he conducted the concerts of the 
Philharmonic Society, and in that capacity 
brought Brahms's German Re^juiem to its 
first hearing in this country on '2 April 1873. 
In 1870, upon the resignation of his uncle, 
G. F. Anderson, Cusins was appointed master 
of the music to Queen Victoria, which post 
he held for twenty-three vears. He con- 
ducted the London Select Clioir in 188o, and 
in the same year was appointed to a pro- 
fessorship of the pianoforte in the Guildhall 
School of Music. He was elected an lion, 
member of the academy of St. Cecilia, Rome, 
1883, received the honour of knighthood from 
Queen Victoria at Osborne on 5 Aug. 1892, 
and the cross of Isabella the Catholic from 
the Queen of Spain in 1893. On 31 Aug. 
1893 he died suddenly, from influenza, at 
Remouchamps, in the Ardennes. His re- 
mains were temporarily interred at Spa, and 



Cussans 



I02 



Cynrk 



reinterred in Kensal Green cemetery on 
80 Oct. 1894. . . 

Cusins, who was an excellent pianist, 
played at the Gewandhaus (Leipzig), Berlin, 
the Philharmonic, Crystal Palace, and other 
important concerts. His compositions, ex- 
clusive of anthems, pianoforte pieces, and 
tongs, include a ' Royal Wedding Serenata' 
(1863); 'Gideon,' an oratorio (Gloucester 
festival, 1871) ; • Te Ueum,' for soli, chorus, 
and orchestra (^Sacred Harmonic Society, 
S4 Feb. 1882) jubilee cantata, ' Grant the 
Queen a Long Life' (state concerts, 1887); 
Sjinphony in C (St. James's Hall, 18 June 
1892) ; two concert overtures : (1) * Les Tra- 
Yiilleurs de la Mer' (1869), and (2) ' Love's 
Labour's Lost ' (1875) ; a concerto for piano- 
forte in A minor, and one for violin ; Septet 
for wind instruments and double bass (1891); 
Trio in C minor (1882) ; Sonata for piano- 
forte and violin in A minor (1893). He 
edited an important collection of songs set 
to words by Tennyson (1880) and Schu- 
mann's pianoforte compositions (1864-5). 

Cusins also published an interesting and 
valuable pamphlet entitled ' Handel's 
Messiah : an Examination of the Original 
and some Contemporary MSB.' (1874), and 
he contributed to Sir George Grove's ' Dic- 
tionary of Music and Musicians' an important 
article on the composer Stett'ani. 

[Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 
i. 424 ; James D. Brown and S. S. Stratton's 
British Musical Biojjraphy; Musical Herald, 
December 1892; Brit. Mus. Cat.; private in- 
fonnation.] F. G. E. 

OUSSANS, JOHN EDWIN (1837- 
i8d9), antiquary, bom in Plymouth 30 Oct. 
1887, claimed descent from the family of De 
Cuaance or Cusancia, settled in Burgundy in 
the thirteenth century. Upon the revoca- 
tion of the edict of Nantes m 1685, Thomas 
de Cusance, son of Claude and Isabella de 
Fontenoy his wife, left France and settled 
first in Hampshire and then in Jamaica. 
Goaeant, who claimed descent from this 
ThomM de Cusance, was the fifth child of 
Thomas Cosaans, who had been a lieutenant 
in the Madras horse artillery, by his wife 
Matilda Ann (Goodman\ After education 
at North Hill School, Plymouth, he entered 
• commercial house, in connection with 
which he visited America (1858) and Russia 
(1861). After his marriage in 1863 he be- 
came a professed author and devoted the 
beet part of his life to heraldic and genea- 
Mgieal studies. In both these departments 
iMadhieved work of lasting value. His first 
work, 'The Grammar of Heraldry, with the 
Axmorial Bearings of all the Landed Gentry 



in England prior to the Sixteenth Century ' 
(London, 1866, 8yo), was followed in 1869 
by his better-known ' Handbook of Heraldry 
. . . with Instructions for tracing Pedi- 
grees and deciphering Manuscripts,' a book 
remarkable for its attractive clearness (Lon- 
don, 8vo, several editions). In the mean- 
time Cussans, who established his home in 
the north of London, had commenced those 
studies into the genealogical and other anti- 
quities of Hertfordshire which resulted, after 
fifteen years' labour, in the completion of bis 
most important work, ' A History of Hert- 
fordshire, containing an account of the De- 
scents of the various Manors, Pedigrees of 
Families, Antiquities, Local Customs, &c.^ 
(Hertford, 16 parts forming three folio 
volumes, 1870-81). Cussans's work is an im- 
portant supplement to the existing histories 
of Chauncey and Clutterbuck. The preface 
was dated from 4 Wyndham Crescent, Junc- 
tion Eoad, London, on Christmas day 1880. 
Cussans subsequently moved to 46 St. John's 
Park, Upper Hollowav, where he died on 
11 Sept. 1899. From 1881 to 1897 Cussans 
had been secretary of the Anglo-Californian 
Bank in Austin Friars. He married, on 
10 March 1863, Emma Prior, second surviv- 
ing daughter of John Ward of Hackney, by 
whom he left eight children. 

[Times, 12 and 15 Sept. 1899; Antiquary, 
October 1899; Athenaeum, 1899, ii. 303; 
Hertfordshire Mercury, 23 Sept. 1899 ; private 
information; Cussans's works in British Mu- 
seum.] T. S. 

CYNRIC (d. 560.?), king of the Gewissas 
or West Saxons, the son of Cerdic [q. v.], is 
said to have landed with Cerdic at Cerdics- 
ora, at the mouth of the Itchen, in 495, to 
have taken part in his battles, and with him 
to have been raised to the kingship in 519. 
Some genealogies, however, make him the 
son of Creoda, who is represented as the son 
of Cerdic, and this would remove the diffi- 
culty as to the length of life attributed to 
him by the generally accepted record. It 
has been suggested that his name may be 

I *an abstraction from the establishment of 
the cynerice' or kingship (Pltjmmer). He 

; is said to have succeeded his father Cerdic 

i in 534, and to have reigned twenty-six years. 

' After the battle of Mount Badon in 620, the 
progress landward of the West Saxons has 
been supposed to have been checked for some 
thirty years, during which they are pic- 
tured lying quiet ' within the limits of our 
Hampshire' (Geeen). Be this as it may, in 
552 Cynric is said to have fought with the 
Britons at the place called Searobyrig, or 
Old Sarum, and to have put them to flight ; 



Dacre 



103 



Dalhicr 



ho probably stormed the fortress. He njjain 
foupht with them in 55(5, in conjunction 
with his 8on Cfuwlin Hi IJcninbyri^j:, pro- 
bably Harbury camp in Wiltsliin'. Of this 
battle Henry (if 11 untinjfdon givesan account, 
vhich of course cannot bo accented as his- 
torical. Cynric is said to have aied in 500, 
and to have been succeeded by Ceawlin. 
Tliat ho also had a son who is called Cutha 
rests on as good authority as we have. A 
third son, Ceowulf, has also been given him, 



I but it seemfl probable that ho wan the son 
I of Cutha. That Cuthwulf waa a son of 
Cynric seems not to rest on good authority. 
There are, however, so many apparent dis- 
crepancies between the p-dign-es (»f the earlj 
descendants of Cerdic that it is dangeroua 
to speak dogmatically on tiie subject. 

[A. S. Chron. ed. Plummer, who compares the 
W. Saxon pedigrees irt the notes of his vol. ii. ; 
H. lluntingdon (Rolls Spr.) ; Guest's Ong. Celt. ; 
Green's Making of ilngland.] W. II. 



D 



DACRE, twenty-third Baron. [See 
Brand, Sir IIenuy BorvERiE William, 
1814-1892.] 

DAFT,llTCirARl)(1835-1900),cricketer, 
was born at Nottingham on 2 Nov. 1835, 
and learned cricket as a boy from George 
Butler and Harry Hall, both old county 
players. Daft commenced his career as an 
amateur in 1857, and played for the gentle- 
men in 1858, when he received a prize bat ; 
but from the close of that year he com- 
menced to play as a professional for Not- 
tinghamshire, which county he served regu- 
larly until 1881. He was probably at his 
best between 18G1 and 1876, and in the 
early seventies he had no superior but Dr. 
W. G. Grace. His most creditable scores I 
include 118 for the North v. the South at j 
Lord's in 1862 (without 'giving the ghost of 
a chance'), lU at Old Traftbrd in 1867' 
for the All England Eleven against the \ 
United and the bowling of George Freeman, : 
102 for the Players in 1872, and 161 for | 
Nottinghamshire v. Yorkshire at Trent | 
Bridge in June 1873. He captained the | 
Nottingham team for nine yt-ars, after the | 
retirement of George Parr [q. v.], and main- 
taintnl the high position of his county. In 
1879 he took a team composed of some of 
the best Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire pro- 
fessionals to Canada and the United States. 
He was in his early days an extremely fine 
field, and after relinquishing first-class 
cricket he often mode enormous scores as an 
amateur against good players. In lH91 he 
was induced once more (as substitute for 
Shrewsbury) to represent Nottinghamshire 
at the Oval, and also played for his county 
at Clifton and Trent Bridge. As a batsman 
he was distinguished for elegance and style. 
Tall and well prop<irtioned, he held himself 
remarkably well, and * utilised every inch of 
his height.' He held the bat ' lightly as 
r^^rds the left hand, putting great pressure 



on the handle with the foreting^T ot iiis right. 
His style of play was without the slightest 
suspicion of flourish. The easy way he 
would play back at a good length ball on 
the oft-stump was worth going miles to see. 
Willsher once said to me, " When Richard 
plays that ball I always feel as if he said, *If 
that's all you can do, Ned, you'd better put 
somebody else on at once ' " ' (Caffyn, 
Seventy-one Not Out, 1899, p. 129). In a 
period when matches were fewer and pitches 
far more uncertain than at present, Daft 
never scored a thousand runs during a season ; 
but in 1867 and again in 1870 he had an 
average over fifty, while in 1867 he attained 
an average of sixty-seven. In his last years 
he often stood umpire, and in 1893 he issued 
his interesting recollections under the title 
' Kings of Cricket,* to which was prefixed an 
essay by Mr. Andrew Lang. Daft retired 
to the native place of his old captain, George 
Parr, at RadclytFe-on-Trent, where he had a 
small brewery. There he died on 18 July 
1900, leaving two sons. 

[Daft's Kings of Cricket (with portraits); 
Catfvn's Seventy-one Not Out, pa5sim : W. G. 
Grace's Cricketing Reminiscences, 1899, p. 337 ; 
Ranjitsinliji's Jubilee Book of Cricket, 1897, p. 
418; Cricket, August 1891; Fores's Sporting 
Notes and Sketches, 1892; Gale's Echoes 
from Old Cricket Fields, 1896; Lillywhite's 
Cricket Scores and Biographies : Wist.'en's 
Cricketers' Almanack, 19U1, iir; Times and 
Daily News, 19 .luly 1900.] T. 8. 

DALBIER, JOHN {d. 1648), soldier, is 
said to have been originally a felt-dresser at 
Strasburg, and was during the early part of 
the Thirty Years' war paymaster to Count 
Mansfeld (Court and 'limeA of Charles I, ii. 
2O0, 21 1 ; cf. Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1629- 
KWl, pp. 4ti, 257, 496). About 1627 he 
entered the English service, and was one of 
Buckingham's chief military advisers during 
the expedition to the Isle of Hh6 {Court and 
Times of CharUs /, i. 266). ♦ His excellency*§ 



Dalbier 



104 



Dale 



chief counsel in the martial part, writes 
Henry de Vic, ' is Monsieur Dolbier, a man 
of great experience, but not of that strength 
of understanding and other parts as are 
noeeasary ' (Ilardwicke State Papers, ii. 26). 
In January 1028 the king commissioned 
Dalbier, jointly with Sir William Balfour, 
to raise a thousand German horse for his 
service. The House of Commons suspected 
that the king meant to employ them to sup- 
fnm Enfflish liberties, and Dalbier was 
Teliemently attacked in the house as a traitor 
and a papist (Rush worth, i. 612, 616, 623; 
cf. Gardiner, History of England, vi. 224, 
308, 318). The king in reply countermanded 
the order to bring the horse to England, and 
Dalbier subsequently entered the Swedish 
•enrice. At the capture of New Brandenburg 
he wastidcen prisoner by Tilly, and Charles j, 
throngh Burlemachi, solicited his release {ib. 
y\. 2&; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1631-3, 
TO. 84, 61, 122). He returned to England 
in December 1632, and was the first to bring 
authentic news of the death of Gustavus 
Adolphus at Liitzen {Court of Charles 1, ii. 
203,206,211). 

When the civil war began Dalbier became 
quartermaster-general and captain of a troop 
of horse in the army of the Earl of Essex, 
and served under him until the formation of 
the New Model (Peacock, Army Lists, pp. 
23,53). His services were highly valued by 
Essex, who obtained his release from impri- 
sonment for debt {Lords^ Journals, iv. 681, 
716, vi. 44, 47). After the disaster in Corn- 
wall in 1644, Dalbier, who was summoned 
to London as a witness, was under some 
suspicion of misconduct himself {Commons^ 
Journals, iii. 644, iv. 48). Both Waller and 
Essex pressingly demanded his return to the 
army. * His aosence,' wrote the latter, * hath 
been the loss of five hundred horse already ' 
iCal, State Papers, Dom. 1644-6, pp. 15, 36, 
106). At the formation of the New Model he 
lost his command, and his regiment of horse 
was sent to serve under General Massey {ib. 
pp. 880, 410, 443, 497). Dalbier was, how- 
ever, appointed to command the forces sent 
'^tO besiege Basing, but could not take it till 
Cromwell joined him with heavy guns (God- 
wur, dvil War in Hampshire, pp. 218, 234 ; 
SrmiOG, Anglia Rediviia, p. 149). He then 
besieaed Donnington Castle, which surren- 
dered on 80 March 1646, and finally took 
part in the sie^e of Wallingford (Money, 
The Battles of Newbury, pp. 204, 234 ; Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1045-7, pp. 399, 418). 

In 1648 Dalbier, discontented at being 
unemnloyed, went over to the royalists, and 
joined the Duke of Buckingham in his rising 
in Surrey. When Buckingham's forces were 



defeated at St. Neots (5 July 1048) Dalbier 
was ' hewed in pieces ' by the parliamentary 
soldiers * to express their detestation of his 
treachery ' (Lfdlow, Memoirs, ed. 1894, i. 
198 ; Clarendon, Rebellion, xi. 104). 

According to Carlyle * it was from Dalbier 
that Cromwell first of all learned the me- 
chanical part of soldiering ' {Cromwell, i. 21 8, 
ed. 1871). The statement is based on Heath, 
who says that Cromwell learned to discipline 
his soldiers * from an exact observation of 
some veteran commanders, viz. Colonel Dal- 
bier, whom he had by great sums of advance 
money and as extraordinary pay allured to 
his side' {Flagellum, p. 24). As Dalbier 
served under Essex and not in the army of 
the eastern association, the story is impro- 
bable. 

[A short life of Dalbier is given in Money's 
Battles of, Newbury, p. 110, 2nd edit, which 
also contains some of his letters, pp. 31, 82 ; 
others are printed in the Eeport of the Hist. 
MSS. Comm. on the Duke of Portland's MSS., i. 
186, 317, 334. See also Gardiner's Great Civil 
War and History of England under ' Dalbier.'] 

C. H. F. 
DALE, ROBERT W^ILLIAM (1829- 
1895), congregationalist divine, elder sur- 
viving son of Robert Dale {d. 1869) by his 
wife, Elizabeth Young {d. 1854), was born 
in the parish of St. Mary's, Newington 
Butts, Surrey, on 1 Dec. 1829. His parents 
were members of the congregation of John 
Campbell (1794-1867) [q. v.] at the Moor- 
fields Tabernacle. After passing through 
three schools he became usher (January 
1844) to Ebenezer White at Andover, 
Hampshire, and in the following summer 
was received into membership with the 
congregational church, East Street, Andover. 
He began to preach and contribute to maga- 
zines in his sixteenth year. Campbell did 
not encourage him to study for the ministry, 
and in August 1845 he became usher to 
Jardine at Brixton Hill, Surrey. He 
corresponded on the metaphysics of deity 
with William Ilonyman Gillespie, and on 
the errors of Rome with a Dutch bishop. 
Early in 1846 he became usher to Miiller 
at Leamington ; did a good deal of village 
preaching, and published a little volume 
called 'The Talents' (1846), by which he 
lost seven guineas. On Miiller's failure he 
carried on the school for a few months, but 
in September 1847 he was admitted as a 
theological student at Spring College, Bir- 
mingham. Here he found great stimulus in 
the prelections of Henry Rogers (1806-1877) 
[q. v.], and came into intimate relations 
with John Angell James [q. v.], though he 
preferred the preaching of George Dawson 



Dale 



105 



Dale 



(1821-1876) Tq. v.] In 1863 he graduated 
M.A. at the London University, taking the 
gold medal in philosophv. 

From the autumn of 1H52 ho had relieved 
Anpell James by prenching once a month 
at Carr's Lane chaiwl ; from August 1853 
he had been engaged as assistant minister ; 
on 10 Julv 18r)4 he was chosen co-pastor, 
began his duties on Aug., and was ordained 
on 22 Nov. Local controversy was provoked 
by his lecture on 'The Pilgrim Fathers,* and 
transient doubts of his orthodoxy were 
raised by his treatment of the doctrines of 
natural depravity and justification. Angell 
James, with great courage, insisted that 
* the young man must have his fling.' A 
call in 1857 to Cavendish Street chapel, 
Manchester (with a much higher stipend), 
was declined on James's advice. In 1858 
he succeeded Rogers as lecturer on literature, 
philosophy, and homiletics at Spring Hill. 
On his colleague's death (1 Oct. 1859) he 
became sole pastor at Carr's Lane. His * Life' 
of Angell James (1861) criticised the 
theology of the * Anxious Enquirer,' and 
drew a defensive pamphlet from Thomas 
Smith James [see under James, John 
Angell] ; in the fifth edition (1862) Dale 
omitted the passages impugned. 

Very early in his lifelong pastorate at 
Carr's Lane Dale had realised the need of 
church extension : new congregations were 
planted out at Kdgbaston, Moseley, Yardley, 
and Acock's Green. As a public man he 
first made his mark in connection with the 
bicentennial (1862) of the Uniformity Act, 
by his vivid reply to John Cale Miller 
[q. v.l An invitation, in the same year, to 
a Melbourne pastorate caused his congrega- 
tion to rally to him with renewed attach- 
ment. His Birmingham ministry steadily 
grew in power ; and the place he took in 
the life of the town was one of exceptional 

Erominence, placing him practically at the 
ead of its educational policy, both in the 
school board and in the grammar school, and 
makingr him a large factor in the guidance of 
its political aspirations. In the development 
of the municipal life of Birmingham he co- 
opjerated heartily with Mr. Josepli Chamber- 
lain. He has admirablv described the ideals 
which he shared, and did much to promote, 
tn a valuable contribution to Armstrong's 
*Life' (1895) of Henry William Crosskey 
(1826-1893). He served on the royal com- 
mission of 18H5 on elementary education. 

In his own denomination he was chairman 
of the Congrejfational Union (1809), and 
supported (1878) the declaration of faith 
intende<l to maintain its evangelical cha- 
racter ; he withdrew from the union in 1888 



to avoid a snlit on the Irish question ; he 
presided (1891) over the international council 
of congregational churches. He was strongly 
attached to the congregational idea of the 
church, which was to him much more th«ii 
a mere spiritual democracy. IIo declined 
(1888) the principalship and theological 
chair in New College, South Hampstead. 
After some hesitation he threw hims^df into 
the scheme for removing Spring Hill College 
to Mansfield College, Oxford (opened October 
1889) ; he obtained some modification of 
the doctrinal clauses of the original trust, 
and the abolition of the doctrinal declaration 
formerly required of students and members 
of committee. From 1874 he had publicly 
separated himself from the current escha- 
tology of his denomination by advocating 
the position that eternal life is a gift to 
believers in Christ, with the consequent 
annihilation of the impenitent. 

In 1863 he had spent some time at 
Heidelberg for the study of German; he 
visited Egypt and Palestine in 1873; America 
in 1877, when he delivered the Yale Lecture 
on preaching; Australia in 1887. Yale 
University gave him the diploma of D.D., 
but he never used it, having a strong 
objection to divinity degrees, and having 
discarded (before 1809) even the title of 
'reverend.' In March 1883 he was capped 
as LL.D. at Glasgow University, in company 
with John Bright ; and from this time, 
* though " Mr." is more after my manner, I 
shall yield to my friends and be Dr. K. W. 
Dale.' As a theologian Dale exercised a 
wide influence beyond the borders of his 
denomination. His volume on the atone- 
ment, his expositions of the Pauline epistles, 
and his treatment of sacramental doctrine, 
commended his writings to Anglican readers 
in no sympathy with his views on church 
and state. Matthew Arnold described him 
as * a brilliant pugilist,' an expression true 
to a side of his character which made itself 
felt in his platform work, his public contro- 
versies, ana sometimes in his private manner. 
In his theology the polemical element wae 
completely subordinate to the construct ire, 
but he was always more remarkable for 
warmth of heart than for serenity of judg- 
ment. 

He had lived a strenuous life of perpetual 
engagements, and in May 1891 an attack of 
influenza left his health permanently im- 
paired. In 1892 George Barber became hia 
assistant at Carr's Lane. He preached for 
the last time on 10 Feb. 1895, and died at 
his residence, AVinsterslow House, Bristol 
Road, Birmingham, on 13 March 1895. He 
was buried at Key Hill cemetery on 18 March. 



Dale 



1 06 



Dale 



His statue, by Onslow Ford, is in the Bir- 
minghsm Art Gallery. Being near-sighted, 
he constantly wore spectacles. His resolute 
ft H?t and knitted brow were no index to the 
tenderness of his sympathies; the great 
efaann of his personality was in his rich and 
mellow voice. He married (21 Feb. 1855) 
Elisabeth, second daughter of William 
Dowling of Over Wallop, Hampshire ; she 
survived him with a son, Mr. Alfred Wil- 
liam Winterslow Dale, principal of Univer- 
sity College, Liverpool, and two daughters. 
Much of Dale's literary activity was 
expended on separate sermons, pamphlets, 
and contributions to magazines (full list in 
the • Life * by his son) ; he edited ' The Con- 
grwationalist' from 1872 to 1878. In 
addition to works mentioned above he pub- 
lished: 1. 'The Jewish Temple and the 
Christian Church. . . . Discourses on the 
Epistle to the Hebrews,' 1865, 8vo ; 1871, 
8vo. 2. ♦ Discourses,' 1866, 8vo. 3. 'Week- 
day Sermons,' 1867, 8vo. 4. 'The Ten 
Commandments,' 1872, 8vo. 5. * The Atone- 
ment,' 1875, 8vo; 9th edit. 1884, 8vo (Con- 
gregational Union lecture, translated into 
French and German). 6. 'Nine Lectures 
on Preaching,' 1877, 8vo (Yale Lecture). 
7. 'The Evangelical Revival and other 
Sermons,' 1880, 8vo. 8. 'The Epistle to 
the Ephesians,' 1832, 8vo. 9. 'Laws of 
Christ for Common Life,' 1884, 8vo. 10. ' A 
Manual of Congregational Principles,' 1884, 
8vo (books 1 and 2 reprinted as ' Congrega- 
tional Church Politv,' 1885, 8vo). 11. ' Im- 
mnsMions of Australia,' 1889, 8vo. 12. ' The 
Living Christ and the Four Gospels,' 1890, 
8vo (the first five lectures have been trans- 
lated into Japanese). 13. ' Fellowship with 
Christ and other Discourses,' 1891, 8vo. 
14. 'Christian Doctrine . , . Discourses,' 
18W, 8vo. Posthumous were: 15. 'The 
Epistle of James and other Discourses,' 
18»6, 8vo. 16. 'Christ and the Future 
Life/ 1885, 8 vo. 17.' Essays and Addresses,' 
1699, 8vo (a selection). He compiled a 
hymnal ('The English Hymn Book,' 1874, 
8vo), its title being meant as a protest 
against sentimental ism in hymns. 

[Dale's Life of R. W. Dale, 1898 (portrait) ; 
I*alpit Photographs, 1871 ; Julian's Diet, of 
Hymnology, 1890, p. 260.] A. G. 

DALE, TH(3MAS PELHAM (1821- 
1892), ritualiatic divine, bom in London in 
1821, was the eldest son of Thomas Dale 
[q. v.], the evangelical vicar of St. Pancras, 
and subsequently dean of Rochester, who 
narried in 1819 Emily Jane, daughter of 
J. M. Richardson, bookseller, of Cornhill. 
After education at King's College, London, 



he went up to Sidney Sussex College, Cam- 
bridge (where his tutor was Colenso), in 
1841 ; graduated B.A. (as twenty-fifth 
wrangler) in 1845, was made a fellow of 
his college, and proceeded M.A. in 1848. 
He was ordained deacon and priest in 1845 
and 1846 by Bishop Sumner of Winchester, 
senved as curate of Camden chapel, Camber- 
well, for two years, and in 1847 was ap- 
pointed rector of St. Vedast's, Foster Lane, 
with St. Michael-le-Querne in the city of 
London. He was a diligent student and a 
considerable Hebrew scholar. From 1851 
to 1856 he served as librarian of Sion 
College. His parochial duties were nominal, 
all the rate-paying parishioners being non- 
resident and not attending the church. In 
1873, however, he commenced midday ser- 
vices in St. Vedast's, and introduced a 
number of ritualistic innovations, such as a 
mixed chalice which he held to be in ac- 
cordance with primitive usage. This dis- 
pleased the ratepayers and churchwardens, 
whom he had already rufHed by objecting to 
the expenditure of 30/. for an annual audit 
dinner out of the trust funds of the parish. 
In 1875, during their pastor's suspension, 
Mackonochie's congregation migrated from 
St. Alban's to St. Vedast's. In 1876 the church- 
wardens of the parish lodged a representation 
against Dale under the Public Worship Act. 
On 12 Nov. 1876 the bishop of London 
(Jackson) accompanied the inhibition which 
had been obtained from the Court of Arches, 
and insisted on taking over the services. 
Dale submitted for the time, but legal flaws 
were discovered in the case of the prosecu- 
tion, and, amid much correspondence public 
and private, Dale renewed the services, 
ignored the citations, summonses, admoni- 
tions, inhibitions, and other documents with 
which he was plentifully served, and 
persisted in disregarding the law of the 
land. A fresh prosecution was commenced, 
and on 28 Oct. 1880, in his capacity as dean 
of arches, Lord Penzance pronounced Dale 
to be in contempt for officiating in defiance 
of a legal inhibition. He was accordingly 
signified to her majesty in chancery as con- 
tumacious, and was arrested by an officer of 
the court on 30 Oct., and lodged in Hollo- 
way gaol. He was let out on bail on 
Christmas Eve, and in January 1881 was 
entirely released by order of the lords 
justices, who held that the writ of inhibition^ 
was bad, in consequence of its issue not 
having been reported to the court of queen's 
bench. The case, which had excited extra- 
ordinary attention, and had been very un- 
justifiably protracted by those taking part 
in it, was thus brought to a fit termination.. 



Dalley 



107 



Dalley 



Dale's illegal resistance to the ordinary had 
been instiffatcd by the Enprllsh (.'hiirch 
Union. Tho nrosccution was abetted by tho 
(Church Association. Soon after his reletise 
iJah^ was presented by the patron, Charles 
TroUopo Swan, to the rectory of Saus- 
thorpe-cum-Aswardby in Lincolnshire, to 
which he was instituted on 21 April 1881. 
In this country parsonage Dale, w\\o, though 
of an obstinate spirit, was by nature studious 
and devout, and hnd a most sincere hatred of 
publicity, resumed his Hebrew and scientific 
studies and his water-colour drawing, at 
which he was a proficient. Several of his 
drawings made on a foreign tour in 1882, at 
Padua and Venice, are reproduced in the 
* Life ' by his daughter. He died on 
10 April, and was buried in Sausthorpe 
churchyard on 2/5 April 1892. His un- 
assuming piety and devotion to his church 
had won the hearts of his country 
parishioners. By his wife (married in 1846), 
who sun'ived him. Dale left several children. 
A brother, James Murray Dale (1822-1877), 
was author of ' The Clergyman's Legal 
Handbook' (1858), 'Church Extension 
Law ' (1804), and ' Legal Kitual ' (1871). 

Pelham Dale was the author of: 1. * A 
Life's Motto, illustrated by Biographical 
Examples,' 1869 (studies of St. Augustine, 
St. Bernard, J. Wesley, J. Newton, Charles 
Simeon, Kirke White, Ed. Irving, and the 
missionaries, H. Martyn and Mackenzie). 
2. ' A Commentary on Ecclesiastes,' 1873: 
a translation and a paraphrase, the sense 
being sought by a microscopic attention to 
the grammar and ])hraseology of the author. 
Dale called himself ' homo unius libri,' and 
this as his opusculum. 3. ' The S. Vedast 
Case: a llemonstrance addressed to all True 
Evangelicals,' 1881 : a vigorous defence of 
ritual against what he called the 'Zwinglian 
section of the church. 

[Life and Letters of Thomas Pelham Dale, 
by his daughter, Helen Pelham Dale, with por- 
trait*, 2 vols. 1894; Guardian, 12 Feb. 1879, 
Sand 10 Nov. 1880; Church Times, 22 April 
1892; Times, November and December 1880, 
Passim; Church Review, 2 June 187G; Qriers 
Imprisonment of the Rev. T. P. Dale, 1882; 
Brit.Mus. Cat.] T. S. 

DAJiLEY, WILLIAM BEDE (1831- 
1888), Australian jmlitician, bom in Sydney 
in 1831, was descended from Irish parents. 
He was educated at the old Svdney College j 
and at St. Mary's College, wliere he came 
under the tuition of the Roman catholic ' 
archbishop, John B<'de Polding [q.v.]; with ' 
him he contracted a friendship which en- , 
dured till Poldings death in 1877. In I806 I 



he wa» called to the bar, and in 1677 wm 
nominatved a queen's counsel. In \Wi7 he 
was returned for Sydney to the first consti- 
tutional parliament, and in January IHoS 
he would have been returned a second time; 
but, finding that his election was likely to 
exclude Sir Charles Cowper [a. v.], with 
whose party ho had identified himself, he 
drove to the polling-booths and requested 
the electorrs to vote for his colleague. He 
was immediately afterwards returned for the 
Cumberland boroughs. In November he 
entered Cowper'd ministry, succeeding Alfred 
James Peter Lutwyche as solicitor-general. 
He early distinguished himself in parlia- 
ment bv his eloquence, while his popularity 
was enhanced by his being a native of the 
colony. In February l8o9 Cowpcr's mini- 
stry resigned office. 

in 1859 Dalley visited England, and in 
1861 accepted a commission to return to 
that country with (Sir) Henrv' Parkes [q.v. 
Suppl.] to continue the work begun by John 
Dunmore Lang [q.v.] of inducing men of 
good ability and repute to establish them- 
selves in the colony. They lectured in most 
of the large towns of Great Britain, but met 
with little success owing to the anti-demo- 
cratic feeling aroused by the American civil 
war. A year later Dalley returned to Syd- 
ney, but he took little part in politics until 
the formation of the administration of Sir 
John Itobertson [n. v.] in February 1876, 
when he accepted the post of attorney- 
general. Not being in parliament at tie 
time he was summoned to the legislative 
council on 9 Feb., Robertson was defeated 
in March 1877, but came into office again in 
August, and Dalley became attorney-general 
for the second time. In December the ad- 
ministration once more retired. 

Shortly afterwards Dalley received a 
severe blow in the death of his wife, and he 
spent the next four years in retirement at 
his country house at Mossvale, on the slope 
of the Blue Mountains, abandoning the pur- 
suit of politics and his lucrative practice at 
the bar. At the close of 1^82 the Parkes 
ministry was defeated, and on 5 Jan. 1883 
Dalley reluctantly accepted office for the 
thirtl time as attorney-general. The illneas 
of the premier, Sir Alexander Stuart [q.v.], 

at the beginning of I880 throw t; '^-n-^v 

the duties of premier and in- jn 

secretary, and ga\*e him an opi ....;..-. of 
attaining fame. In February tne news of 
the fall of Khartoum awakened a lively sym- 
pathy in Sydney, and a keen desire to aasist 
the imperial government by the despatch of 
troops. The ori^rination of the idea is 
claimed both for Dalley and for Sir Edward' 



Dalton 



[o8 



Dalton 



Strickland, who was resident in Sydney, 
but to Dalley undoubtedly belongs the credit 
of caminff out the project. lie instantly 
telegraphed to the home government offering 
two batteries of anillery and a battalion of 
uifantr\-, four hundred strong, to serve in 
Egypt.' The offer was accepted by the home 
government with some modifications, and 
occasioned considerable enthusiasm in Eng- 
land and Australia, although in Sydney 
Parkee vehemently censured Dalley's action. 
In Australia a patriotic fund was started for 
equipping the troops, by which 50,000/. was 
raiiied in a few days. On 3 March a contin- 
gent of nine hundred men sailed under 
Colonel Richardson, a Crimean veteran. 

The ministry resigned office early in Octo- 
ber 1886, and in June 1887 Dalley,who had 
refused knighthood and also the succession 
to the chieNjusticeship on the death of Sir 
James Martin [q. v.], was appointed a mem- 
ber of the privy council, the first Australian 
statesman to receive that honour. He died 
at his residence at Darling Point, Sydney, 
on 28 Oct. 1888, and was buried in the 
"NVaverley cemetery on 30 Oct. He married 
a daughter of William Long, a merchant of 
Sydnev, and left three sons. A medallion 
portrait by Sir Edgar Boehm was erected in 
St. Paul's Cathedral by public subscription, 
and was unveiled by Lord Rosebery on 

17 July 1890. A marble bust by Cavalieri 
Attilio Simonetti is in the chamber of the 
legislative council of New South Wales. 

Dalley had considerable literary ability, 
and contributed to several Sydney periodi- 
cals, eapecially to the 'Morning Herald.' 
Most of his sketches and articles were re- 
printed bv George Burnett Barton in 1866 
in • The I'oets and Prose Writers of New 
Sooth Wales' (pp. 164-91). 

[Sjdnsj Morning Herald, 29, 31 Oct., 1 Nor. 
1888; Melbourne Argus. 29 Oct. 1888; Bea- 
ton's AnstraliAQ Diet. 1879; Mennell's Diet, of 
An»tnilirtn Biogr. 1892; Times, 5 Nov. 1888, 

18 July 1890 ; Annual Register, 1885 : Parkes's 
Fifty Years in the Making of Australian His- 
tory, 1892, i. 166-8, 175-6, 329, 333, ii. 139- 
144. 386: Lyne's Life of Parkes, 1897, index; 
HutchtawD and Myers's Australian Contingent, 
1886; Barton's Literature in New South Wales, 
1866, pp. 46-7; Buchanan's Political Portraits.] 

E. I. C. 
DALTON, RICHARD (1715. ?-l 791), 
draughtsman, engraver, and librarian to the 
king, bom about 1715, was the younger son 
of the Rev. Jolin Dalton of Whitehaven in 
Cumberland. His elder brother, the Rev. 
John Dalton, D.D., was rector of St. Mary- 
at-IIill, Ix)ndon, and of some note as a 
difine (of. Foster, Alumni Oxon. 1715- 



1886). Dalton, who was trained as an 
artist, and went to Rome to pursue his 
studies, in 1749 travelled with Roger Kynas- 
ton and John Frederick to Naples, South 
Italy, and Sicily, where they joined a party 
consisting of James Caulfeild, earl of Char- 
lemont [q.v.], Francis Pierpoint Burton, and 
others. From thence Dalton accompanied 
Lord Charlemont on his tour to Constanti- 
nople, Greece, and Egypt. He was the first 
Englishman to make drawings of the monu- 
ments of ancient art in these countries. 
Some of these he etched and engraved him- 
self. A * Selection from the Antiquities of 
Athens ' was the first publication of its kind, 
but it was quickly put into the shade by the 
more accurate and trustworthy publications 
of James Stuart (1713-1788) [q. v.] and 
Nicholas Revett [q. v.] Dalton published 
some other sets of engravings of * Monu- 
ments, Manners, Customs, &c.,' in Turkey 
and Egypt, but his drawings and engravings 
are of little value from either an artistic or 
an antiquarian point of view. 

Dalton managed to obtain the position of 
librarian to George III when prince of 
Wales, and, after the king's accession, was 
continuedin his post through the favour of the 
earl of Bute. He was subsequently appointed 
keeper of the pictures and antiquarian to his 
majesty. He was the first artist to engrave 
the famous series of portraits drawn by 
Hans Holbein, which had been discovered 
by Queen Caroline at Kensington Palace, 
but neither these etchings nor a set on a 
larger scale published by him a few years 
later have any artistic merit. Dalton was 
sent abroad to purchase works of art for the 
king, and at Venice in 1763 made acquain- 
tance with Francesco Bartolozzi [q.v.J, the 
engraver, and obtained for him an introduc- 
tion to England as a rival to Sir Robert 
Strange [q.v.], who did not shrink from ac- 
cusing Dalton of using undue influence with 
the king in order to assist Bartolozzi. Dalton 
was one of the original committee who in 
1755 drew up the first project for the esta- 
blishment of a Royal Academy of Fine Arts 
in England. He was one of the original 
members pf the Incorporated Society of 
Artists in 1765, and became their treasurer. 
He purchased a large house in Pall Mall, to 
be used as a print warehouse ; but as this 
did not succeed he established there the first 
nucleus of an academy of arts, under the 
protection of the king, and induced the 
former academy in St. Martin's Lane to 
transfer its students and its paraphernalia 
thither. The scheme was, however, of short 
duration, and Dalton disposed of the pre- 
mises to James Christie (1731-1803) [q.v.], 



Daly 



109 



Daly 



who commenced his famous career as an 
auctionoor there. Dnlton continued to use 
his influence with the kinj? towards the 
cnmtion of a Hoyal Academy of Arts, and, 
when the Uoyal Academy was really started, 
he was elected anti(^uarian to the academy. 
Dalton died at his rooms in St. James's 
Palace on 7 Feb. 1791. He married, on 
l?/5 June 1764, Esther, daughter of Abraham 
Deheulle, silkweaver, of Spitalfields, but left 
no legitimate issue. He was elected a fellow 
of the Society of Antiquaries in 1767. 

[Gent. Ma?. 1701, i. 188. 195; Lnmisden's 
Memoirs of Sir Robert Strange; Sandby's Hist, 
of the Koyal Academy; Pye's Encouragement of 
Art in Great BriUiin ; Gust's Hist, of the Society 
of Dilettanti.] L. C. 

DALY, Sir HENRY DERMOT (1821- 
1895), general, Indian staff corps, late Bom- 
bay army, son of Lieutenant-colonel Francis 
Dermot Daly (d. 1857), 4th light dragoons, 
of Daly's Grove, co. Galway, was born on 
25 Oct. 1821. He received a commission as 
ensign in the 1st Bombay European regi- j 
ment on 1 Sept. 1840. He became brevet 
colonel 19 July 1804, lieutenant-colonel ' 
1 Sept. 1866, major-general 4 Jan. 1870, 
lieutenant-general 1 Oct. 1877, and general 
1 Dec. 1888. He arrived at Bombay on 
10 Oct. 1840, and in the following year -was I 
appointed adjutant of the detachment at 
Ahmednagar. He qualified as interpreter in ; 
Hindustani in 1841, in the Maratha Ian- j 
guage in 1842, and in Gujrati in 1843, when 
he was appointed acting adj utant of the pro- 
visional battalion at Gujrat. After two years' ' 
furlough to Europe he returned to Bombay 
on 10 May 1846, and on 22 Aug. became 
adjutant of the Ist Bombay European regi- 
ment. 

Daly took part in the operations at Mul- 
tan, and in the attack of 27 Dec. 1848 had a 
horse shot under him. He was mentioned in 
despatches for conspicuous gallantry by Bri- 
gadiers-general Stalker and Dundas {London 
Cazette,! and 23 March 1^49). He joined 
I^ord (tough's army, was present at the 
battle of (hiirat on 21 Feb. 1S49, and in the 
pursuit, under Sir Walter Gilbert, of the 
Sikh army, at the capture of Attak, and the 
occupation of Peshawar. He received the 
medal and two clasps. 

On 28 May 1849 Daly was appointed to 
the command of the 1st I*unjab cavalry with 
directions to raise it in communication with 
Major (afterwards Sir) George St. Patrick 
Lawrence, the deputy-commissioner of the 
district. He succeeded in raising and drilling 
a fine body of men, and in February 1850 
marched with them under Sir Charles 



Napier [q. v.] to puninh the Afridin. He 
was engaged in the action of the Kohat paM, 
and remained to occupy Kohat as an out- 
Dost. His regiment was highly praiaed by 
Napier, who acknowledge<l Daly's services io 
a general order of 16 Feb. 1850. In Octo- 
ber 1851 he sened with the field force under 
Captain Coke from Kohat to Thai. On 

10 May 1H52 he joined the force under 
Brigadier-general Sir Colin Campbell at 
Abazai, and took part in the operations 
against the village of Noadand in the Utroan 
Khel country, in the attack and destruction 
of Prangarh on 13 May, in the attack on thfr 
18th on the Swattisat Skakot in the Ranizai 
valley, and subsequently in the affair at 
Erozshah. For these services he was men- 
tioned in despatches and received the medal 
and clasp. 

After two years' furlough to Europe he 
returned to India, and was given the com- 
mand first of the Oude irregular force and 
later of the queen's own corps of guides,, 
consisting of three troops of cavalry and six 
companies of rifles. (Jn the outbreak of the 
mutiny he was ordered to Delhi, and accom- 
plished the march from Mardan in Usafzai 
(580 miles) in twenty-two days, an unparal- 
leled feat. Sir Henry Bernard, command- 
ing at Delhi, observed in a general order 
that the arrival of the corps in perfect order 
and ready for immediate service after such a 
march reflected the highest cVedit on Daly. 
The governor-general in council and the 
court of directors of the East India Company 
also favourably commented on the achieve- 
ment. Daly was twice wounded at the siege 
of Delhi and had a horse shot under him. 
He commanded a regiment of Hodson's horse 
at the final siege and capture of Lucknow in 
March 1858, and after Hodson's death on 

11 March 1858 commanded the brigade of 
three regiments of Hodson's horse through- 
out Sir Hope Grant's campaign in Oude in 
that and tne following year, including the 
actions of Nawabganj and the passage of ih» 
Gumti and of the Gogra. He went home 
on furlough in May lH59. 

On his return to India Daly was appointed 
on 31 Dec. 1861 to the command of the 
Central India horse and political astiatant at 
Angur for Western Malwa. On 27 Oct, 
1871 he was appointed agent to the governor- 
general for Central India at Indore, and 
opium agent in Malwa. He was promoted 
K.C.B.. military division, on 29 May 1875, 
and CLE. on 1 Jan. 1880. He retired from 
active service in 1882. He was given the 
grand cross of the Bath on 25 May 1889. 
He died at his residence, Rvde Houfe, Uvde, 
Isle of Wight, on 21 July 1895. He waa 



Dalyell 



no 



Danby 



twice married: first, in 1852. to Susan Ely 
Ellen, daujfhter of Edward Kirkpatrick ; and, 
secondly, in 1882, to Mrs. Sterling Dunlop, 
who survived him. 

[Indift Office Records ; Despatches ; History 
of the First Punjab Cavalry, Lahore, 1887 ; His- 
ton«»l ItecirJs of the Queen's Own Corps of 
. ; ; ios ; Tim«J. 23 July 1895 ; Kaye's History 
. t th# S«>poy War; Malleson's History of the 
lodUn Mutiny.l ^- H- ^' 

DALYELL, Sir ROBERT ANSTRU- 
THER (1831-1890), Indian civilian, bom 
on .'» Mkv 1831, was the elder son of John 
Dalyell (d. 7 Oct. 1843) of Lingo in Fife, 
provost of Cupar, by his wife Jane (d. 13 
March 1865), eldest daughter of Brigadier- 
general Robert Anstruther [q. v.] and great- 
granddaughter of James Douglas, fourth 
duke of Hamilton [q. v.] He entered 
Cheltenham college in Aug. 1842, and after- | 
wards studied at the East India Company's 
college at Ilaileybury. He then entered ! 
the Madras civil service, landing at Madras 
on 1 Jan. 1851. In 1861 he was nominated 
under-secretary to the board of revenue at 
Madras, and in 1867 became chief secretary. 
In 18<i6 he edited the standing orders of the 
Madras board of revenue, and as secretary 
of the central relief committee in the famine 
of l>i»).'>-6 he compiled the report which was 
!*'ibst'quently published as the official guide 
for all similar^operations in southern India. 
In 1868 he was promoted to the secretary- 
ship of the Madras government revenue 
department ; in 1873 he was made a member 
of the board of revenue and chief secretary 
to the Madras government. Having been 
appointed to conduct a special inquiry into 
excise, with the rank of additional member 
of the board of revenue, he published a re- 
port in 1874 which secured his career. His 
researches extended over Madras, Mysore, 
the Punjab, and the north-west provinces, 
and his report gained him the thanks of the 
•eeretary of state. It contained suggestions 
that were adopted as the basis of the excise 
mtem throuffhout a large part of southern 
India. In 1875-^ he was chief commissioner 
of Mysore, where he dealt successfully with 
the distress prevalent before the famine of 
1877, and he represented Madras in the 
legislative council of India from 1873 to 
1877. On 1 Nov. 1877 he was appointed a 
member of the council of the secretary of 
state for India, and in 1883-4 he was vice- 
] 'of the council. He retired in 
i 1 s79,andon 29 July was nominated 

i .. .i. ii" took an active part in organising 
the Health Exhibition in 1884, and was 
royal commissioner to the Colonial Exhibi- 



tion of 1886. In 1885 he received the 
honorary degree of LL.D. from St. Andrews 
University, and on 15 Feb. 1887 he was 
nominated K.C.I.E. on the enlargement of 
the order. He died unmarried at the New 
Club, Edinburgh, on 18 Jan. 1890, and was 
buried at St. Andrews on 23 Jan. in the 
cathedral burial-ground. He was captain 
of the Royal and Ancient Golf Club, and in 
1869 was elected a member of the Royal 
Statistical Society of London. 

[Times, 20 Jan. 1890 ; St. Andrews Citizen, 
25 Jan. 1890 ; Men of the Time, 1887 ; Burke's 
Landed Gentry of Great^titain ; Calcutta Eng- 
lishman, 21 Jan. 1890.] E. L C. 

DANBY, Sm ROBERT (d. 1471 ?), chief 
justice of the common pleas, was the fifth 
son of Thomas Danby of Danby, Yorkshire, 
by his wife Mary, daughter of Sir Robert 
Tanfield. He adopted the legal profession, 
and occurs in the year-books as early as 
1431 ; in 1441 he appeared in a case before 
the privy council, and in 1443 was made 
serjeant-at-law, being promoted king's Ser- 
jeant soon afterwards. He seems never to 
have sat in parliament, but on 28 June 1452 
he was raised to the bench of common pleas. 
Being apparently of Yorkist sympathies 
(Faston Letters, i. 34), he was on 11 May 
1461, immediately after the accession of 
Edward IV, appointed chief justice of com- 
mon pleas {^Cal. Pat. Holls,' 1461-7, p. 7); 
he was knighted soon afterwards. When 
Henry VI regained his throne Danby was, 
by patent dated 9 Oct. 1470, continued as 
chief justice (ib. 1467-77, p. 229), but when 
Edward IV returned in the following year 
Danby ceased to be chief justice. As he dis- 
appears from the list of judges three weeks 
before the others were removed, the circum- 
stance may be due to his death, and not to 
his disgrace ; possibly the story which Holin- 
shed erroneously relates of Sir William 
Hankford, of a chief justice who in this 
year deliberately got himself shot by his 
gamekeeper, refers to Danby (ib. p. 253; 
Foss; En(/lish Hist. Rev. Jan. 1901, p. 143). 

The frequency with which Danby's opinion 
was quoted suggests that he was a j udge of 
considerable weight. He married, first, in 
1444, Catherine, daughter of Ralph Fitz- 
randal, by whom he had no issue, and se- 
condly Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of 
William Aslaby ; by her he had a son, Sir 
James Danby, who succeeded to Thorp 
Perrow, Yorkshire, an estate his father had 
purchased, and died in 1496, and a daughter, 
Margaret, who married Christopher Barton. 
His great-grandson. Sir Christopher Danby, 
was, according to Paget, designed for a 



Dascnt 



Dasent 



j. '.rug.' !)>• Henrv VIII, but the intention | 
\vu8 never carriod out. 

[Cal. Pntont Kolla, 1461-77, pnsMtn ; Dui?- ^ 
d>vU''8 Chroni&i S«<rio8 and Origiiu-s Juridicirtles ; 
Vinit. of Yorkshire (Hurl. «oc.), pp. 14. 8S; 
(il..v(r*s Vijiit. YorkM, od. Fostor, pp. 26*2-3; 
'r..ij.rc'H Visit. Vorkn. (Surti-os iSoc), pp. 87-8; 
IMiirMptoM Corresp, (Cjiniden Soo.) ; Tlioresby's 
I'l Mtus Li'otliensis, pp. 201-2; WhiUker's 
KuMimondshiro, i. 2.58, ii. 98 ; Paston Letters, 
o.i. Grtirdner ; Kftinsay's Lancaster and York ; 
loss's Lives of the Judges.] A. F. P. 

DASENT, Sir GEOUOE WEBBE 
(hsI7 189()), Scnudinavian scholar, de- 
sci'udod from a family long prominent in 
the West Indies, and including a number of 
earlv settlers and administrators of St. 
Christopher's, Nevi.s, and Antigua, was the 
son of John Koche Dasent {d. 1832), attor- 
ney-general of St. Vincent, and was born in 
Stl Vincent on 22 May 1817. His mother 
was Charlotte Martha, younger daughter 
and coheiress of Captain Alexander Bur- , 
rowes Irwin of the 32nd foot, who settled - 
in the island and died there in 1806. j 

George Dasent was educated at West- 
minster school (1830-4) and at Oxford, 
matriculating in 1836 from Magdalen Hall 
(where he was intimate with John Delane, 
a pupil, like himself, of Dr. Jacobson), and 
graduated B.A. in 1840, M.A. in 1843, and 
D.C.L. in ia')2. In 1840 he proceeded to 
Stockholm as secretary to the British envoy, ' 
Sir Thomas Cartwright [q. v.l The encou- 
nigement of Jacob Grimm led him to inte- 
rest himself in Scandinavian literature and 
mythology, and from his four years' sojourn 
at Stockholm dated his devotion to the study 
of the sagas, by which his whole career was 
animated. In 1842 appeared the firstfruits 
of his labour in this Held, taking the form 
of a version of * The Prose or younger Edda,' 
which he inscribed to Thomas Carlyle; and 
in the f<>ll<i\viii<r v.-nr appeared his ' Gram- 
mar of th or Gld-Xorse Tongue,' 
from the > t' Erasmus liask. He 
returned to England in 1845, and joined 
Dt'lane a.«» assistant-editor of the * Times,' 
marrying his sister next year. His inti- , 
macy with Bunsen proved of great service to 
Delane in connection with the foreign policy 
of thf» paper. Together with his heavy 
■'■<- duties he worked assiduously at 
s from the Norse. The first of 
1p ('i.i> translated appean'd in 
M J ./ine' in Novemlx'r iHol, 
liMon in IHoO with an 
• -ay, which Dasent 
... .... In.-t, pi. 00 of work he ever 

lie derived an important stimulus to 
)»n.lcn! work of this kind at the Ster- 



lings' house In South Place, Kntghtsbridge, 
where he met John Stuart Mill, Julius Hare, 
and Thackeray. In Januarv 1H')2 he wm 
calhrd to the bar from the Middle Temple, 
becoming an advocate in Doctors' Comraons 
^2 Nov.) Next year he accepted, under 
kichard William Jelf [q. v.], the poet of 

1)rofe8Hor of English literature and modem 
listory at Kind's College, did some examin- 
ing for the civil service commissioners, and 
was elected a member of the Athennjum 
Club by the committee in 1854. Simul- 
taneously he was writing for the reviews, 
and some overtures were made to him in re- 
gard to the editorship of ' Eraser.* About 
1865 he was approached by the representa- 
tives of Richard Cleasby [q.v.], who had long 
been engaged in collecting materials for an 
Icelandic dictionary, previous to his death 
in October 1847. lie was unable him.self 
either to complete the etymological portion 
of the work or to undertake the laborious task 
of minute revision ; but he succeeded in per- 
suading Giidbrandr Vigfiisson [q.v.] to come 
to London and perfect the ' Dictionary ' (the 
expense of which was borne by the Claren- 
don Press, largely owing to the good offices 
of his friend Dean Liddell), while he per- 
sonally contributed to the work in 1)^73 an 
introductory memoir of Cleasby. As long 
ago as 1843 he had conceived a notion of 
giving an English dress to the Njals saga, 
which he completed and issued in 1861, with 
some valuable introductory matter contri- 
buted by G. Vigfiis.son. In that year and 
in 18(32 he visited Iceland in the company 
of John Campbell of Islay, being received 
with cordiality at Kevkjavik, where he wa« 
entertained at a public banouet. He rode 
across the Vatna JokuU and visited nearlv 
every place of interest in the island, the ad- 
ventures of the party being humorously de- 
scribed by Sir Charles Clirtbrd in his privately 
printed 'Travels, by Umbra.' h\ 1863 he 
visited the Ionian Islands as the guest of Sir 
Henrj- Storks fq. v.], the British high com- 
missioner. In 1866 was published ' Gisli the 
Outlaw,' the best of his Icelandic transla- 
tions, and a second series of popular stories 
called 'Tales from the Fjeld' followed in 
1874; the story of 'Burnt Njal ' having 
aroused an abiding 'interest in Icelandic 
literature. In 1H70 Gladstone, on the advice 
of Lowe, who was also interested in Icelandic 
studio's, ofl\red him a civil service commis- 
siontTship uiidrr Sir Edward Uran [q. v.], 
and thf acrt'i)tance of the j>ost led to liis re- 
sipiation of his work uj)ou the' Times.' He 
WHS now tVecjuently soen at the Athenieum 
and at the i'osmopolitan Club in Charles 
Street, Berkeley Square, and became a well- 



Dasent 



112 



Dashwood 



known figure in London society, number- 
ing Lord Granville, Matthew Arnold, Dean 
SUnley, Lord Houghton, and Baron Meyer 
de Rothschild amonff his friends. With the 
Baroness Rothschild he took a leading part 
in the movement for the oral instruction of 
the deaf and dumb. Ilis leisure between 
1870 and 1875 he devoted to the production 
of some semi-autobiographical novels. He 
was already a knight of the Danish jarder 
of the Dannebrog, and on 27 June 1876, on 
Disraeli's recommendation, he was knighted 
at Windsor Castle. He was also appointed 
one of the original commissioners of his- 
torical manuscripts in 1870. In 1890 he 
sustained a severe loss through the total de- 
struction by fire of his library and other 
collections at Tower Hill, Ascot. He was 
a connoisseur of antique silver and an early 
student of hall-marks, in connection with 
which subject he had a fine collection (a por- 
tion of which he had sold in June 1875). 
He retired from the public service in 1892, 
and from the house which he had rebuilt at 
Ascot he dated his last work, a masterly 
translation for the Rolls series of * The Ork- 
neyinger's Magnus and Hacon's Sagas,' exe- 
cuted in 1894 with the assistance of his elder 
son, Mr. John Roche Dasent, C.B. ; this 
translation occupies the third and fourth 
of the four volumes of * Icelandic Sagas re- 
lating to the British Isles ; ' the Norse text 
was edited by Vigfiisson in the first two 
volumes. Dasent's contemplated life of De- 
lane, whose vast correspondence passed into 
his hands, was sufficiently advanced for 

{mblication, but was left in the hands of his 
iterary executors. He died at Tower Hill, 
Ascot, on 11 June 1896, and was buried 
near John Delane in the churchyard of East- 
hampstead, Berkshire. He married, at St. 
James's, Piccadilly, on 4 April 1846, Fanny 
Lonisa, third daughter of William Frederick 
Augustas Delane of Old Bracknell, East- 
hampstead ; she survives him with two sons 
and one daughter. 

Dasent's chief works were : 1. 'The Prose 
or Younger Edda,' commonly ascribed to 
Snorri Sturluson, translated for the first 
time from the Old Norse collection pub- 
lished by Rask.in 1818, Stockholm, 8vo; 
dated Ulfsunda, 20 July 1842, and inscribed 
to Thomas Carlyle. 2. ' Popular Tales from 
the Norse . . . with an Introductory Essay 
on the Origin and Diffusion of Popular 
Tales,' Edinburgh, 1859, 8vo; the tales are 
derived from the collection of Norske 
Folkeeventyr made by Asbjomsen and Moe. 
a ♦The Story of Burnt Njal, or Life' in 
Iceland at the end of the Tenth Century ; 
from the Icelandic of the Njals Saga, with 



Introduction, Maps, and Plans,' Edinburgh, 
1861,2 vols. 8vo (the introduction includes 
short chapters on the religion, superstitions, 
and organisation of the Icelandic common- 
wealth) ; new edit. 1900. 4. < A Selection 
from the Norse Tales, for the use of Chil- 
dren,' Edinburgh, 1862, 8vo. 5. ' The Story 
of Gisli the Outlaw,' Edinburgh, 1866, 8vo, 
with illustrations and a beautiful map of 
Iceland. The story is based upon a fusion 
of two Icelandic texts, and is one of the 
finest of the lesser sagas. 6. 'Annals of an 
Eventful Life,' London, 1870, 3 vols. 8vo ; 
a somewhat rambling novel of autobiogra- 
phical tendency. 7. 'Jest and Earnest: a 
Collection of Essays and Reviews,' London, 
1873, 2 vols. 8vo ; the papers are mostly re- 
produced from the ' North British Review ; ' 
they include elaborate studies of England 
and Norway in the eleventh century, and of 
Harold Hardrada. 

[Tiroes, 13 .Tuly 1896; Athenaeum, 1896, i. 
811; Foster's Men at the Bar, 1885, p. 115; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886 ; Memoirs of 
Henry ReeA'e, ed. Laughton, 1898, i. 284, 338 ; 
Men of the Time, 14th edit.; En»l. Hist. Re- 
view, v. 127 ; Saturday Review, 27 April 1861 ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat. ; notes kindly furnished by 
Arthur Irwin Dasent, esq.] T. S. 

DASHWOOD, FRANCIS, Baeox le 
Despencer (1708-1781), chancellor of the- 
exchequer, born in December 1708, was only 
son of Sir Francis Dashwood, first baronet 
(d. 1724), and his second wife Mary, eldest 
daughter of Vere Fane, baron Le Despencer 
and fourth earl of Westmorland. His father, 
third son of Francis Dashwood, a Turkey 
merchant and alderman of London, and bro- 
ther of Sir Samuel Dashwood, lord mayor of 
London in 1702, was elected M.P. for Win- 
chilsea on 4 May 1708, and again on 9 Oct. 
1710 ; he was created a baronet on 28 June- 
1707, died on 19 Nov. 1724 (not on 4 Nov. 
as Burke says : see Hist. Reg. 1724, Chron. 
Diary, p. 49), and was buried at Wycombe. 
He was four times married, and by his third 
wife, Mary, daughter of Major King, wa& 
father of Sir John Dashwood-King (1716- 
1793), who succeeded his half-brother Lord 
Le Despencer as third baronet, an honour 
which his descendants, having dropped the 
name King, still hold. 

Dashwood appears to have been educated 
privatel;5r. On 19 Nov. 1724, when still 
under sixteen, he succeeded to his father's 
title and estates, and he spent his youth and 
early manhood in riotous living abroad, 
gaining ' a European reputation for his 
pranks and adventures. ... He roamed 
from court to court in search of notoriety. 
In Russia he masqueraded as Charles XII,. 



Dashwood 



"3 



Dashwood 



und in thnt unsuitnblo chnrnctor R«pirod to 
b« the lover of tho THiiriim Anno. In Itnly 
his outraffos on religion iinrl morality led to 
his expulsion from tho dominions of the 
Church' (IIoRACK W a polk, Memoirx of 
Ofort/e III, ed. Barker, i. 237 ; CusT, Dilet- 
tanti Soc. pp. i) 10). On his return to 
England he obtained a minor post in the 
household of Frederick Lt.'wis, prince of 
Wales, and this connection, coupled with 
the dismissal of his uncle tho earl of West- 
morland from his colonelcy of the first 
troop of horse guards, made 1 Mali wood a vio- 
lent opponent of Walpole's administration 
(IIoRACK Walpolb, Letters, ed. Cunning- 
ham, i. MM^). 

Meanwhile, ' if not the actual projector 
and founder of the [Dilettanti] Society, he 
was certainly its leading member in 173f>' 
fCcsT, p. 9). lie took a prominent part in 
its proceedings, and on 2 March 1745-6, 
when the earl of Sandwich was suspended 
from his otfice of archmaster for * his mis- 
btdiaviour to and contempt of the Society,' 
Dashwood was elected in his place, and he 
presented to the king various petitions from 
the society when it was seeking to acquire 
a permanent home (ib. pp. 30, 61 sqn.) In 
1740 Dashwood was at Florence with Horace 
AN'alpole, Gray, and others, and shortlv after- 
wards he got into trouble with Sir llorace 
Mann; there he also made the acquaintance 
of Lady Mary Wort ley-Montagu. In 1743 
Horace Walpole described the ♦ Dilettanti ' 
a-i * a club for which the nominal qualifica- 
tion is having been to Italy, and the real 
one, being drunk ; the two chiefs are Lord 
Middlesex and Sir Francis Dashwood, who 
were seldom sober the whole time they were 
in lU\y' (Letters, i. 240). In 1742 George 
Knapton [fj. v.] painted Dashwood's portrait 
for tne society. 

During the general election ofl741 Dash- 
wood fought vigorously against Walpole's 
©tipporters, and secured a seat for himself at 
Now Komney on o May. In parliament he 
followed Samuel Sandys, first baron Sandys 
fn. v.], and vehemently attacked Sir Robert 
\val pole, declaring that abroad he was looked 
upon with contempt. Walnole's fall made 
no difference to Dashwood s position, and 
as a courtier of Frederick Lewis he was in 
chronic opposition to all George II's govern- 
ments, lie was re-elected for New Komney 
on 26 June 1747, and in January 17ol made 
a rather ostentatious disavowal of jacobitism, 
of which Andrew Stone 'q. v.] and others of 
the prince of Wales's ((teorge Ill's) house- 
hold were suspt^cted. At Leicester House 
Dashwood abetted the influence of Geoi^ 
Bubb Dodington (lord Melcombe) [q. v.], and 

VOL. II.— SUP. 



WM 

>n 



opposed the rwgency bill of 15 3iUr 175^ 
(ct. DuBii DoDiNOTo.v, />iV/ry, ed. 1^, pp. 
6, 7, 59, 72). On 13 April 1740 h« wiU 
created D.C.L. of Oxford I'niv 
19 June 1746 he was elected F. I . 
SON, lloyal Sor. App. p. xliv). 

On 29 May 1744 Horace Walpole wrote: 
* Dashwood ( Lady Carteret's quondam lorer) 
has stolen a great fortune, a Miss Bateman' 
(Letters, i. 303) ; but this match was not 
effected, and on 19 Dec. 1745 Dashwood 
married at St. George's, Hanover Square, 
Sarah, daughter of George Gould of Iver, 
Buckinghamshire, and widow of Sir Richard 
Ellis, third baronet of Wyham, co. Lincoln, 
who died on 14 Jan. 1742 (/^<»i7. of Marr.^ 8t, 
Geonjcs, Hanover Sfjuaro, Harl, Soc. i. 36). 
Horace Walpole described her as *a poor 
forlorn Presbyterian prude ' {Letters, ii. 11). 
His marriage had no effect upon Dashwood's 
profligacy ; according to Wraxall he * far 
exceeded in licentiousness of conduct any 
model exhibited since Charles II' (Memoirs, 
ed. Wheatley, ii. 18-19). About 1755 he 
founded the famous 'Hell-fire Club,' or 
monks of Medmenham abbey. The abbey, 
formerly belonging to the Cistercian order, 
was beautifully situated on the banks of the 
Thames near Marlow. It was rented by 
Dashwood, his half-brother Sir John Dash- 
wood-King, his cousin Sir Thomas Staple- 
ton, Paul Whitehead, John Wilkes, and 
others to the numl)er of twelve, who fre- 
quently resorted thither during the summer 
( Almon, Mem. and Corr. of John U'iikes, 
iii. 60-3). Over the grand entrance was 
placed the famous inscription on liabelais* 
abbey of Theleme, ' Fay ce que voudras,' the 
'monks * were called Franciscans, from Dash- 
wood's christian name, and they amused 
themselves with obscene parodies of Fran- 
ciscan rites, and with orgies of drunkenness 
and debauchery which even Almon, himself 
no prude, shrank from describing. Dash- 
wood, the most profane of that blasphemous 
crew, acted as a sort of high priest, and used 
a communion cup to pour out libations to 
heathen deities. He had not even the 
excuse of comparative youth to palliate his 
conduct ; he was approaching fifty, and thus 
ten years older than Thomas Potter [q. v.], 
whom Almon describes as the worst ot the 
set and the corruptor of Wilkes; he was 
nearly twenty years older than Wilkes, and 
two years older than ' the aged Paul ' White- 
head [q. v.], who acted as secretary and 
steward of the order of ill-fame, and was 
branded by Churchill as ' a disgrace to man* 
hood' (see Charles Johxstox, Ckrysal^ 
1768, iii. 231-280, for a full account of the 
proceedings of the ' monks '). As a cont rast 

I 



Dashwood 



114 



Dashwood 



to Medmenham abbey, Dashwood erected a 
church on a neighbouring hill, which, as 
Churchill put it in * The Ghost,' might ' serve 
for show, if not for prayer,' and Wilkes was 
equally caustic in his references to Dash- 
wood's church ' built on the top of a hill for 
the convenience and devotion of the town 
at the bottom of it ' {Memoirs, ed. Almon, 
iii. 67-9). 

On 16 April 1764 Dashwood was re-elected 
to parliament for New Romney, and when 
the Buckinghamshire militia was raised on 
the outbreak of the seven years' war in 1757, 
Dashwood became its first colonel with 
Wilkes as his lieutenant-colonel. In the 
same year he made a praiseworthy efibrt to 
save the life of Admiral Byng (Walpole, 
Mem. of George II, ii. 318, 323 sqq., 336). 
On 28 March 1761 he found a new seat in 
Mrliament for Weymouth and Melcombe 
K^s ; he was re-elected on 9 June 1762 on 
his appointment as chancellor of the ex- 
chequer, which he owed to his dependence 
upon Bute. * Of financial knowledge he did 
not possess the rudiments, and his ignorance 
was all the more conspicuous from the great 
financial ability of his predecessor Legge. 
His budget speech was so confused and in- 
capable that it was received with shouts of 
laughter. An excise of four shillings in the 
hogshead, to be paid by the grower, which he 
imposed on cider and perry, raised a resis- 
tance through the cider counties hardly less 
furious than that which had been directed 
against the excise scheme of W^alpole' 
(Leckt, History, ed. 1892, iii. 224). Dash- 
wood accordingly retired with Bute from 
the ministry on 8 April 1763, receiving the 
sinecure keepership of the wardrobe. On 
the 19th he was summoned to parliament as 
fifteenth baron Le Despencer, the abeyance 
into which that barony had fallen on 
26 Aug. 1762, on the death of his uncle, 
John Fane, seventh earl of Westmorland 
and fourteenth baron Le Despencer, being 
thus terminated in Dashwood's favour. He 
was now premier baron of England, and in 
the same year he was made lord-lieutenant 
of Buckinghamshire, being succeeded in the 
colonelcy of the militia by John Wilkes. 

As Baron Le Deepencer he now sank into 
comparative respectability and insignificance. 
He took a disgraceful part with John Mont- 
agu, fourth earl of Sandwich [q. v.], in 
raking up charges against their common 
friend W'ilkes in connection with the ' Essay 
on Woman,' and during Lord North's long 
administration from 1770 to 1781 he was 
ioint postmaster-general. When, however 
Chatham fell down in a swoon during his 
last speech in the House of Lords, Despencer 



was almost the only peer who came to his 
assistance. He died at West Wycombe after 
a long illness on 11 Dec. 1781 {Gent. Mag. 
1781, p. o94), and was buried in the mauso- 
leum he had built there. His wife died on 
19 Jan. 1769, and was also buried at 
Wycombe. He left no legitimate issue, 
and the barony of Le Despencer again fell 
into abeyance ; his sister Rachel, widow of 
Sir Robert Austen, third baronet of Bexley, 
Kent, illegally assumed the title Baroness 
Le Despencer, but on her death the abeyance 
was once more terminated in favour of her 
cousin, Thomas Stapleton, sixteenth baron. 
His granddaughter, Mary Frances Elizabeth, 
succeeded in 1848 as seventeenth baroness, 
and her son, Evelyn Edward Thomas Bos- 
cawen, seventh viscount Falmouth, succeeded 
as eighteenth baron Le Despencer on 25 Nov. 
1891. Dashwood's baronetcy passed, on his 
death, to his half brothe: ~ " " ~ ' 
wood-King (1716-1793). 

Dashwood's portrait, painted by George 
Knapton, belongs to the Dilettanti Society ; 
he is represented as one of the monks of 
Medmenham, holding a goblet inscribed 
'Matri Sanctorum,' and in an attitude of 
devotion before a figure of the Venus de' 
Medici ; the motive of the picture is ' both 
indecorous and profane' (Oust, Dilettanti 
Soc. p. 217 ; Almon, Mem. of Wilkes, iii. 
59). Another portrait of Dashwood, painted 
by Hogarth, has been engraved, and a third, 
anonymous, and now belonging to Viscount 
Dillon at Ditchley, is reproduced in Barker's 
edition of Walpole's * Memoirs of George III ' 
(1894, i. 204). 

[A volume of Dashwood's correspondence ex- 
tending from 1747 to 1781 is in Egerton MS. 
2136, and letters from him to Wilkes are in 
Addit. MS. 30867. See also Journals of the 
Lords and Commons ; Official Return of Meni- 
bersofParl. ; Old Parliamentary History ; Lists 
of SheriiFs, P.R.O. ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 
1715-1886 ; Horace Walpole's Letters, ed. Cun- 
ningham, vols. i-v. and vii., Memoirs of 
George 11, ed. Lord Holland, and of George HI, 
ed. Barker; Wraxall's Hist, and Posthumous 
Mem., ed. Wheatley ; Almon's Mem. and Corresp. 
of John Wilkes, ed. 1805; Bubb Dodington's 
Diary, ed. 1809, passim; Lady Mary Wortley 
Montagu's Letters ; Chesterfield's Letters; Bos- 
well's Johnson, ed. Hill ; Charles Johnston's 
Chrysal, 1768 ; Churchill's Poems, The Ghost 
and the Candidate ; Bedford Correspondence ; 
Thomson's Hist, of the Royal Soc; Nichols's 
Lit. Anecdotes, viii. 236, ix. 454 (where he is 
confused with Thomas Stapleton, his successor 
in the barony) ; Mahon's Hist, of England ; 
Lecky's Hist, of England ; Lipscomb's Bucking- 
hamshire; Collinson's Somerset; Doran's ' Mann ' 
and Manners at the Court of Florence ; Cust's 



Davidson 



"5 



Davidson 



History of tho Dilottftnti Socioty, 1898, pawim; 
Court hope's, Burko's, ami U. H. C[okayne]'8 
Complete Poornges,] A. F. P. 

DAVIDSON, SAMUEL (1800-1899), 
theologian nnd bihlical scholftr, son of 
Abrahiim Davidson, was born in September 
1800 at K.'ilswater, near Ballymena, co. 
Antrim, Ireland. Both his parents were of 
Scottish descent and preshyterians in re- 
ligion. He was first sent for his education 
to the village school, where tho master, 
James Darrogh, was a man of unusual gifts 
and character, whoso influence was never 
forgotten by Davidson. He next attended a 
school at liallymena till 1824, when he be- 
came a student of the Royal Academical In- 
stitution, Belfast, with the view of entering 
the presbyterian ministry. Ilis college 
course was distinguished, but interrupted by 
scholastic work at Londonderry and Liver- 
pool. It was therefore not completed till ; 
1832, and it was not till November 1833 | 
that he was licensed to preach by the Bally- I 
mena presbytery. In 1835 thegeneral synod i 
of Ulster offered to Davidson the newly j 
created post of professor of biblical criticism ! 
to the presbvterian students at the Belfast { 
College, and'he held the post till 1841. His I 
remuneration, consisting mainly of students' 
fees, was at first very small. In 1838 he 
received from Aberdeen University the de- 
gree of LL.D. His first book, 'Lectures on 
Biblical Criticism' (Edinburgh), appeared in 
1S39, but he began to find himself out of 
sympathy with presbyterian views, and con- 
ceived that he * discovered in the New Tes- 
tament the outline of the independence of 
churches held by the congregational body 
in England.' He accordingly accepted an 
invitation made to him in 1842 to become 
a professor in the Lancashire Independent 
College then in process of establishment at 
Manchester. Before he left Ireland he had 
finished, after three years' work, * Sacred Her- 
meneutics Developed and Applied ' (Edin- 
burgh). The book appeared in 1843, just 
when Davidson began his work at Man- 
chester as professor of biblical literature and 
ecclesiastical history. In the summer of 
1844 he paid the first of a series of visits 
to Germany, and made the acquaintance 
of Neander, Hupfield, Tholuck, and others, 
beginning many friendships that lasted all 
his life. One result of this trip was the trans- 
lation of two volumes of Oieseler's * Com- 
pendium of Ecclesiastical History' (Edin- 
burgh, 1846-7). In 18t7 the congregational 
lecture in London was delivered by David- 
son and published in 1848 as the * I^cclesias- 
tical Polity of the New Testament.* It was 



reprinted in 1854, contrarv to the author's 
wish. His views had undergone coniider- 
able changes, but he was not allowed to re- 
write his essay. 

The change of views was no doubt con- 
nected with tho circumstanr *' * '-d to 
the resignation by Davidson ' wor- 

ship in 18o7. His leisure u, ..i.w..Ji» -t.r 
WHS given to the preparation of an 'Intro- 
duction to the New Testament.' Of this 
the first volume appeared in 1848, the second 
in 1849, and the last in 1851. After the 
publication of the first volume he received 
the degree of D.D. from the university of 
Halle. Ho also rewrote his first work and 
republished it in two volumes in 18o2 as 
* A Treatise on Biblical Criticism, exhibit- 
ing a Svstematic View of that Subject.' 
In 18oo he published in London 'The He- 
brew Text of the Old Testament, revised 
from critical sources, being an attempt to 
present a purer and more correct text than 
the received one of Van der Hooght.' The 
work was suggested by Hamilton's 'Co- 
dex Criticus.' Meanwhile Davidson had 
been consulted by Messrs. Longman, in 
1854, with reference to the reissue of Home's 
well-known ' Introduction to the Sacred 
Scriptures.' After some discussion he under- 
took to rewrite the introduction to the Old 
Testament, and suggested Samuel Prideaux 
Tregelles [q. v.] as a scholar competent to 
deal similarly with the New Testament. 
Davidson's share appeared in October 18o6 
as part of vol. ii. of the tenth edition of 
Home's 'Introduction.* It was entitled 
' The Text of the Old Testament Considered ; 
with a Treatise on Sacred Interpretafi n. 
and a brief Introduction to the Old T 
ment Books and the Apocrypha.' At the 
November meeting of the Lancashire Col- 
lege committee it was stated that alarm 
had been taken in many quarters at the 
views expressed by Professor Davidson in 
the new ' Introduction.' A sub-committee 
was therefore appointed to report on David- 
son's work. The report took some three 
months to prepare, as eleven hundred printed 
pages had to be read and considered. On 

learing the report, the committee, in Fe- 



bruary 1867, requested Davidson to prepare 
I 'such an explanation of parts of his book 
I which are deemed objectionable, as may 
! remove misunderstanding . .* . conciliate 
I opposition . . . make concession whore con- 

cet^sion may be justly due.' This explanation 

i Davids ' ^^out, and by May his - 

j phlet,' 1 ments, and Explanr 

1 was in i-i.... i ..e committ >.-i>.r...i 

1 explanations * far from s 

1 aftersome correspondence D.: „ — 

I 2 



Davidson 



ii6 



Davies 



his post. The surrender of the Mosaic author- 
ship of the Pentateuch was the chief heresy 
alleged, but in the controversy that fol- 
lowed he was accused of doctrinal un- 
soundness in several directions, and a charge 
of pUffiarism from German writers made 
•gftinst him. These charges are summed up 
in a pamphlet which appeared in October 
1867, entitled • Dr. Davidson : his Heresies, 
Contradictions, and Plagiarisms. By Two 
Graduates.' The authors were E. Mellor 
and J. G. Rogers. On the other side ap- 
peared ' Dr. Davidson's Removal from the 
Professorship of Biblical Literature in the 
Lancashire Independent College, Manchester, 
on account of alleged Error in Doctrine,' 
London, 1860, by Thomas Nicholas. At the 
end of this pamphlet Bishop Thirlwall, Dean 
Alford, and Canon Cureton are quoted in 
Davidson's favour. A * Detailed N arrative ' 
of the whole proceedings is given in David- 
son's 'Autobiography/ from the pen of 
J. Allanson Picton. As a statement of facts 
Mr. Picton's account was approved of by 
Davidson, but he preferred not to tell the 
story himself, perhaps because he never lost 
the feeling that he had been treated unjustly. 

After his resignation many friends gathered 
round him, and a large testimonial, which 
finally reached 3,000l, was presented to 
him. He retired to Hatherlow, in Cheshire, 
and engaged himself in the education of 
pupils. In 1862, being elected scripture 
examiner in London University, he removed 
to London, and his life becomes a record of 
literary work and visits to the continent. 
It was much saddened by domestic bereave- 
ments. He lost three sons before the death 
of his wife in 1872, only one son and a 
daughter being left to him. In 1862 he 
became an occasional contributor to the 
* Athenseum,' and for three years, from 1871 , 
he reviewed philosophical and theological 
books in the * Westminster Review.' He 
died on 1 April 1898 and was buried in 
Hampetead new cemetery. He married in 
1836 Anne Jane Kirkpatrick of Belfast. 

His works after his retirement from Man- 
chester were : 1. * An Introduction to the 
Old Testament, Critical, Historical, and 
Theological,' 1862-3, 3 vols. 2. ' Furst's 
Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon, translated 
from the German,' 1865; 4th edit. 1871. 
3. ' An Introduction to the New Testa- 
ment,' 1868, 2 vols.; 3rd edit. 1894. This 
was a version of No. 5 above. 4. * On a 
Fresh Revision of the English Old Testa- 
ment,' 1873. This essay was written for a 
nrojected second volume of * Essays and 
Reviews,' which never saw the light. 5. 
*The New Testament translated from the 



Critical Text of Von Tischendorf, with an 
Introduction on the Criticism, Translation, 
and Interpretation of the Book,' 1875; 2nd 
edit. 1876. 6. 'The Canon of the Bible,' 
1877 ; 3rd edit. 1880. This is an enlarge- 
ment of the article in the ' Encyclopaedia 
Britannica.' 7. ' The Doctrine of the Last 
Things contained in the New Testament, 
compared with the Notions of the Jews 
and the Statements of Church Creeds,' 1882. 
He also contributed articles to Kitto's 
'Cyclopaedia,' to Smith's 'Dictionary of 
Biography and Mythology,' and to the ninth 
edition of the ' Encyclopsedia Britannica.' 

[In 1899 the Autobiography and Diary of 
Samuel Davidson, with a selection of letters 
from English and G-erman Divines, and an ac- 
count of the Davidson Controversy of 1857, by 
J. Allanson Picton, M.A., was edited by his 
daughter, Anne Jane Davidson. It contains a 
lisr of his works. On the Davidson controversy 
Joseph Thompson's Jubilee Memorial History of 
the Lancashire College may be consulted. 
There are notices of Davidson in Men of the 
Time, 1891, and in earlier editions, and in the 
Supplement to Schaff and Herzog's Encyclopaedia 
of Keligious Knowledge, Edinburgh, 1887.] 

K. B. 

DAVIES, DAVID CHARLES (1826- 
1891), Welsh presbyterian divine, born at 
Aberystwyth on 11 May 1826, was the eldest 
son of Robert Davies, by a daughter of David 
Charles [q. v.] of Carmarthenshire. His 
father was one of the leading laymen among 
the Calvinistic methodists of Wales during 
the first half of the nineteenth century, and 
it was at his house in Great Dark Gate 
Street, Aberystwyth, that their articles of 
faith ('Cyftes Ffydd ') were drawn up in 
March 1823. 

David was educated first at Aberystwyth 
under a noted mathematician named John 
Evans, who had also taught Dr. Lewis 
Edwards [q. v.], and afterwards at Bala, 
whither he was sent on the opening of the 
connexional school there by Dr. Edwards in 
1837. After spending some time in the 
interval with a private tutor at Hanley, 
where his occasional addresses to the Welsh 
colony prepared the way for the Welsh 
churches subsequently established in the 
potteries, he proceeded in November 1844 
to University College, London, where he 
had among his fellow-students Bagehot, 
Todhunter, R. H. Hutton, and Sir W^illiam 
Roberts. He graduated B.A. in 1847 and 
M.A. in 1849, being placed second on the 
list. Ill-health compelled him to abandon 
a theological course which he commenced at 
Edinburgh in November 1847. 

His parents, who were in affluent cir- 



Davies 



117 



Davies 



CJunstanccs, had originally intended him for 
the bar ; but his own deep religious imprea- 
BJons led him to ch(H)8o a ministerial career. 
Ilavinff commenced to preacli in Aiiprust 
1848, he settled in 18.V2 us pastor of a bilin- 
gual church at Jiuilth, and was fully or- 
dained at the Llanelly Association on 
4 Aujf. l8o2. After two years and a half 
(November 185,'J to March 1850) spent in 
Livenwol, as pastor of the Kn^lish church 
in A\ indsor Street, he resumed his old 
charge at liuilth till May 1858, when he re- 
moved for a year to Newtown H 858-9), and 
thence to the Welsh churcli at .tewin 
Crescent, London (1859-76). In 1876 he 
removed to Bangor to take charge of the 
Knglish church at Menai Bridge. Itepeated 
efforts had been made to induce him to 
undertake educational work at one of the 
connexional colleges, notably in 1861, when 
he was offered a tutorship at Trevecca, and 
in 1873 when invited to succeed Dr. John 
Parry at Bala. Eventually, in 1888, he 
accepted the principalship of Trevecca, but 
his tenure of the post lasted only three 
years, for he died on 26 Sept. 1891, at his 
house at Bangor, and was buried on the 30th 
at the cemetery, xVberystwyth. lie married, 
in May 1857, Jane, third daughter of Ebe- 
nezer (Cooper of Llangollen, who survived 
him, but he left no issue. 

For many years Davies occupied a some- j 
"what unique position, not only in his own 
denomination, but among Welsh noncon- 
formists generally, owing to his rare analy- 
tical powers and a faculty for abstract 
reasoning unrivalled among his contempo- 
raries, to which he also added an intimate 
acquaintance with modern speculation and 
crit icism in philosophy and theology. Though 
not an elociuent speaker, his style was terse 
and lucid, his arguments always logical, and 
his exposition, though sometimes inclined to 
exce,s8ive minuteness, was so simple and 
methodical that he rarely failed either to 
carry conviction or to render intelligible 
the abstrusest doctrines. Powerful though 
his influence was, especially in the direction 
of reconciling the teachings of science and 
philosophy with Christian principles, it 
would have b«'en far greater but for his shy- 
ness of disposition, for throughout his life 
he was more of a student than a man of 
affairs. This perhaps accounts for the fact 
that some of his best work was pn'pared for 
the press not by himself but by friends or 
old pupils, in some cases from shorthand 
notes taken at his lectures. 

Tlio following were his chief contributions 
to Welsh theological literature: I. ' Yr 
Eglwys'CThe Church'), Wrexham, 1862. 



2. ' Darlithiau Athrofaol,'or Lecturet on the 
Inspiration of the Bible delivered at BaU in 
1871, Holywell, 1872; 2nd edit. 1878. 
3. A series of lectures (in Welsh) on * Chrit- 
tianitv in its various Aspects and Associa- 
tions,'^ deli vf red before the Young Men's 
Societv, Jowin Street, ]x)ndon, 1879-83, and 
publislied in 'Y Traethodydd' for 1881-8, 
i'rom the notes of Mr. Vincent Evans, who 
edited them. 4. ' Nodiadau Eglurhaol ac 
Ymarferol ar yr Epistol at vr Ephesiaid,' 
or a Commentary on the Epistle to the 
Ephesians, published serially in * Y Llod- 
merydd,' Dolgelly, between 1886 and 1896. 
5. ' Nodiadau ar Epistol Cyntaf loan,* or 
Notes on the First Epistle of St. John, 
reprinted from * Y Llusem,' Carnarvon, 
1889. The following were published pos- 
thumously : 6. * Llyfr y Psalmau,' a collec- 
tion of sermons and exegetical notes on 
the Psalms, edited by E. AVynne Parry, 
Wrexham, 1897. 7. *Iawn ac Eiriolaeth 
Crist* ('Christ's Atonement and Intorofs- 
sion'), reprinted from * Yr Arweinyd!,' 
1862-4, under the editorship of the liev. 

D. E. Jenkins, Portmadoc, 1899. A Welsh 
biography of Davies, written by E. Wynne 
Parry, together with a selection of his 
unpublished sermons, was issued in 1890 
(Wrexham, 8vo). 

Davies is to be distinguished from a name- 
sake, David Christopher Davies (1827- 
18*^5), a native of Oswestry, who, though 
humbly bom and self-educated, attained 
some distinction as a miniiig engineer and 
geologist, and was the author of the follow- 
ing among other works: 1. 'Christ for all 
Ages, and other Lay Sermons,' preached 
on the North Wales Border, London, 1871. 
2. ' A Treatise on Slate Quarrying : Scien- 
tific, Practical, and Commercial,' London, 
1878 ; 2nd edit. 1880. 3. « Metalliferous 
Mines and Mining,' London, 1879; 4th 
edit. 1888. 4. ' Earthy and other Minerals 
and Mining,' London, 1884; 2nd edit. 1888. 
At the time of his death at sea in Sep- 
tember 1885 he was engaged on what he 
intended to be his chief work — 'The Geology 
of North Wales.* Among his more important 
professional engagements had been the open- 
ing up of quarries in the south of France, in 
Germany, and Nonvay iHye- Gones, vii. 292 ; 
Allibone, Diet. Suppl. p. 455). 

[The chief authorities for the life of D. 
Charles Davies are hin Memoir (ut rapra), bj 

E. Wynne Parry; Y Drysorfa for lb»l, pp. 
441-7; YTraetbwlydd for 1893, pp. 181,878 
(being articles on his work «8 principal at Tre- 
vecca); Ceninen Gwyl Dowi. 1892; BTe-Oon«*, 
2nd ser. ii. 180; E\>an8, Hiat. of Welsh Theo- 
logy.] D. Ll. T. 



Davies 



ii8 



Davis 



DAVDBS, THOMAS (1837-1891), mine- 
ralogist, the only son of William Davies 
fq. v.], was bom in the parish of St. Pancras 
on 29 Dec 1837. At the age of fourteen 
he went to sea, and for the next four years 
was in ships sailing to the East Indies, 
China, and South America. Then he began 
to study science, and in 1858 was appointed 
an aanstant to the mineral department of 
the British Museum, working under Pro- 
fessor Storj- Maskelyne. Thus he became an 
excellent mineralogist, acquiring a remark- 
able knowledge of characters distinctive of 
localities, as well as doing admirable work 
in the microscopic investigation of rocks. 
He resided during the later part of his life 
at Kast Acton. Here he died after some 
months of failing health on 21 Dec. 1891 ; 
hia wife, Jane Mary Sabey of St. Pancras, 
whom he married in 1859, four sons, and 
five daughters surviving him. 

He was editor of the * Mineralogical 
Magazine,' but, though an indefatigable 
wowier, his published papers were not nu- 
merous. Three were printed in the ' Quar- 
terly Journal' of the Geological Society, 
others in the * Geological ' and the * Mine- 
ralogical Magazine.' He was elected F.G.S. 
in 1870, and was awarded the Wollaston 
fond in 1880. 

[Obituary notices in Geological Magazine, 
1893, p. 96 ; Quart. Journ. of Geol. See. vol. 
xlix., Free. p. 54 ; private information.] 

T. G. B. 

DAVIES, WILLIAM (1814-1891), 
palaeontologist, bom at Holywell, Flintshire, 
on 13 July 1814, was the son of Thomas 
Davies by his wife Elizabeth Turner. After 
going to school in his native town, he studied 
botany, and on 19 Dec. 1843 obtained a post 
in the British Museum, working at first on 
mineralogy, but afterwards devoting himself 
to vertebrate palaeontology. In this he not 
only acquired great technical knowledge as 
to the best methods of developing and pre- 
ser^ing delicate specimens, but also was 
pronounced to be * one of its most accom- 
plished students.' He took an active part 
in the rearrangement of the national collec- 
tion in 1880 when it was transferred from 
Bloomsbury to the new buildings in Crom- 
well Iload, and gave most valuable assis- 
tance to Sir Antonio Brady [q. v.] in col- 
lecting and describing the mammalian re- 
mains found near Ilford. In 1887 he retired 
on a pension from the museum, and died at 
his residence, Colliers End, Hertford, on 
13 Feb. 1891. He was twice married, the 
maiden name of the first wife being Brad- 
ford, by whom he had one son, Thomas 
Davies [q. y. Suppl.], and one daughter. 



William Davies received the Murchison 
medal from the Geological Society in 18J^3 
(first award), and became a fellow in 1877. 
He disliked literary composition, so that his 
scientific papers are not numerous, about 
fifteen in all, mostly contributed to the 
' Geological Magazine/ and he published a 
' Catalogue of the Pleistocene Vertebrata in 
the Collection of Sir Antonio Brady ; ' but 
his extensive knowledge was ever at the ser- 
vice of others, for he was one of those men 
who cared more for the advancement of 
science than of himself. 

[Obituary notices, Geological Magazine, 1891, 
pp. 144, 190 (with list of papers written by 
A. S[mith] WLoodward]), and Quart. Journ. of 
Geol. Soc. vol. xlvii., Proc. p. 56 ; private infor- 
mation.] T. G. B. 

DAVIS, Sir JOHN FRANCIS (1795- 
1890), first baronet, diplomatist in the far 
East, born 16 July 1795, was eldest son 
of Samuel Davis, F.R.S., an officer of the 
East India Company, who earned distinction 
by his services with the mission sent by 
Warren Hastings into Tibet in 1783, and by 
his gallantry in 1799, at the defence of 
Benares, where he was judge and magistrate, 
against the attack of the troops of Vizier 
Ali. The father was director of the East 
India Company from 1810 until his death in 
July 1819. He married in 1794 Henrietta, 
daughter of Solomon Boileau of Dublin. 

In recognition of his father's services his 
son John was appointed writer in the fac- 
tory at Canton in 1813 at the age of eighteen. 
He early showed marked linguistic and 
diplomatic abilities, and in consequence was 
chosen to accompany Lord Amherst on his 
unfortunate embassy to Pekin in 1816. On 
the return of the mission Davis again took 
up his duties at Canton, and in 1832 was 
promoted to be president of the East India 
Company's factory at that port. Two years 
later he was appointed joint commissioner 
in China with Lord Napier. After many 
years of trying service he returned to Eng- 
land on furlough, his leave happening to 
synchronise with the war, and in 1844 he 
was gazetted British plenipotentiary and 
chief superintendent of British trade in 
China, as well as governor and commander- 
in-chief of the colony of Hong Kong. On 
18 July 1845 he was created a baronet. 
At this time difficulties were constantly 
arising in our relations with the Chinese at 
Canton, and a brutal assault on a party of 
Englishmen when on a visit to the neigh- 
bouring town of Fatshan brought matters 
to a climax. Davis, considering that a de- 
termined protest against such conduct should 



Dawkins 



119 



Dawkins 



be made, placed raiitters in tho hands of the 
M'lmir.Ml nw\ ifiu'ral coinmiindinjjr. Aft«>r 
t I f!. t!i r. > 110 forts thi'se comniandrrs 
till' ircii- 1 th' city of Canton, and at onco 
hroiiLrht tho mandarins to n-ason. In con- 
formity witli Davis's demonds the Chinoso 
n^rci'd that the city shouhl bo opened to 
lor«'i;,M»«'rs in two years' time from that date 
(ti April lv'^47); that Englishmen should be 
at liberty to roam at pleasiire in the neigh- 
bourhood, that a church should be erected, 
and that a site should be fjranted for build- 
ing premises. Hut, though this action was 
crowned with success, the British govern- 
ment disapproved of the measures taken, 
and so keenly did Davis feel the censure 
that in 1848 he resigned his appointments. 
On his return to England he took up his 
residence at Hollywood Tower, near Bristol. 
lie was created K.C.H. on 12 June 1854 and 
D.C.L. of Oxford University on 21 June 
1870. During these years of leisure he kept 
up his interest in all matters relating to 
China, and founded a Chinese scholarship at 
Oxford. His portrait was painted and litho- 
graphed by AV. Drummond in his series of 
Athena3um Portraits, 183(5. 

Davis died at Hollywood on 13 Nov. 1890, 
at the age of ninety-six. He was twice mar- 
ried: first, in 1822, to Emily, daughter of 
Lieutenant-colonel Ilumfrays, who died in 
1806, and, secondly, in 18(57, to Lucy Ellen, 
daughter of the Kev. T. J. Kocke, who sur- 
vives him. By his first wife he had a son, 
Sulivan Francis (1827-18(52), and by his 
second wife a son, Francis Boileau, who suc- 
ceeded to the baronetcy. He was the author 
of several works on China, of which the 
most important are: * Chinese Novels trans- 
lated from the Originals,' 1822 ; ' The Fortu- 
nate Union,' translated from the Chinese, 
1829 ; * The Chinese : a General Description 
of China and its Inhabitants,' London, 1836, 
2 vols. : ♦ Sketches of China,' 1841, 2 vols. ; 
* The Massacre of Benares,' 1844 ; * Chinese 
Miscellanies,' l8t5o. 

[Vizior AH Khan on the Massacre of Benares, 
1844, by Sir J. V. Davis ; Boulger's History of 
China, 1881: Fostirs Alumni Oxon. 1715- 
1886; Burke's Peerage, 1895; personal know- 
Mi?..! K. K. D. 

DAWKINS, JAMES (1722-1757), ar- 
ch.Tologist and Jacobite, born in Jamaica in 
1722, was the eldest of four sons of Henry 
Dawkins of Jamaica, by Elizabeth, third 
daughter of Edward !*ennant of Clarendon 
in Jamaica, chief justice of the island. He 
matriculated at St. John's Collep, Oxford, 
on 7 Dec. 1730, at the age of sixteen, and 
was made D.C.L. on 14 April 1749. After 
loaWng the university he seems to have re- 



I sided ot Standlynch in Wiltshire. Enjoying 
I great wealth, he H|Mnit his lime chiefly in 
travrlling in Italy and other places on the 
continent, and in 1748 was in I'lri-. uh#.re 
he made acuuaintancos among : >s. 

Subsequently he lived fi»r a sli • _ ; in 

Uome, and was one of those wjjo assiflted 
James Stuart (17L'J-1788) fj.v, nwl Ni- 
I cholas Itevett [q,v.]intheir : ng 

practical measurements of ; , . .-k 

architecture at Athens, in 1700 Dawkin« 
arranged with John Bouverie to make a 
journey to the most remarkable places of 
antiquity on the coast of the Mediterranean, 
and Robert Wood [q. v.], who had already 
been to most of the places they intended to 
visit, was invited to join the party. Borra, 
an Italian artist, accompanied them as archi- 
tect and draughtsman. Starting from Naples 
in the spring of 17ol, they visited ' most of 
the islands of the Archipelago, part of Greece 
in Europe, the Asiatic and European coasts 
of the Hellespont, Propontis,and Bosphorus, 
as far as the Black Sea, most of the inland 
parts of Asia Minor, Syria, Pha-nicia, Pales- 
tine, and K^'pt\Iiidns 0/ Palmy ra),copyiDg 
such inscriptions as they came upon, ana 
carrying otl" marbles whenever it was pos- 
sible. Bouverie died at Magnesia. The rest 
of the party left the ship at Be} : -"d 

Mount Lebanon to Damascus, ] to 

Hassia, set out thence on 1 1 Marcn 1 751 
with an escort of Arab horsemen, and, ad- 
vancing by way of Carietin, reached Palmyra 
on 14 March, The hiring of this escort was 
mentioned by Dr. Johnson as ' the onlv great 
instance of the enjoyment of wealth^ (Boa- 
well, Life of Johnson, ed. Birkbeck Hill, iv. 
126). Leaving Palmyra on 27 March, they 
passed through Sudud and Cara, and arrived 
at Balbec on 1 April. The party returned 
to Athens about the beginning of May 1751. 
After an expedition to Thermopylae with 
Wood and Stuart, Dawkins came back to 
England at the end of May. In 1752 Daw- 
kins and Wood printed in London part of 
the * Proposals,' first issued by Stuart and 
Kevett in Rome in 1748, for publishing the 
* Antiquities of Athens.' This work appeared 
in 17(52, and Dawkins's assistance was ac- 
knowledged in most gen*-- '- '■■'•rns by 
Stuart in his preface. In 1 1 pub- 

lished his account of the ' U... . . - .drayra,' 
and the* Ruins of Balbec' followed in L57; 
in the preparation of each of these works 
Dawkins gave valuable help. 

In the meantime Dawkins had maintained 
his early interest in iacobite affairs. Ap)^- 
rently lie rendered the cause pecuniary aid. 
Prince Charles, in a letter from Paris about 
1751, mentions his want of money,and sends 



Dawson 



120 



Dawson 



complimenU to * Jemmy Dawkins,' and in 
1763 Dawkins is stated to have provided 
the prince with upwards of 4,000/. (Lang, 
Pickle the Spy, pp. 192, 194). At the be- 
ginning of 1763 Dawkins was again in Pans 
concerning himself actively with a Jacobite 
plot, in association with Dr. King of Oxford 
and the Earl of Westmorland. Frederick 
the Great, whose relations with England 
were at this time sufficiently strained to 
render a rupture far from improbable, urged 
George Keith, tenth earl marischal [q. v.], 
who "was then in Paris, to encourage the 
Jacobite disaffection towards George II. On 
7 May the earl sent Dawkins as envoy to 
Frederick at Berlin. Frederick saw him, 
but took no steps to further the plot beyond 
giying vague hopes of assistance. Meanwhile 
the Earl of Albemarle, the English am- 
bassador at Paris, had got wind of Dawkins's 
Tisit to Berlin, and in July 1753 a warrant 
•was out against him. The warrant, appa- 
rently, was never executed, and in August 
Dawkins appears to have regarded the Ja- 
cobite cause as hopeless, owing to the irre- 
gular and debauched life of the prince. He 
accordingly returned to England soon after- 
wards, ana took up his residence at Laver- 
atock (or Laverstoke) in Hampshire. It 
seems that the English government, which 
had been fully notified of Dawkins's recent 
movements, either judged his intrigues to 
be unimportant or were satisfied of the sin- 
cerity of his motives in deserting the young 
pretender's party, for, on 15 April 1754, he 
was returned M.P. for Hindon Borough in 
Wiltshire, and held the seat till his death, 
more than three years later. In 1755 
Stuart, who had returned to England early 
in the year, proposed Dawkins as a member of 
the Society of Dilettanti, and on 5 April he 
was duly elected. He died in December 

1767. He left the society a legacy of 500/. 
In 1763 the society commissioned Stuart, 
their painter, who had already executed a 
mezzotint portrait of Dawkins, to paint a 
copy of his portrait for the society. The 
commission was not carried out. 

[Stuart and Revett's Antiquities of Athens, 
i.andiv. 1762-1814 ; Wood's Ruins of Palmvra, 

1768, and Ruins of Balbec, 1757 ; Andrew 
Lang's Pickle the Spy; Burke's Landed Gentry; 
Coft and Colvin's Hist, of the Soc. of Dilettanti, 
1898 (this erroneously gives 1759 as the date of 
Dawkins's death) ; Historical Notices of the Soc. 
ofDiletUnti; Pf)cocke'fl Travels through Eng- 
land; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1716-1886.] 

C E H 
DAWSON, Sir JOHN WILLIAM 
(1820- 18W)), geologist, bom at Pictou, 
Nova Scotia, on 13 Oct. 1820, was the son 



of James Dawson, a leading bookseller of 
that town, but a native of Aberdeenshire ^ 
his mother, whose maiden name was Mary 
Rankine, came from Stirlingshire. He 
received his earlier education at the high, 
school in Pictou, and studied at the uni- 
versity of Edinburgh in the winters of 1841- 
1842 and 1846-7. From boyhood he had 
been a collector of fossils, and on settling 
down to educational work in Nova Scotia 
undertook to make a geological survey of 
the country, paying especial attention to the 
coal measures. This led to his accompany- 
ing Sir Charles Lyell [q. v.] during his visit 
to the South Joggins district in 1842, wdtli 
whom also he returned ten years later. The 
immediate outcome of these labours was the. 
volume entitled ' Acadian Geology,' pub- 
lished in 1855 (4th ed. 1891). In 1850 he 
was appointed superintendent of education 
for the common schools in Nova Scotia. 
The power displayed in this task and hi& 
eminence as a geologist obtained for him in 
1855 the professorship of geology and office 
of principal at the McGill College and Uni- 
versity, Montreal. The organisation was in- 
choate, and the buildings were incomplete, so 
that to his unflagging energy McGill Univer- 
sity is most of all indebted for the high posi- 
tion which it now holds. He was elected 
F.G.S. in 1854, receiving the Lyell medal of 
thatsocietyin 1881, F.Pt.S. in 1862, waspresi- 
dent (the first) of the Royal Society of Canada,, 
of the American Association in 1884, of the 
British Association in 1886 at the Birming- 
ham meeting, and of the American Geological 
Society in 1893, besides being an honorary 
member of various scientific societies at 
home and in other countries. He received 
the honorary degree of LL.D. from McGill 
University in 1857, and from Edinburgh in 
1884, and of D.C.L. from Bishop's College, 
Quebec, in 1881, was made a C.M.G. in 
1882, and was knighted in 1884 during the 
visit of the British Association to Montreal. 
In 1893 long years of labour began to tell 
upon even his vigorous constitution, and he 
resigned his posts at McGill University on 
31 July, but was at once nominated as. 
Emeritus principal, professor, and honorary 
curator of the Redpath Museum. He con- 
tinued to reside in Montreal, spending the 
summers, as he had previously done, in hia 
country house at Little Metis on the south 
side of the estuary of the St. Lawrence; 
For three or four years he was able to go on 
with scientific work, then his strength gra- 
dually failed, and death closed an illness of 
some duration on 19 Nov. 1899. He mar- 
ried in March 1847 Margaret A. V. Mercer, 
daughter of T. Mercer, esq., of Edinburgh, 



Dawson 



I2X 



Dawson 



who survived him, together with three sons 
(the eldfst being Dr. (Jeorgo Mercer Daw- 
son, C.M.O., now director of the (Jcologicnl 
Survey of Canada) and two daughters, both 
married. 

Dawson wns one of the most industrious 
of men, and in his lifetime got through an 
immense amount of work. His constitution 
wns good, his frame strong, his temperament 
and nervous system calm, Iiia memory reten- 
tive. Great as his services have been to 
geology, those to education were nerhaps 
even greater, for he not only took the lead 
in developing McGill College from an almost 
infant institution to a flourishing society and 
university, but also threw himself heartily 
into all educational and many philanthropic 
movements in Montreal. Clear-headed, far- 
sighted, strong in will and tenacious in pur- 
pose, a lucid and persuasive speaker, he won 
rather than forced his way by his courtesy 
and tact. He took a leading part in the 
movement for the improvement of women's 
education, which, beginning in 1871, ulti- 
mately resulted in the establishment of the 
Royal Victoria College, and as chairman of 
the normal school committee he brought the 
whole school system of the province to a 
higher level of efficiency. 

1 et, notwithstanding all these labours and 
his duties as a teacher of geology, most con- 
scientiously fulfilled, Dawson found time for 
independent work at his favourite science 
and for many contributions to its literature. 
His separate papers exceed loO, and he was 
the author of several books, a list of which 
is given below. Some among them deal 
with biblical questions and the relations of 
geology and theology, in regard to which 
his position was distinctly conservative. 
Most of his writings, however, are strictly 
scientific. The geology of the carboniferous 
system and the study of fossil plants inte- 
rested him more than any other special 
department, and to these many of his papers 
are devoted; but his range was wide, for he 
paid great attention to everything connected 
with the glacial epoch and with prehistoric 
times, and yet took an active part in the 
discu.«sion as to the true nature of Kozoon 
Canadense. Tliis curious structure, the dis- 
covery of which was announced by Sir Wil- 
liam fcdmond Logan[q. v.] in 1859, was then 
studied by Sterry Hunt from the chemical 
side, by \\'illiam Jl«'njamin Carpenter [n. v.] 
from the zoological, and by Dawson, ooth 
in the field and under the microscope. All 
these regarded it os representing a fossil 
or|^nism of I^urentian oge, probably a fora- 
mmifer. This view was opposed by King 
and Kowney in Great Britain, by Moebius in 



Germany, and others, but for a considerable 
time the weight of the argtimenta adyanced 
by 1 )awson and (^arpenter, expressed in papers 

Sublished by the Geological Society oi I>on- 
on in vols, xxi-xxiii. xxvi. xxxii. xxxv., 
caused it to be generally adoptf^d. Now, 
however, this singular stnicture is more 
generally believed to l)e of mineral origin. 

While geology formed Dawson's special 
study, he was a naturalist in the old sense 
of the word, besides being well acquainted 
with general literature. The following is a 
list of his books : I . * Handbook of the Geo- 
graphy and Natural History of Nova Scotia,' 
1848; 3rd ed. 1852. 2. * Scientific Agriculture 
in Nova Scotia,' Halifax, 1852 ; enlarged ed. 
1867. 3. ' Acodian Geology : the Geological 
Structure, Organic Remains, Mineral lie- 
sources of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and 
Trince Edward Island,' 1855; 4th ed. 1891. 
4.*Archaia ; or, Studies of the Cosmogony and 
Natural History of the Hebrew Holy Scrip- 
tures,' 18()0. 5. 'Agriculture for Schools,' 
1864. 0. * Handbook of Zoology, with Ex- 
amples from Canadian Species, recent and 
fossil. Pt. 1, Invertebrata,* 1870; 3rd ed. 
revised and enlarged, 1886. 7. * The Story 
of the Earth and Man,' 1873; llthed. 1894. 
8. 'Nature and the Bible: Lectures de- 
livered in New York,' 1875. 9. 'The Dawn 
of Life; being the History of the oldest 
known Fossil IJemains and their Relations 
to Geological Time and to the Development 
of the Animal Kingdom,' 1875. 10. * The 
Origin of the World according to Revelation 
and Science,' 1877; 0th ed. 1893. 11, 'The 
Chain of Life in Geological Time,' 3rd and 
revised ed. 1881. 12. 'Lecture Notes on 
Geology and Outline of the Geology of 
Canada,' 1880. 13. ' Fossil Men and their 
Modern Representatives: an attempt to 
illustrate the Characters and Condition of 
Pre-historic Men in Europe by those of tho 
American Races,' 1880; 3'rd ed. 1888. 
14. 'Facts and Fancies in Modem Science,' 
1882. 15. ' EgA'pt and Syria, their Physical 
Features in relation to Bible History,* 
1885; a 2nd ed. enlarged and revised. 
16. ' Modern Science in Bible Lands.' 1888; 
3rd ed. 1895. 17. 'Handbook of Geology 
for the use of Students,' 1889. 18. ' Modern 
Ideas of Evolution as related to Revelation 
and Science,' 6th ed. 1890. 19. ' The Geo- 
logical Historv of Plants' (Tntematinnnl 
Scientific Series), 1892. 20. 'The Canadian 
Ice Age,' 1893. 21. 'Some Salient Points 
in the Science of the F^rth,' 1 898. 22. • The 
Meeting-place of Geology and Historv,* 
1894. 23. • Eden Lost and Won: Studies 
of the Early History and Final Destiny of 
Man as taught in Katore and Revelation/ 



Dawson 



122 



Day 



1895 ; 2nd ed. 1896. 24. * Relics of Pri- 
mwval Life,' 1897. 

A full-length portrait in oils is in tlie 
Peter Redpath Museum. 

[Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. Ivi., Proe. p. 
liv; Geological Mjigazme, 1899, p. 675; infor- 
niAtion from Dr. G. M. Dawson, C.M.G. (son), 
and personal knowledge.] T. G. B. 

DAWSON, MATTHEW (1820-1898), 
trainer of racehorses, second son of George 
Dawson, who trained for Lord Montgomery 
at Bogside, and for the Earl of Eglinton and 
other lowland owners, was born at GuUane 
in Haddingtonshire on 20 Jan. 1820. After 
a severe apprenticesliip under his father 
he soon attained to positions of trust 
under racing owners, and in 1859 it was 
largely owing to his persuasion that the 
wealthy ironmaster, James Merry, known as 
*the Glasgie body,' purchased Lord John 
Scott's stud for six thousand guineas. As a 
consequence of this Merry decided to have 
his horses privately trained at Russley, and 
over the stable there 'Mat' Dawson presided 
from 1860 to 1866. In the former year he 
gained a great success for his master with 
Thormanbv, who won the Derby and cleared 
40,000/. in bets, besides the stakes (6,20Q/.) 
In 1866 he left Russley and started as a pub- 
lic trainer at Newmarket, where he took 
Heath House, originally built for his brother, 
Joseph Dawson, by Lord Stamford. There 
he trained, for the Duke of Newcastle, Julius, 
theCesarewitch winner of 1867 ; while, among 
others, the Dukes of Portland and St. Albans, 
the Marquis of Hastings, and Lord Lascelles 
entrusted their horses to him. In 1869 he 
undertook the charge of Lord Falmouth's 
stud, and after a few years of comparative 
failure became identified with that noble- 
man's triumphal career upon the turf. When 
Lord Falmouth left the turf in January 1884 
Dawson joined with 'Fred' Archer [q. v. 
Suppl.], who had been an apprentice in his 
stable and eventually married his niece, in 
presenting his patron with a silver shield 
inscribed with the winners of two Derbies, 
three Oaks, three St. Legers, three One Thou- 
sand, and three Two Thousand Guineas — all 
trained and ridden by the donors. Thence- 
forth he attached himself less exclusively to 
one owner. But he was always ready to 
exert himself with special zeal on behalf of 
Lord Rosebery Cwho had nearly won the 
Derby with a colt out of Dawson's stable in 
1873), and in 1894 he had the satisfaction of 
training a Derby winner, Ladas, for his ap- 
preciative patron. In the following year he 
retired finally to Exning (he had previously 
made over the Heath House stable to his 



nephew, George H. Dawson), but returned 
after two years to live at Newmarket, where 
he died on 18 Aug. 1898, leaving an un- 
blemished reputation behind him. By his 
wife, who died in 1895, he left no issue. 
His three brothers, Thomas {d. 1880), Joseph 
{d. 1880), 'the finest stableman that ever 
entered a loose box,' and John, were all, like 
himself, trainers. Dawson was a fairly edu- 
cated and well-read man, and is said to have 
been not infrequently discovered by his em- 
ployers deeply immersed in the ' Quarterly 
Review.' Altogether he ' won ' six Derbies, 
seven St. Legers, and four Gold Cups at 
Ascot. 

[Times, 19 Aug. 1898; Daily Telegraph, 
19 Aug. 1898; Field, 20 Aug. 1898; Thor- 
manby's Kings of the Turf, 1898, pp. 323-4 
(with portrait) ; Porter's Kingsclere, 1896, 
chap. xiii. ; Scott and Sebright, by The Druid, 
p. 2.31 ; Black's Jockey Club.] T. S. 

DAY, FRANCIS (1829-1889), ichthyo- 
logist, third son of William Day of Hadlow 
House, Maresfield, Sussex, by his wife Ann 
Le Blanc, was born there on 2 March 1829. 
He was educated under Dr. Kennedy at 
Shrewsbury school, and studied medicine at 
St. George's Hospital, London, taking his 
M.R.C.S. in 1851. He entered the Madras 
medical service in 1852, and served through 
the second Burmese war. 

An enthusiastic naturalist, and especially 
devoted to ichthyology, Day seized every 
opportunity for extending his knowledge of 
the fish-fauna of the countries he passed 
through, and was ultimately appointed in- 
spector-general of fisheries in India. In that 
capacity he was author of many valuable 
reports published between 1865 and 1877. 

He was promoted surgeon-major on 26 Feb. 
1872, and retired with the rank of deputy 
surgeon-general on 1 Nov. 1876. Returning 
to England he settled at Cheltenham, where 
he continued his ichthyological studies. He 
took part in various exhibitions, and his ex- 
hibits received a silver medal at Paris in 
1875, a bronze medal at Berlin in 1880, a 
silver medal at Norwich in 1881, a gold and 
a silver medal at Edinburgh in 1882, and 
three gold medals at London in 1883. Of 
this last exhibition he was appointed com- 
missioner for the Indian department, and 
besides the medals received a 100/. prize for 
a treatise on ' The Commercial Sea Fishes 
of Great Britain.' He was also awarded a 
silver medal by the ' Soci6t6 d'Acchmata- 
tion ' of Paris in 1872. 

He was made CLE. on 6 June 1885, 
and also received the cross of the crown of 
Italy. He was created an honorary LL.D. 



Deane 



123 



Deane 



of lOdinburffh on 18 April 1889, had been 
rlectod a fellow of the Zoological Society in 
IH(U, and tho Linnean Society in 1857. 
He dii'd at Clioltenham on 10 July 1889. 

Day marriod twice : first, on 3 Nov. 1857, 
Minnm {d. 18()9), daughter of Dr. Charles 
t'ovey of Basingstoke; and, secondly, on 
l;J April 1872, Emily (d. 1873), youngest 
•laughter of the llev! Thomas Sheepshanks, 
vicar of St. John's, Coventry. 

Collections formed by Day are preserved 
in the Ikitish Museum (Natural History), 
and at Cambridge, Calcutta, Leyden, Berlin, 
Florence, and Sydney. 

In addition to more than seventy papers 
contributed to various scientific journals 
from 1861 onwards, Day was the author of: 

I. 'The Land of the Permauls,' Madras, 1863, 
8vo. 2. * Tropical Fevers, Non-Malarial 
Division' [Madras? 1863, 8vo]. 3. 'The 
Fishes of Malabar,' London, 1805, 4to. 
4. * Report on the Freshwater Fish and 
Fisheries of India and Birma,' Calcutta, 1873, 
8vo. 5. * The Fishes of India,' Loudon, 1875- 
188^, 2 vols. 4to. 6. ' The Fishes of Great 
Dritain and Ireland,' London and Edinburgh, 
1880-84, 2 vols. 8vo. 7. 'Notes on the 
Line and Herring Fisheries of the North- 
East of Scotland ' [anon.] [London, 1882], 
12mo. 8. * Catalogue of the Exhibits in the 
Indian Section Great International Fisheries 
Exhibition,' London, 1883, 8vo. 9. 'Indian 
Fish and Fishing,' London, 1883, 8vo. 
10. 'Fish Culture,' London, 1883, 8vo. 

II. 'On the Food of Fishes,' London, 1883, 
8vo. 12. 'The Commercial Sea Fishes of 
GreatBritain,'London,1883,8vo. 13.'British 
and Irish Salmonidae,' London and Edin- 
burgh, 1887, 8vo. 

lie also contributed sections to other 
works as follows: 1. 'The Sea Fishes of 
India and Burma' to a ' Report on Sea Fish 
and Fisheries,' 1873. 2. 'Ichthyology' to 
the 'Scientific Results of the Second Yarkand 
Mission,' 1878. 3. 'Fishes' to 'The Fauna 
of British India,' 1889. 4. ' Cyclopium 
Cvclopum ' to Whymper's ' Great Andes,' 
1891. 

[ Proc. Cotteswold Nat. Field Club, x. 2 ; 
Proo. Linn. See. 1888-90, pp. 75, 96 ; private 
information ; Natural Hist. Mus. Cat. ; Royal 
Society's Cat.] B. B. W. 

DEANE, Sir THOMAS NEWENHAM 

(1828-1899), architect, was born at Dun- 
danion, near Cork, on 15 June 1828. He 
was the son of Sir Thomas Deane (1792- 
1871) [q. v.] by his second wife, Eliza, 
daughter of RobeVt O'Callaghan Newenham, 
and granddaughter of Sir Edward Newen- 
ham [q. v.] Deane was educated at Rugby 



and at Trinity College, Dublin, graduating 
B.A. in 1849. Ho received his early pro- 
fessional training from his father, whoAe 
firm of Deane & Woodward he joined in 
1850, and was thus concerned in the im- 
portant buildings carried out at Oxford and 
elsewhere between 1850 and 1860 [see 
Deane, Sir Thomas, the elder]. On the 
death of his father in 1871 Deane, who thus 
became the sole member of the firm, worthily 
sustained its traditions, and thenceforward 
occupied the first place in his profession in 
Ireland. His work at this period included 
a number of important additions to Dublin 
architecture, of which St. Ann's church in 
Dawson Street, 1867, and the Munster bank 
in Dame Street are perhaps the chief. He 
also designed the Clarendon laboratory and 
examination schools at Oxford. In 1876 he 
was joined in his work by his eldest son, 
Thomas Manly Deane, with whom he re- 
mained in partnership till his death, and 
continued to be actively employed in various 
works of importance in Ireland. 

Unquestionably the work for which Deane 
will be longest remembered is the Science 
and Art Museum and National Library of 
Ireland in Dublin, a work carried out at a 
cost of upwards of 110,000/., and which 
ranks as the most remarkable achievement 
of the nineteenth century in Ireland in 
original architecture. The work, which 
was entrusted to the firm as the result of a 
public competition, was begun in 1885, the 
foundation stone being laid by the Prince of 
Wales (afterwards Edward VII), and it was 
completed in 1890. At the public cere- 
mony, at which the building was declared 
open, Deane was knighted by the lord-lieu- 
tenant of Ireland, the Earl of Zetland. 
This work was followed by important addi- 
tions to the Natural History Museum and 
the National Gallery, and by the building 
of the Royal Dublin Society's Lecture 
Theatre, all of these forming part of the 
noble group of buildings of which Leinster 
House is the centre. 

Deane was keenly interested in the move- 
ment for the preservation of the national 
monuments and ancient monuments of Ire- 
land, which led to the passing, mainly 
through the instrumentality of Sir John 
Lubbock, of the Ancient Monuments Pro- 
tection Acts of 1882 and 1892. He was 
appointed to the post of inspector of national 
and ancient monuments in connection with 
these acts, a congenial olhce, which occupied 
much of his time and attention in later 
years. 

He continued tho active pursuit of his 
profession till his death, and was constantly 



Deane 



124 



Debbieg 



emploTed in his later years on various works , 
of importance in and out of Ireland, notably 
the University Physiological Laboratory 
and Anthropological Museum at Oxford, | 
the McArthur Hall, Belfast, and the Church 
of Ireland Training College, Dublin. The \ 
sustained repute of the firm was shown ^ 
by its being among the five selected com- , 
petitors for the Imperial Institute at South 
Kensington, and by the submission of its 
name by the Royal Institute of British 
Architects to the commissioners of works for 
selection for the new government buildings 
in Whitehall and Parliament Street. 

Deane died suddenly in Dublin on 8 Nov. 
1899. He married on 29 Jan. 1850 Hen- 
rietta, daughter of Joseph H. Manly of 
Ferney, co. Cork, by whom he had several 
children. 

He was a man of a light and elastic 
temperament and social disposition, and 
enjoyed a wide popularity in Dublin. He j 
was a member of^ the Royal Hibernian | 
Academy and the Royal Institute of Archi- 1 
tects of Ireland. 

[The Builder, 18 Nor. 1899; the Architect 
and Contract Reporter, 17 and 24 Nov. (with 
portrait) 1899 ; Journal of the Royal Institute 
of British Architects, 25 Nov. 1899 ; the British 
Architect, 17 Nov. 1899 ; Sir William Gregory's 
Autobiography ; private information ; personal 
knowledge.] C. L. F. 

DEANE, WILLIAM JOHN (1823- 
1895), theological writer, born on 6 Oct. 
1823, was the third son of John Deane of 
Lymington in Hampshire. He matriculated 
from Oriel College, Oxford, on 26 Oct. 1823, 
flrraduating B.A. in 1847 and M.A. in 1872. 
He was ordained deacon in 1847 and priest 
in 1849. He was successively curate of 
Rugby (1847-9), curate of Wick Rissington 
in Gloucestershire (1849-62), and rector of 
South Thoresby in Lincolnshire (1852-3). 
In 1853 he was presented by the chancellor 
of the duchy of Lancaster to the rectory of 
Ashen in Essex, which he retained until his 
death. 

Deane was the author of a number of exe- 
getical works, written in a clear and inte- 
resting manner. In 1881 he edited the 
Greek, Latin, and English texts of the 

* Book of Wisdom ' for the Clarendon Press, 
with critical notes, and in 1891 he published 

* Pseudepigraphia,* a well-written descrip- 
tion and estimate of the apocryphal books. 
He died at Ashen on 30 May 1895, leaving 
a widow, three sons, and three daughters. 
He was buried on 4 June in Ashen church- 
yard, under the east window of the chancel. 

Besides the works already mentioned he 
published: 1. 'A Catechism of the Holy- 



days as observed by the Church of England/ 
London, 1850, 18mo ; 3rd edit. 1886, 8vo. 
2. ' The Proper Lessons from the Old Testa- 
ment for Sundays and other Holydays with 
a Plain Commentary,' London, 1864, 12mo. 
He also furnished biographies of Abraham, 
Joshua, Samuel, Saul, and David for Rout- 
ledge's series of 'Men of the Bible,' and 
contributed introductions to Proverbs, Eccle- 
siastes, Hosea, Joel, Amos, and Micah in 
the * Pulpit Commentary.' In 1850 he edited 
a volume of 'Lyra Sanctorum' (London, 
8vo), and he was a frequent contributor to 
the ' Thinker.' 

[Suffolk and Essex Free Press, 6 June 1895 ; 
Crockford's Clerical Directory ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. I7I0-I886.J E. LC. 

DEBBIEG, HUGH (1731-1810), gene- 
ral, royal engineers, was born in 1731. He 
entered the royal artillery as matross on 
1 April 1742, obtained a cadetship in May 
1744, and in April 1745 became cadet- 
gunner. On 7 May 1746 he was attached 
as an engineer to the expedition under Lieu- 
tenant-general Sinclair against L'Orient. 
He took part in the siege of that place in 
September, and in the subsequent descent 
on Quiberon. He then resumed his studies 
at the Royal Military Academy at Wool- 
wich. On 30 Jan. 1747 he was appointed 
engineer extraordinary in Flanders. Deb- 
bieg attracted the attention of the Duke of 
Cumberland and Marshal Bathiani by his 
boldness and intelligence, and was made an 
extra aide-de-camp to the duke. He was 
present at the battle of Val on 2 July, when 
he displayed conspicuous valour, winning 
the praise of the commander-in-chief. He 
served at Bergen-op-Zoom during the siege 
by the French from 14 July to 17 Sept. 
(6.S.), when it was taken by assault. 
I On the suspension of hostilities Debbieg 
was one of the engineers selected to make a 
survey of the seat of war in Brabant, and 
was placed on the establishment as prac- 
titioner engineer on 2 April 1748. After the 
conclusion of the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, 
on 7 Oct. 1748, he returned home and was 
employed on survey operations in Scotland 
and the north of England, assisting Colonel 
Dugald Campbell in the construction of the 
military road from Newcastle-on-Tyne to 
Carlisle, which, with its fourteen bridges, 
was completed in 1752, and was commended 
as one of the straightest and best laid-out 
roads in the kingdom. 

On 2 Aug, 1751 Debbieg was promoted to 
be sub-engineer on the establishment, and 
was sent to Chatham, where he was employed 
on the defences. His plan of Chatham 



Dcbbicg 



125 



Debbieg 



lines, dated 1765, is in the British Museum, the town, harbour, and vicinity of St. John*!. 
On 1 Sept. 1756 he received a commission ' He repaired the defences and deaitrned new 
as lieutenant in the .•J7th foot, then serving works to replace some which had become 
in Germany, and in the folio winff year re- obsolete. In 1703 he extended his survejf 
turned to survey work in Scotland. On to Grace and Carboniere harbour in Concep- 
14 May 1757 he became a lieutenant of royal ^ tion Bay. In the following year he returned 
engineers. ^ ^ | to England. 

Debbieg was promoted to be captain-lieu- | In 17()5 he was appointed chief engineer 
tenant on 4 Jan. 1758, and shortly after pro- in Newfoundland, but did not proceed thither 
ceeded on active service to North America, j until June 1760. In 1707 he was sent on 
He arrived at Halifax, Nova Scotia, on a secret mission to France and Spain. He 
May, and joined the expedition under made plans of Barcelona, Carthwfena, Cadiz, 
Major-general Jeffrey (afterwards Lord) Am- and Coruna, which are in the British Mu- 
herst [q. v.] against Louisbourg. He took | seum, together with a manuscript entitled 
part in the action on landing at Cape Breton ! * Remarks and Observations on several Sea- 
on 8 June, and was assistant c[uartermaster- , ports in Spain and France during a Journey 
general under Wolfe at the siege of Louis- in those Countries in 1707-1768.' During 
bourg from 11 June until its capitulation on these travels he was subjected to suspicion, 
26 July. The siege was a difficult one, and ill-treatment, and confinement, for he was 
Debbieg, who was a man after Wolfe's own [ not at liberty to divulge his profession or 
heart, resolute and daring, giving little heed the purpose of his travels. His mission was, 
to rule or system where they interfered with , however, successfully accomplished, and for 



his views of the best mode of attack, had 
many opportunities of displaying his valu- 
able qualities. He was promoted to be cap- 
tain on 17 March 1759. 

He served under Wolfe as assistant 
quartermaster-general throughout the cam- 
paign of 1759 in Canada, was present at the 
siege of Quebec frum 10 July to 18 Sept., at 
the repulse of Montmorency on 31 July, at 
the battle on the plains of Abraham on 
13 Sept., and in the operations which termi- 
nated with the capitulation of the garrison at 
Quebec on 18 Sept. During the actual siege 
he temporarily gave up his appointment on 
AVolfe's staff to take his share of the engineer 
duties. He was with Wolfe when he fell. 



and figures in West's celebrated painting of , of the government. 



his efficiency, ardour, and tact George III 
granted him a pension for life of 1/. per diem 
on 10 March 1709. 

In this year he served on the committee 
of engineers at Westminster to report on the 
works necessary to complete the defences of 
Gibraltar. In the meantime his proposals 
' for the defence of Newfoundland had been 
in abeyance on account of the cost, and at 
the end of 1770, having, much against his 
will, submitted an inferior but less costly 
scheme of defence, it was ordered to be car- 
ried out. On 23 July 1772 he was promoted 
to be brevet major, and during the next three 
years was employed in various secret mis- 
sions, which he carried out to the satisfaction 



the incident. 

Debbieg was at the battle of Sillery on 
28 April 1760, and served in the stubborn 
defence of Quebec against the French until 
the siege was raised on 17 May. Subse- 
quently he took part in the operations to 
complete the subjugation of Canada, ending 
with the capitulation of Montreal on 8 Sept. 
He accompanied the army to Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, where he acted for a time as chief 
engineer during the absence of Colonel 
Bastide. 

In 1762, the French having seized New- 
foundland, Debbieg accompanied the expe- 
dition sent to recapture it, landing with the 
troops at Torbay, nine miles from St. John's, 
under a heavy fire on 12 Sept. On the same 
day he took part in the action of Quiddy- 
Viddy and the attack on St. John's, which 
surrendered on the 1 8th, and with it the whole 
of Newfoundland. Debbieg sent home a 
plan of the operations of the troops, showing 



In December 1775 he was appointed chief 
engineer in America on the application of 
Sir Guy Carleton (afterwards first baron 
Dorchester) [q. v.] for his services for the 
defence of Quebec, but for reasons not now 
traceable he resigned the appointment. On 
29 Aug. 1777 he was promoted to be breret 
lieutenant-colonel, and in the autumn was 
selected as chief engineer on the staff of 
Jeffrey, Lord Amherst, commander-in-chief. 
On 17 March 1778, in addition to his staff 
duties, he was appointed chief engineer at 
Chatham. He carried out the approved de- 
signs by Desmaretz and Skinner for the de- 
fence of Chatham, but criticised them un- 
favourably. He constructed a milit«ry 
bridge across the Thames between Tilboiy 
and Gravesend, formed of barges so arranged 
that a cut could be easily made for naviga- 
tion. This bridge was maintained until the 
invasion scare had passed away. In 1779 
his proposed additions to the defences of 



Debbieg 



126 



Debbieg 



Chatham and Sheerness were ordered to be 
carried out. He invented a movable chevaux 
de /rise and a machine on wheels for de- 
fending a breach, an engraving of which is 
given in Grose's * Military Antiquities.' 

Debbieg proposed to raise a corps of mili- 
tarv artincers at home on the model of the 
companies at Gibraltar, and developed the 
project in a letter to Lord Amherst dated 
30 July 1779, but the proposal was not 
favourably received at the time, although 
eight years later it was adopted. 

When Lord George Gordon decided, at the 
meeting of 29 May 1780, to march on 2 June 
with a * no popery ' mob to the House of 
Commons, Lord Amherst committed to Deb- 
bieg the task of placing the public buildings 
in London in a state of defence. Little 
time was available ; but whe;i, five days later, 
the riots commenced he had been able to 
take effectual measures for the protection of 
the Bank of England, the British Museum, 
and other public buildings and offices, as 
well as the New River head. On the 3rd, 
and again on 7 June, he assisted Colonel 
Twistleton in defending the Bank of Eng- 
land against the mob, who, finding the prin- 
cipal public buildings prepared for defence, 
wreaked their vengeance on Roman catholic 
chapels and the houses of public men who 
had supported the relief of Roman catholics. 
The riots ceased on 7 June as soon as the 
king ordered active military measures, but 
Debbieg continued to exercise his metro- 
politan responsibility until early in July, 
when trade and tranquillity were completely 
re-established. In the meantime he fur- 
nished the Bank of England with plans and 
estimates for making the buildings perma- 
nently secure. 

At the manoeuvres of 1780 the king com- 

Elimented Debbieg on the rapidity with which j 
e threw three bridges across the Thames ! 
below Gravesend, by which the whole army ! 
was quickly transferred from Essex to Kent. 
In October Debbieg submitted to Lord 
Sandwich a proposal to close Gillingham 
Creek, and to improve the navigation of the 
Medway at Chatham. The idea was in ad- 
vance of the time, but was carried out eighty 
years later. He also proposed, in January 
1781, a new pontoon equipment, which was 
adopted by the board of ordnance and con- 
tinued in use for many years. 

On 24 Jan. 1781 Debbie^ was promoted 
to be sub-director and ma]or in the royal 
engineers, and on 20 Nov. 1782 to be colonel. 
It was about this time that he selected for 
his clerk William Cobbett [q.v.], then a 
recniit in one of the depot battalions at 
Chatham. 



On the third duke of Richmond becoming v/ 
master-general of the ordnance in March 
1782, Debbieg, who had had some passages 
of arms with him on the subject of defence, 
and had been attacked by him in the House 
of Lords in the previous November, found, 
or fancied he found, his position slighted 
and his official representations ignored ; and 
when the duke obtained a royal warrant for 
the reduction and reorganisation of the royal 
engineers in 1784, by which the emoluments 
of the colonels were very largely reduced, 
Debbieg's hot temper and outspokenness got 
the better of his judgment, and he wrote a 
private letter to the duke, couched in such 
strong terms that he was tried by a general 
court-martial, and sentenced to be repri- 
manded. In the following year the House 
of Commons nominated Debbieg to be a 
member of the board of land and sea officers 
to report on the defences of the kingdom, 
but the duke refused to allow him to serve, 
and for some years he was unemployed. 
Having worked out and submitted a scheme 
of considerable merit and breadth of view 
for the defence of the kingdom, of which 
no notice whatever was taken, he wrote 
another intemperate letter to the duke, 
dated 16 March 1789, and published it in 
the ' Gazetteer.' He was again tried by a 
general court-martial, and sentenced to be 
deprived of rank and pay for six months. 
This incident is referred to in the ' RoUiad ' 
in the lines beo:innina- 

Learn, thoughtless Debbieg, now no more a 

youth, 
The woes unnumbered that encompass truth. 

His conduct does not seem to have been 
considered very serious, for he was received 
at court before his six months' suspension 
had expired, and was promoted to be major- 
general on 12 Oct. 1793, and lieutenant- 
general on 1 Jan. 1798. Much to his indig- 
nation he was posted to the invalid engineers 
on 31 Aug. 1799. On 15 March 1800 the 
king granted him a special additional pen- 
sion in consideration of his services, and he 
was promoted to be general on 25 Sept. 
1803. 

Debbieg died at his residence in Margaret 
Street, Cavendish Square, London, on 27 May 
1810, leaving two sons in the army— Cle- 
ment {d. 18 April 1819), in the 67th foot, 
and Henry, in the 44th foot, who became a 
lieutenant-colonel and fort major of Dart- 
mouth castle. His wife died in March 1801. 

[Royal Engineers' Records ; Royal Engineers 
Journal, 1887; Gent. Mag. 1789, 1801, 1810, 
1819; P:uropean Ma?. 1789, 1790, 1810; Ann. 
Biog. 1836 ; Grose's Military Antiquities, vol. ii.; 



Demaus 



127 



Denison 



Cornwallis Corro»p. vol. iii. ; Notes and Queries, 
iHt nor. vol. v.; Proceedinizs General Courts- 
Marliiil, 1784 unci 1780; KinKS MSS. Brit. 
Mii8. ; IJoanl of Ordminco Papers.] R. II. V. 

DEMAUS, KOIiKIlT (1829.^-1874), 
biojfrapluT of Latimer and Tyndale, born 
alK)ut 18l*9, was educated at Edinburj^h 
I'niversity, where ho was sipnet medallist 
and prraJuiited M.A. on 13 Feb. I80O. He 
became master of the lireadalbane school at 
Ah.rfeldy in I'erthshire, and in 1850 ad- 
dn ssed a * Letter to the Kipfht lion. Pkrl 
(tranville, Lord President of the Council ' 
(Edinburj2:h, 8vo), criticising the recent re- 
gulations enacted by the committee of coun- 
cil on education for improving the efficiency 
of the government school teachers. In the 
same year he was appointed principal of the 
grammar school at Alnwick; in 1857 he be- 
came a follow of the PMucational Institute of 
Scotland, and in I808 he was nominated 
master at the AVest End Academy, Aber- 
deen. In 1860 he was ordained deacon by 
the Bishop of Down and Connor, and in 1862 
priest by the same prelate. From 1860 to 
1865 he was chaj^lain to Thomas George 
Suther, bishop of Aberdeen, and in I860 he 
became senior curate of St. Luke's, Chelsea, 
where he remained until his death. In 1869 
he was also appointed principal of White- 
lands Training College, an institution founded 
by the National Society for training school- 
mistresses for the church schools. 

Demaus is best remembered for his bio- 
graphies of Latimer and Tyndale. His 
' Hugh Latimer' (London, 8vo) appeared in 
lf^09, a new and revised edition being pub- 
lished in 1881. In 1871 he issued ' William 
Tyndale : a Contribution to the early History 
of the English Bible,' a work of great bio- 
graphical and bibliographical excellence. A 
new edition, slightly revised by Mr. Richard 
Lovett, appeared in 1886. In compiling 
these two works Demaus showed great 
thoroughness of research as well as critical 
ability and power of narrative. In the case 
of Tyndale his investigations were so com- 
plete that the subsequent publication of the 
* Letters and Papers of Henry VIII ' has 
added nothing of importanqe in regard to 
the history of the reformer. Demaus died 
of apoplexy at 11 St. Leonard's Terrace, 
Chelsea, on 15 March 1874. 

Besides the works already mentioned 
1)..,,,-,,.^ xv,,s the author of: 1. 'The Analy- 
s ices ; with applications to parsing, 

p n, and composition,' Edinburgh, 

!.•-.>, l2mo; 4th edit. 1871, 8vo. 2. 'A 
Class-book of English Prose,' Edinburgh, 
1869, 8vo. 3. ' Introduction to the History 
of English Literature,' Edinburgh, 1860, 



8vo. 4. 'The Young Scholar's Guide/ 
Edinburgh, 1860, 16rao. 5. ' A Class-book 

of Scripture History,' Edinburgh, 1803, 8vo. 
0. ' English Literature and Comi)08ition/ 
London, 1866, 8vo. 7. 'The Jesuits. A 
Historical Sketch,' London, 1873, 8vo. He 
also edited * Selections from " Paradise Lost"* 
(Edinburgh, 1857, 8vo; 2nd edit. 1869, 
12mo), and contributed several biographieg 
to * British Heroes and Worthies,' London, 
1871, 4to. 

[Demuus's Works ; Crockford's Clerical Direc- 
tory; Boase's Modern English Biography.] 

FTP 

DENISON, GEORGE ANTHONY 
(1805-1896), archdeacon of Taunton, bom at 
Ossington, Nottinghamshire, on 11 Dec. 
1805, was fourth son of John Denison, mer- 
chant, of Leeds, M.P. for Colchester, 1802-6, 
and for Minehead, 1807-12, by his second 
wife, Charlotte Estwicke [of. Denison, Ed- 
AVARD, the elder, 1801-1854; Denison, John 
Evelyn, Viscount Ossington, 1800-1873; 
and Denison, Sir William Thomas, 1804- 
1871]. 

He was educated at private schools, at 
Eton, and at Oxford, for which he was pre- 
pared by a private tutor, Charles Drury, whose 
severe discipline he was accustomed to de- 
scribe as the most salutary experience of his 
life. He matriculated from Christ Church 
on 14 Nov. 1823, graduated B.A. (first class 
in literce hwnaniores) in 1827, and proceeded 
M.A. in 1830. He twice gained the chan- 
cellor's prize — by his Latin essay in 1828, in 
which year he was elected fellow of Oriel 
College, and by his English essay in 1829. 
In 1832 he took holy orders and the Cud- 
desdon cure of souls. A college tutorship, 
to which he was elected in 1830, he retained 
until 1836, when he exchanged it for the 
office of treasurer. Oriel society he found 
extremely uncongenial, and in 1838 accepted 
from his brother the vicarage of Broadwin- 
sor, Dorset. He was collated on 10 Aug. 
1841 to the ninth prebend of Wilsford and 
Woodford in the church of Sarum, and on 
28 April 1849 to the ninth prebend of Combe 
in the church of Wells, which he exchanged 
for the two prebends of Milverton in the 
same church, on his appointment, 30 Sept. 
1851, to the archdeaconry of Taunton. At 
the same time he exchanged the vicarage of 
Broad winsor for that of East Brent, Somer- 
set. 

From the first a strong high churchman, 
Denison united with Manning in organising 
resistance to the regulation of parochial 
schools bv the state [see Manning, Hbkbt 
EdwardI. He also joined in the protests 
against itampden's preferment to the see of 



Denison 



128 



Denison 



Hereford, and the final judgment in the 
Gorham case [see Hampden, Renn Dick- 
son, and Gorham, G eorge Cornelius], and 
was himself defendant in another ecclesias- 
tical cause cSlebre. The high standard of 
eucharistic doctrine which, as examining 
chaplain to the bishop of Bath and Wells, 
he set before the candidates for ordination 
led to a difterence with the bishop's commis- 
sary, in which Denison was so ill supported 
by the bishop that he resigned (June 1853) 
[see Bagot, Richard, D.D.] He then de- 
fined his doctrinal position with exactitude 
in three sermons preached in Wells Cathe- 
dral (7 Aug., 6 ^ov. 1853, 14 May 1854), 
which by their explicit affirmation of the 
objective real presence in the elements, and 
the consequent adorability of the sacrament, 
though not of the sensible species, furnished 
the Evangelical Alliance with matter for 
proceedings in the ecclesiastical courts. The 

Srosecution, initiated ostensibly by the Rev. 
oseph Ditcher, vicar of South Brent, was 
maintained with the utmost vigour, and met 
with an equally stout resistance. The re- 
sult, as in the Gorham case, served only to 
illustrate the uncertainty of the law. Deni- 
son's views were declared contrary to the 
28th and 29th of the Articles of Religion by 
Archbishop Sumner, sitting with assessors 
at Bath on 12 Aug. 1856, and as Denison 
declined to recant, he was sentenced to de- 
privation (22 Oct.) The execution of the 
sentence was, however, deferred pending 
an appeal to the court of arches, which re- 
sulted in its reversal on a technical point 
{23 April 1857), and an appeal from this 
decision was dismissed by the judicial com- 
mittee of the privy council (6 Feb. 1858), 
without any determination of the substan- 
tive question. 

Denison was editor of the ' Church and 
State Review' from its commencement in 
1862 to its cessation in 1865. For many 
years he was a potent force in the convoca- 
tion of Canterbury, which he succeeded in 
committing in 1863 to a censure (20 May) 
of Colenso's * I*entateuch and the Book of 
Joshua critically examined,' and in the fol- 
lowing year to a more formal condemnation 
(24 June) of 'Essays and Reviews.' He 
also led the illiberal opposition to the en- 
dowment of the regius chair of Greek at 
Oxford, for no other reason than that it was 
held by Benjamin Jowett [q. v. Suppl.], and 
entered his protestagainst Dr. Temple's con- 
secration to the see of Exeter (December 
1869). On the question of national educa- 
tion he continued to the end irreconcilable, 
and viewed the compromise effected in 1870 
with unmitigated disgust. His attempt to 



foreclose the discussion on the Athanasian 
Creed, in the course of Dean Stanley's speech 
in the lower house of the convocation of 
Canterbury, on 24 April 1872, caused a dra- 
matic scene which terminated in his tempo- 
rary secession from the assembly. Essen- 
tially a high churchman of the old school, 
Denison never became a thorough-going ritu- 
alist, though in 1877 he joined the Society 
of the Holy Cross. Of the higher criticism 
he remained entirely unreceptive, and his 
disapprobation of ' Lux Mundi ' caused his 
secession in 1892 from the English Church 
Union, of which he had been one of the 
founders. His later life was embittered by 
the recognition that the cause for which he 
had so sturdily contended was at least tem- 
porarily lost. His closing years were spent 
in comparative seclusion at East Brent, 
where, on 21 March 1896, he died. His 
remains were interred in East Brent church- 
yard on 26 March. 

Denison was as genial in society as he was 
unsparing in controversy. He reserved his 
odium theologicum exclusively for public use ; 
nor did antipodal divergence of view in the 
least degree impair the harmony of his 
private relations with Dean Stanley. To 
Gladstone's political action he was in his 
later years resolutely opposed, and his ve- 
hement denunciations in print of Glad- 
stone's character and opinions attracted 
much public notice. As a parish priest he 
was an interesting example of a type now 
almost extinct — dignified, kindly and pater- 
nally despotic, with a keen eye to the tem- 
poral as well as the spiritual needs of his 
flock. With him originated the now popu- 
lar festival of ' harvest home,' and East 
Brent owes him a permanent debt of grati- 
tude for the improvement at his own ex- 
pense of its water supply. He married, on 
4 Sept. 1838, Georgiana, eldest daughter of 
Joseph Warner Henley. 

Besides his archidiaconal charges, the ser- 
mons on the Holy Eucharist already referred 
to, with others of his sermons, and some letters 
and other fugitive pieces, Denison published 
in 1855 ' Saravia on the Holy Eucharist. 
The original Latin from the MS. in the 
British Museum, now printed for the first 
time,' edited with a translation (London, 
8vo): a valuable contribution to the his- 
tory of Anglo-catholic sacramental doctrine. 
He was also author of: 1. 'Notes of my 
Life,' London, 1878, 8vo ; 3rd edit. 1879. 
2. ' Mr. Gladstone,' London, 1885 : a violent 
political diatribe which reached a fourth 
edition in 1886. 3. ' Supplement to " Notes 
of my Life," 1879, and « Mr. Gladstone," 
1886/ Oxford and London, 1893, 8vo. 



Den man 



129 



Denman 



[Foster's Alumni Oxon.and Index Eccles'msti- 
cu«; Lo Npvo's I'asti Eccl. Anpl. ; Proceedings 
against the Archdi-acon of Taunton. . . • Re- 
printed from the ofTicinl docunicntH and other 
authentic Bources, Bath, 18;')7: Moore's Privy 
Council Cases, xi. 324; Phillimore's Ecclesijus- 
tical Law, i. 632; Chronicles of Convocation, 
1858-93; Notes of my Life and Supplement 
thereto above cited ; J. li. Mozley's Letters ; 
Overton and Wordsworth's Life of Christopher 
Wtirdsworth, bisliop of Lincoln ; Purcell's Life 
of Manning; Benson's Life of Archbishop Ben- 
son ; Si'lborne's Memorials, Family and Per- 
<w3nal; Liddon's Life of Piisey; Davidson and 
Benham's Life of Archbishop Tait ; Macdonell's 
Life of Archbishop Magee ; Prothero's Life of 
Dean Stanley; Dean Burgon's Lives of Twelve 
Good Men ; Goulburn's Life of Dean Burgon ; 
Life of Dean Butler; Gent. Mag. 1838, ii. 513; 
Men and Women of the Time, 1895 ; Times, 
23 March 1896; Ann. Reg. 1896, ii. 142; Guar- 
dian, 25 March, 1 April 1896; Westminster 
Gazette, 23 March 1896.] J. M. R. 

DENMAN,GEORGE(1819-1896),judge 
of the high court of justice, was the twelfth 
child and seventh son of Thomas, first baron 
Denman [q. v.], by Theodosia Anne, eldest 
daughter 01 the Rev. Richard Vevers, rector 
of Kettering. He was born on 23 Dec. 1819 
at 50 Russell Square, London, and was edu- 
•cated first at Felstead and then at Repton 
school. He entered Trinity College, Cfam- 
bridge, in October 1838, and obtained a 
scholarship there in 1840. As son of a peer 
he was permitted to go in for the classical 
tripos without competing for mathematical 
honours, and distinguished himself as senior 
classic in 1842. lie also proved himself an 
Athlete, rowing No. 7 in the boat-race against 
Oxford inboth 1841 and 1842,andwinningthe 
Colquhoun sculls in October 1842. In 1842 
he graduated B.A., and was elected fellow 
of his college on 10 Oct. 1843 ; he proceeded 
M.A. in 1845, and acted as auditor of Trinity 
from 1852 to 1865. Encouraged by his 
father to choose the bar as a profession he 
became a student at Lincoln's Inn in No- 
vember 1843, entering the chambers of a 
well-known conveyancer, Peter Bellinger 
Brodie [q-v.] In November 1844 he became 
A pupil of (Sir) Barnes Peacock [q. v.], then 
a junior in large practice, with whom he re- 
mained until he was called to the bar at 
Lincoln's Inn on 24 Nov. 1840. lie joined 
the home circuit on 2 March 1849, where he 
gradually acquired practice, and during his 
early years at the bar act«'d as a law-reporter 
on the staff of the ' Law Journal.' 

In 1856 he unsuccessfully stood as parlia- 
mentary- candidate for the university of Cam- 
bridge in the liberal interest on the death of 
Henry Ooulburn [q. v.], and in the foUow- 

\0h. II.— 8UP. 



ing year was appointed counRel to the uni* 
versity ; he was created a Q.C. in 186L At 
the general election in May 1869, he wm 
elected M.P. for Tiverton as Lord Palmer- 
ston's colleague, and held the seat until 1872, 
excepting a short interval, 1865-6. In par- 
liament he interested himself in the reform 
of the law of evidence in criminal trials, and 
on 20 June 1860 moved the second reading 
of the felony and misdemeanor bill, witn 
the object of assimilating proceedings on 
trial to those at nisi prius. The bill passed 
the Commons, but was abandoned after 
alteration in the Lords. Five years later, 
22 Feb. 1865, he successfully carried through 
a similar measure, the felony and misde- 
meanor evidence and practice bill. The 
Evidence further Amendment Act, 1869, 
popularly known as Denman's Act, by which 
witnesses professing no religious belief were 
enabled to affirm in courts of justice, and 
parties before incompetent were enabled to 
give evidence, was entirely due to his initia- 
tive. 

On 3 May 1864 he seconded a motion for 
a select committee to inquire into the ex- 
pediency of maintaining the punishment of 
death {Hansard, clxxiv. 2069), and 19 May 
1865 he carried a resolution in favour of re- 
lieving attorneys and solicitors from the 
payment of an annual certificate duty, which, 
however, led to no practical result (/6.clxxix. 
566). He was always in favour of enlarg- 
ing the operation of the various reform bills 
and took an active part in the debate on the 
representation of the people bill, 1867. In 
all questions in parliament affecting the 
public schools and universities he exhibited 
great interest and supported the university 
tests bill, 23 May 1870 (Hansard^ cci. 
1280). 

In October 1872 Denman was chosen to 
succeed Sir James ShawWilles[q. v.] in the 
court of common pleas. As the son of a 
peer he did not accept the customary knight- 
hood. In November 1875, by virtue of the 
Judicature Act, he became justice of the 
common pleas division of the high court. 
From 1881 to 1892, when he retired from 
the bench, he acted as judge of the high 
court of justice, queen's bench division. 
After retirement he became a privy coun- 
cillor, January 1893, and occasionally sat on 
the judicial committee of the privy council. 

Denman was popular on the bench, but 
was more distinguished as a graceful scholar 
than as a strong lawyer. lie was gifted 
with a fine presence and a beautiful voice, 
and maintained without effort the dignity of 
his office. From his school days he was a 
facile writer of verses, and throughout life 



Denman 



130 



Denton 



found relaxation in study of the Greek and 
Latin classics. 

He died at Cranley Gardens, London, S.W., 
on 21 Sept. 1896, and was buried in the 
churchyard at Willian, near Hitchin. A 
brass with an inscription by Dr. Sandys was 
placed in the chapel of Repton school to his 
memory, and a memorial scholarship founded 
at the same school by public subscription. 
He married, 19 Feb. 1852, Charlotte, daugh- 
ter of Samuel Hope, banker, of Liverpool, 
by whom he left seven children ; his eldest 
son, Mr. G. L. Denman, is a metropolitan 
police magistrate. 

A portrait of Denman by H. T. Wells, 
R.A., in oils, is in the possession of his son, 
Mr. G. L. Denman ; of this there is a photo- 
gravure print. Another portrait by Samuel 
Carter hangs in the library at Repton school. 
A sketch by Wells and a miniature in child- 
hood by F. Corbauld are in the possession 
of his younger son, Mr. Arthur Denman. 

Denman published in 1871 a translation of 
Gray's ' Elegy ' in Greek elegiac verse, which 
he dedicated to Sir Alexander Cockburn, 
the lord chief justice, and in 1873 the first 
book of Pope's translation of the * Iliad ' in 
Latin elegiacs, which he dedicated to W. E. 
Gladstone; in 1896 he printed for private 
circulation a translation of * Prometheus 
Bound ' in English verse. He wrote the 
Latin epitaph in the vestibule of Lincoln's 
Inn chapel to the memory of Lord-justice 
Bowen. * Intervalla,' a selection of his verses 
in Greek, Latin, and English, was published 
for private circulation in 1898. 

[Times. 22 Sept. 1896; Cambridge Review, 
1896. notice written by J. E. Sandys; autobio 
graphical notes of George Denman, 1819-47, 
printed for private circulation 1897 ; Hansard, 
Pari. Debates ; information kindly aflTorded by 
Mr. George Denman and Mr. Arthur Denman, 
F.S.A.] W. C-R. 

DENMAN, THOMAS, second Baeoi^ 
Denman of Dovedale (1805-1899), born in 
London on 30 July 1805, was the first son 
of Thomas Denman, first Baron Denman 
[q. v.l, by his wife Theodosia Anne, eldest 
daughter of Richard A'evers, rector of Ket- 
tering. George Denman [q. v. Suppl.] was 
his brother. He was educated at Eton and 
Brasenose College, Oxford. He matricu- 
lated on 17 May 1823. He was called to 
the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1838, and acted 
as associate to his father when chief-justice 
of England, holding this position for eigh- 
teen years. 

He succeeded to the peerage on the death 
of his father on 22 Sept. 1854. Denman 
was always concerned rather with politics 
than law. During his long life as a peer he 



was a regular frequenter of the House of 
Lords, but won notoriety rather from his 
eccentricities than any eminent qualifica- 
tions. Limitation of the duration of speeches 
in the House of Lords and the granting of 
female suffrage were subjects to which he 
unsuccessfully devoted his support. Year 
after year with unfailing regularity, from 
1886 to 1894, he brought in bills to secure 
these objects, and, despite his inability on 
any occasion to secure even a second reading, 
he was not deterred from making fresh 
eflforts in each succeeding year. He died 
without issue at the King's Arms, Berwick- 
on-Tweed, on 9 Aug. 1899. 

Denman married, on 12 Aug. 1829, Geor- 
gina, eldest daughter of Thomas Roe ; she 
died on 25 April 1871. He married, se- 
condly, on 10 Oct. 1871, Maria, eldest daugh- 
ter of James Aitchison of Alderston, co. 
Haddington, and by royal licence on 20 Dec. 
1879 assumed the additional surname of Ait- 
chison under the will of his wife's mother. 
There is a lithograph portrait print of Lord 
Denman by Walton. 

[Complete Peerage by G. E. C[okayne] ; Han- 
sard's Debates ; Times, 11 Aug. 1899.] W. C-R. 

DENTON, WILLIAM <1815-1888), 
divine and author, born in March 1815 at 
Newport in the Isle of Wight, was the eldest 
son of James Denton of that town. He 
matriculated from Worcester College, Ox- 
ford, on 28 May 1841, graduating B.A. in 
1844 and M.A. in 1848. In 1844 he was 
ordained deacon as curate of St. Andrew's, 
Bradfield, in Berkshire, and priest in 1845 
as curate of Barking. In 1847 he became 
curate of Shoreditch, and in 1850 he was 
presented to the vicarage of St. Bartholo- 
mew, Cripplegate, which he retained till his 
death. In 1861 he published a pamphlet 
entitled ' Observations on the Displacement 
of the Poor by Metropolitan Railways and 
by other Public Improvements ' (London, 
8vo), which attracted some attention. On 
28 Feb. the Earl of Derby presented a peti- 
tion from Denton to the House of Lords, 
and the question was the subject of debate 
for two nights. Another publication, ' The 
Christians in Turkey ' (London, 1863, 8vo), 
in which he maintained that the English 
diplomatic agents in the Levant had long 
been engaged in a conspiracy of silence in 
regard to the wrongs of the rayah, attracted 
little attention at the time of issue; but 
in 1876, when the ' Bulgarian atrocities ' 
stimulated popular interest, the original 
edition was speedily exhausted, and a new 
and enlarged edition appeared. A third 
edition was reached in 1877, and was trans- 



Devon 



131 



Dickson 



lated into German and Sorvian. In acknow- 
lodgmcut of his services in regard to this 
(question lie was created a knight commander 
of the Servian order of St. Saviour of 
Takhova, and a grand cross of the order of 
St. Saba. lie died at 22 Westbourne Square, 
Paddington, on 2 Jan. 1888. 

IJeaides tlie works mentioned and several 
lectures Denton was the author of: 1. *A 
Commentary on the Gospels for the Sundays 
and other itoly Days of the Christian Year,' 
London, 1801-3, 3 vols. 8vo; 2nd edit. 
1869-71, 2 vols.; vol. ii. 3rd edit. 1880. 2. 
* Servia and the Servians,' London, 1862, 
8vo; German translation, Berlin, 1865, 8vo. 
3. ' A Commentary on the Lord's Prayer,' 
London, 1864, 8vo. 4. * A Commentary on 
the Epistles,' London, 1869-71, 2 vols. 
8vo. 5. * A Commentary on the Acts of 
the Apostles,' London, 1874-6, 2 vols. 8vo. 
6. ' Montenegro : the People and their His- 
tory,' London, 1877, 8vo. 7. 'The Ancient 
Church in Egypt,' London, 1883, 8vo. 8. 
' Records of St. Giles's, Cripplegate,' London, 
1883, 8vo. 9. 'England in the Fifteenth 
Century,' London, 1888, 8vo. He also edited 
'The Warnings of Advent' (London, 1853, | 
8vo), a course of sermons ; * Sacra Privata ' | 
(London, 1853, 8vo) of Thomas Wilson 
(1663-1755) [q. v.], bishop of Sodor and | 
Man (the first edition printed entire from 
the original manuscripts) ; and Chedomil 
Miyatovid's'SerbianFolklore,' London, 1874, 
8vo. 

[Men of the Time, 1887 ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. 1715-1886; Allibone's Diet, of English 
Lit. Suppl. ; Hansard's Debates ; Hennessy's 
Novum Repf»rt. Eccles. 1898, p. 172.] E. I. C. 

DEVON, twelfth Earl of. [See CouR- 
TENAY, William Reginald, 1807-1888.] 

DEVONSHIRE, seventh Duke of. [See 
Cavendish, Sir William, 1808-1891.] 

DICKENS, CHARLES (1837-1896), 
compiler, born at Fumival's Inn, Holborn, 
on (J Jan. 1837, was the eldest son of the 
great novelist by Catharine, eldest daughter 
of George Hogarth, journalist and musical 
critic. *I am delighted with Charles's pre- 
cocity,' wrote the father in 1841 ; 'he takes 
arter his father, he does.' In his boyhood he 
became a frequent visitor with his father at 
Gore House, where he made the acquaintance 
of Louis Xapoleon. In 1849, at the charge 
of his father's friend, (Lady) Burdett Coutts, 
he was moved from King's College to Eton, 
and in 1853 he went to Leipzig to acquire 
German. In 1855 he returned to England 
and obtained a post in Baring's establish- 
ment. Banking, however, was little to his 



taste, and in 1860, on a preparation for the 

Position of an eastern morcnant, ho visited 
long Kong, Shanghai, and Japan. Soon 
after his return in 1861 ho married BeMie 
Evans, daughter of a partner in Bradbury 
& Evans, and set up in business in tfaie 
city. His lack of business capacity was a 
source of some anxiety to his father, but in 
1869 the youAger Charles, who had already 
contributed to ' Household Words,' became 
sub-editor of ' All the Year Round,' and on 
his father's death he became (under a codicil 
to his will) sole proprietor of that journal, 
with which he was connected until within 
two or three years of his death. Subse- 
quently he became chief partner in the print- 
ing concern of Dickens & Evans. In all 
his business enterprises he fell short of suc- 
cess, though while this firm was under his 
management he launched with considerable 
success the various dictionary-guides which 
are known by his name. Charles Dickens's 
'Dictionary to London' appeared in 1879, 
and it was followed by similar dictionaries 
to the Thames (1880), to Continental Rail- 
ways (1880), 'Dictionary of Days' (1881), 
to Paris (1882), to Oxford and to Cambridge 
(1884). In the compilation of the most use- 
ful, ' The Dictionary to London,' he was 
aided by Richard Halkett Lord. In 1887 
he made a tour in the United States, giving 
readings from his father's books. He was 
an excellent reader and reciter, and he in- 
herited to the full the gift of the great novel 
ist as an after-dinner orator. On his return 
to England he accepted a readership in the 
firm of Macmillan & Co., and he edited for 
the same firm, during 1892-3, a new edition 
of his father's novels, commencing with 
* Pickwick.' After his father's death in 
1870 he had purchased Gad's Hill, but he 
resided latterly at West Kensington, and 
died of paralysis at 43 Fairholme Road on 
20 June 1896. He was buried in Mortlake 
cemetery. Three days later his sister, Man,- 
Dickens, died at Sevenoaks. A few months 
afterwards appeared posthumously, with 
family portraits, her ' My Father as I recall 
him,' by 'Mamie' Dickens. Charles Dickens 
the younger left, with other issue, a sou 
Charles and a daughter, Mary Angela Dickens 
the novelist. 

[Times. 22 and 27 June 1896; D^ilj News, 
22 Juno 189G; Academy, June 1896; Forster's 
Life of Charles Dickens; Mary Dickens's My 
Father as 1 kiieM- him ; Brit. Mus. Cat.l 

T. 8. 

DICKSON, Siu JAMES ROBERT 

(1832- lOOn, Australian statesman, was bom 

at Plymouth, England, on 30 Nov. 1832, but 

went to live at Glasgow when quite young 



Dickson 



132 



Dillon 



and was educated at the high school in that 
city, afterwards entering, while still a youth, 
the City of Glasgow Bank, where he served 
for some years. In 1854 he emigrated to 
Victoria, and entered the Bank of Austral- 
asia, which he left about 1859 to go to New 
South Wales and join some relatives in 
business. Within two or three years, in 
1862, he went to Queensland and set up as 
an auctioneer, forming connections at the 
same time with building society work and 
banking enterprise ; he was a promoter, and 
for some time a director, of the Royal Bank 
of Queensland. 

Dickson entered political life in 1872, 
when he was elected to the Queensland 
House of Assembly for Enoggera. On 
10 May 1876 he became minister of works 
towards the close of Arthur Macalister's [q. v.] 
second administration ; and on 5 June, when 
the government went out, became treasurer 
under George Thorn, continuing under the 
Hon. John Douglas, when the ministry was 
reconstructed, till 21 Jan. 1879. In 1882 
he visited England. On 31 Dec. 1883 he 
became treasurer in Sir Samuel Walker 
Griffith's first administration. He was a 
member of the federal council which met at 
Hobart in 1886, and acted as premier during 
Griffith's absence in England for the cele- 
bration of the jubilee ; on 17 Aug. 1887 he 
resigned office owing to a serious difference 
of opinion with his colleagues as to the im- 
position of a land tax to arrest the fall of the 
revenue from land. He felt so strongly on 
the subject that he also resigned his seat and 
gave his constituency the chance of ex- 
pressing their opinion ; he was re-elected 
after an exciting contest. At the general 
election of 1888, however, he was defeated 
at Toombul, a constituency carved out of 
his old one. For the next year he devoted 
himself to his business, but retiring from it 
in 1889 went for a long stay in Europe, re- 
siding at times, besides the United Kingdom, 
in France, Holland, Belgium, Germany, Italy, 
and Greece. He did not return to Queens- 
land till early in 1892. 

On his return Dickson at once took up the 
question of introducing coloured labour on 
the Queensland sugar estates. In April 
1892 he brought the question before the elec- 
torate hj offering himself as candidate in the 
by-election for Bulimba. He was successful 
and was re-elected at the general elections 
of 1893 and 1896. In this last year he repre- 
sented Queensland in the federal council of 
Australia at Hobart. In February 1897 ho 
was made secretary for railways by Nelson. 
In March 1898 he became minister for home 
affairs, and almost immediately proceeded to 



Hobart to represent Queensland at the postal 
conference ; the change of premier, when 
Thomas Joseph Byrnes [q. v. Suppl.] suc- 
ceeded Sir Hugh Muir Nelson, did not affect 
his position. On 1 Oct. 1898, on Byrnes's 
death, he became premier, taking office as 
chief secretary and vice-president of the exe- 
cutive council. That which will chiefly 
mark his ministry is the boldness with which 
he threw himself into the contest for securing 
an Australian commonwealth ; with the 
majority of the assembly against him on the 
principle, he faced the risk of defeat, and 
carried the measure authorising the submis- 
sion of the question to a vote of the people. 
He was justified by obtaining a majority in 
its favour. On 29 Nov. 1899, owing to an 
adverse vote, he resigned the position of 
premier ; but on 7 Dec, when the Hon. Ro- 
bert Philip became premier, he was reap- 
pointed chief secretary and vice-president of 
the executive council. 

When, at the beginning of 1900, the home 
government invited delegates from Australia 
to come to London and discuss the project for 
the Australian commonwealth, Dickson came 
over to represent Queensland ; on his return 
he was selected as minister of defence for 
the first government of United Australia. 
He was the only minister in the new cabinet 
who had not been born in Australia. He 
came to Sydney at the close of 1900 to be 
present at the celebrations connected with 
the inauguration of the new commonwealth, 
and seemed in good health through the first 
two days, when he was taken ill. He died 
at the Australian Club, Macquarie Street, 
Sydney, on 10 Jan. 1901. His body was 
taken to Brisbane, where a public funeral 
was accorded to him. He was buried in 
Nundah cemetery. He was made C.M.G. 
in 1897, K.C.M.G. on 1 Jan. 1901, and 
honorary D.C.L. of Oxford in 1900. 

Dickson was cultured, courteous, and con- 
siderate to others, yet he was hardly popular, 
though genuinely respected in his colony. 
His strong action as regards the federation 
movement added considerably to his repu- 
tation. 

Dickson was twice married, and left one 
son and four daughters. 

[Pugh's Queensland Almanac, 1900; Sydney 
Morning Herald, 11 Jan. 1901; Brisbane 
Courier, 10 and 11 Jan. 1901 ; Telegraph (Bris- 
bane), 10 Jan. 1901.1 C. A. H. 

DILLON, SiE LUCAS (d. 1593), chief 
baron of the Irish exchequer, was the eldest 
son and heir of Sir Robert Dillon (1500 ?- 
1580) [q. V. Suppl.] of Newtown, and his 
wife Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Barne- 



Dillon 



'33 



Dillon 



wall of Crickstown. Luca« naturally fol- 
lowed his fftthor's profossionjainl on 17 April 
\!)i\!) was appointed soiicitor-gi-nrral for In;- 
land. IIo was promotrd to b«! attomry- 
gi»n»'ral on 8 Nov. ir)6(;, and sat in the 
parliament of 15(51), for which no returns 
have been discovered. On 17 May 1570 he 
was made chief baron of the Irish court of 
exchequer, in succession to James Rathe, 
whose daughter he had married, and sworn 
of the privy council. Dillon was the ablest 
of the Irish judges of his time, and was 
excepted from the condemnation pronounced 
bv an English visitor on the others as being 
•little better accounted than junior barristers 
in the court of chancery ' (Bagwell, ii. 297). 
He enjoyed the full confidence of Sir Henry 
Sidney [(^. v.], the lord deputy, whom he 
accompanied on his tour through Connaught 
in 1576, and by whom he was knighted at 
Drogheda in the same year. In May 1581 it 
was proposed to make him lord-chancellor 
{Cal. State Papers, Ireland, 1574-85, p. 302), 
and in 1583 chief justice of the queen's bench 
(Lodge, Peerage, ed. Archdall, iv. 155-6), 
but neither of these proposals was carried 
out, and as some compensation Dillon was, 
on 5 June 1583, made seneschal of Kilkenny 
"West. The reason for his failure to obtain 
promotion may possibly be found in a letter 
from Ijoftus to the home government dated 
15 Jan. 1581-2, in which Dillon was de- 
nounced as * ver}' corrupt.' 

Meanwhile Sir Lucas and his cousin Sir 
IJobert Dillon, the chief justice, had been 
congenially engaged in ruining their here- 
ditary enemies the Nugents [see Nugent, 
Sir Christopher; Nugent, Nicholas; 
and Nugent, William]. They were thanked 
by the government on 14 Jan. 1581-2 for 
their diligence in discovering and examining 
into the Nugents' conspiracy; but their 
efforts were probably more due to private 
animosity than to public zeal ; and the exe- 
cution of Nicholas Nugent involved both 
the Dillons in an unpopularity which was 
increased by their being largely responsible 
for the exaction of the 'cess' from the 
gentlemen of the Pale. On (trey's departure 
in 1584 Sir Lucas Dillon was one of the 
lords justices appointed to administer the 

?3vemment penning the arrival of Sir John 
errot [q. v.], and in this capacity he assisted 
in arranging the scandalous trial by battle 
between various O'Connors in the hope that 
they might kill each other off (Bagwell, 
iii. 121). During IVrrot's administration 
Dilhm was one of the party in the council 
which 8upporte<l the lora deputy against the 
constant appeals to the home government, 
and on 26 April 1587 he was one of the 



commisAioners appointed for the pUatation 

of Munster. 

In 1592 Sir Lucas was implicated in the 
charges brought against Sir Robert Dillon 
(fl. 1507) [q. v. Suppl.], of having instigated 
Sir Brian-na-murtha Ci'Ilourke [q. v.] to re- 
bel, out of hostility to the president of Con- 
naught, Sir Uichard Bingham [q. v.J The 
accusations were probably inspired by the 
Nugents, but Sir Lucas Dillon died early in 
1593, before they came to a head; his suc- 
cessor, Sir Robert Napier (d. 1616) [q. v.], 
was appointed on 10 April 1593. Dillon was 
buried in Newtown church, and the inscrip- 
t ion on his tomb is printed by Lodge {Peerage^ 
ed. Archdall, iv. 156). lie married Jane, 
daughter of James Bathe (d. 1570), chief 
baron of the exchequer, and by her, who 
died before 1581, left issue seven sons and 
five daughters. The eldest son, James, was 
granted livery of his father's lands on 8 April 
1 594 ( Cal. Fiants, Eliz. No. 5920), was created 
Baron Dillon on 24 Jan. 1619-1620, and Earl 
of Roscommon on 5 April 1622 ; he was 
great-grandfather of Wentworth Dillon, 
fourth earl of Roscommon [q. v.] 

[Gill. State Papers, Irekind, 1509-96; Cal. 
Carew MSS. ; Cal, Fiants, Ireland, Elizabeth ; 
Lascelles's Liber Munerum Hib. ; Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 15th Rep. App. iii.; Smyth's Law 
OflBcers of Ireland ; O'Sullivan's Chancellors of 
Ireland; Ryan's Biographia Hibemica, 1821, 
ii. 93-5; BrtgwtU's Ireland nnder the Tudors; 
Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, ed. Archdall, iv. 
154-6 ; Burke's Extinct Peerage, where Billon 
is erroneously stated to have been speaker of 
the Irish House of Commons.] A. F. P. 

DILLON, PETER (1785?-! 847), navi- 
gator in the South Seas, bom about 1786, 
seems to have been engaged in the sandal- 
wood trade between the West Pacific Islands 
and China from his youth upwards, as he 
states that when in the Mercury, during 
1809, he visited New Zealand and the Fiji 
Islands, where he remained four months, 
' associating very much with the natives * 
and learning their language. 

In 1812 and 1813 he sailed as an officer 
in the Calcutta ship Hunter nnder Captain 
Robson, who had obtained influence over 
the Fijians by joining in their wars and a»- 
sisting them to destroy their enemies, who 
were cut up, baked, and eaten in his 
presence. In September 1818 a portion of 
the crew of the Hunter, when on shore at 
Vilear, was attacked by the Fijians, and 
fourteen of the Europeans were slain, 
Dillon, with a certain Prussian refugee, Mar- 
tin Bushart, and a lascar alone esemping 
alive. This Martin Bushart with his native 
wife and the lascar were landed at the small 



Dillon 



134 



Dillon 



island of Tucopia (in lat. 12° 21' S., long. 168° 
43' E.), which had never before been visited 
by any European. 

In 1814 Captain Dillon was in command 
of the Active brig of Calcutta, and com- 
missioned by the Rev. Samuel Marsden to 
convey Messrs. Kendall and Hall, mis- 
sionaries, to the Bav of Islands in New Zea- 
land. In 1819 Dillon commanded the St. 
Michael. While commanding his own 
ship, the Calder, from 1822 to 1825, he 
was employed likewise in purchasing and 
taking cargoes of timber from New Zealand 
and the South Sea Islands for the East 
India market. In May 1825 the Calder 
was wrecked and lost at Valparaiso. In 
May 1826, being commander of his own 
ship, St. Patrick, when bound from Val- 
paraiso to Pondichery, Dillon again visited 
the island of Tucopia, where he found Bus- 
hart and the lascar. From these he obtained 
a silver sword-guard, a silver spoon with 
crest and cipher, which Dillon rightly sur- 
mised might be relics of the long-lost expe- 
dition of La P6rouse. These articles were 
said to have been brought from an island 
of the Mannicolo group to the westward of 
Tucopia. Dillon attempted to reach this 
island, but being becalmed for seven days 
when in sight of it, and being short of pro- 
visions, he sailed for Calcutta, where he gave 
information of his discovery to the Bengal 
government. 

The East India Company's surveying 
vessel Research was fitted out and] placed 
under the command of Captain Dillon, who 
sailed from Calcutta in January 1827. A 
French officer, M. Chaigneau, and Dr. 
Tytler, a scientist, were sent to assist Cap- 
tain Dillon in his investigations. Through a 
disgraceful intrigue of Dr. Tytler, the Re- 
search was detained at Ilobart Town in 
April 1827, and the unfortunate Captain 
Dillon was prosecuted and sentenced to two 
months' imprisonment, which, however, was 
remitted, and the Research was enabled to 
proceed on her voyage on 20 May, reaching 
the Bay of Islands, New Zealand, on 1 July. 
While in New Zealand, Dillon learned that 
Captain Dumont D'Urville had lately sailed 
thence for the Friendly Islands in search of 
the remains of La P6rouse's expedition. He 
accordingly sailed for Tongatabu in hopes of 
meeting with the French commander. 
Tonga was reached on 16 Aug., but the 
Astrolabe, D'Urville's ship, had left. After 
touching at Rotumah Island, Tucopia was 
reached on 6 Sept., when, by means 
of Martin Bushart, friendly intercourse 
was opened with the natives, and more in- 
formation obtained about the ships of La 



P^rouse; a silver sword-handle and other 
relics brought from Mannicolo were pur- 
chased from the Tucopians. On the 8th 
Captain Dillon arrived in the Research at 
Mannicolo, now known as Vanikoro, one of 
the Santa Cruz group, in lat. 11° 17' S., 
long. 166° 32' E., wholly surrounded with a 
barrier reef, in which are but a few open- 
ings. Here the remains of the unfortunate 
ships of La P^rouse were found. One of the 
ships, the Boussole, had been wrecked on the 
outer reef opposite the district of Paiou at 
the south-west of the island ; the Astrolabe 
is supposed to have foundered outside the 
same . reef. Some cleared ground was found 
in the vicinity, where the survivors had 
built and launched their brig. Several brass 
guns and a number of other articles were 
collected, from which the identification of 
La Perouse's ships was clearly established. 
On his voyage back Dillon touched at Port 
Jackson, and learned that D'Urville's ship 
was then at Hobart Town. On hearing of 
Dillon's important discovery Dumont D'Ur- 
ville proceeded to Tucopia and Vanikoro, 
where he succeeded in gathering together an 
additional number of relics of the lost expe- 
dition, and erected a monument in honour of 
La P^rouse and his comrades. Dillon reached 
Calcutta in April 1828, when he was warmly 
received by the governor-general and sent 
home to England in company with M. 
Chaigneau. On arriving in London the 
successful explorer proceeded to Paris, and 
the articles recovered from Vanikoro were 
presented to King Charles X, by whom they 
were placed in the museum of the Louvre. 
On Captain Dillon was conferred the order 
of the legion of honour, together with an 
annuity of 4,000 francs per annum. The 
full narrative of his voyage of discovery was 
published by Peter Dillon in 1829. Captain 
Dillon died in Ireland on 9 Feb. 1847 
(Moniteur, 13 Feb. 1847). 

Dillon was author of ' Narrative and Suc- 
cessful Result of a Voyage in the South Seas, 
performed by order of the Government of 
British India to ascertain the actual Fate of 
La Perouse's Expedition, interspersed with 
Accounts of the Religion, Manners, Cus- 
toms, and Cannibal Practices of the South 
Sea Islanders,' 2 vols. London, 1829. 

[Dillon's Narrative, 1829 ; Voyageurs An- 
ciens et Modern es, par Edouard Churton, vol. 
iv., art. ' La Perouse ; ' Van T^nac's Hist. 
G^n^rale de la Marine, iv. 'ZoS-Oi ; William 
Smith's Coll. of Voyages, vi. 3, 358; South 
Pacific Ocean Directory, by Alex. George Find- 
lay, 1884, art. 'Santa Cruz Islands ;' Nouvelle 
Biographie G^nerale ; La Grande Encyclopedie.] 

S. P. 0. 



Dillon 



us 



Dillon 



DILLON, SiB ROBERT (loOOP-1580). 
Irish iiulge, bom about loOO, was third 
son of Junu's Dillon of Riverston, and iiis 
wife Eliiftboth, daughter of Hartholomow 
Rathe of Dullardstown. His eldest bro- 
ther, Sir Hartholomew Dillon (d. LVM), was 
K^randfather of Sir Robt-rt Dillon (d. LW) 
Mj. V. Suppl.J of Riverston, and also, like 
his great-unclo, chief 
pleas 



justice of common 



The older R ;)bert was bred to the law, and, 
doubtless through family influence, >vas on 
9. June 15.'U appointed attorney-general for 
Ireland {Letters and Papers of Henry J'lII, 
vii. 92i* [2]). He held this olhce for eighteen 
years, only leaving it on his promotion to 
the bench, and always accommodating him- 
self to changes of government. lie assisted 
Henry VIII in the dissolution of the Irish 
monasteries, receiving on 22 Dec. 1538 the 
site of St. Peter's priory, Newton, co. 
"NVestmeath, and on 20 March 1545-0 the 
site of the Carmelite monastery at Athne- 
carne in the same county. Dillon made 
Newton his principal seat, and his family 
were always called Dillons of Newton to 
distinguish them from their cousins, the 
Dillons of Riverston. On 17 Jan. 1553-4 
Dillon was appointed second justice of the 
queen's bench, and during Mary's reign was 
placed on various commissions for the 
government of Ireland. His appointment 
was renewed by Elizabeth on 9 Jan. 1558-9, 
but on 3 Sept. following he was promoted to 
be chief justice of the court of common 
pleas. Dillon is said (Lodge, Peeraye, ed. 
Archdall, iv. 154) to have been speaker of I 
the House of Commons during Elizabeth's 
reign ; but James Stanihurst was speaker in 
both the parliaments of 1560 and that of I 
1569. On 1 March 1574-5 Elizabeth ex- 
pressed her intention of sending over an 
Englishman to supply Dillon's place, on ac- 
count of his great age, but the chief justice 
retained his otHce until his death in April ' 
1580, being succeeded by his great-nephew 
Robi^rt. I 

Dillon married Genet, daughter of Ed- I 
ward Bamewell of Crickstown, and grand- | 
daughter of Sir Thomas Plunket (</. 1471), | 
chief justice of common pleas; by her he had , 
issue four sons and three daughters ; the 
eldest son, Sir Lucas Dillon, is separately 
noticed. * j 

[C*l. FiHnts. H.'nry VI H to Eliza>wth. pas- ' 
•im ; Cal. Stnt#» I'ji|H>r»'. Ireland; Cal. Carow 
MSS.; Iliht. MSS. Comm. l..lh Kep. App. iii.; 
' L«'»celles'» Liber Mnn. Hib. ; Smyth's I>aw | 
Officers of Ireland ; liagwoU's Ireland under the 
Tudors; Lodgo's Peerage, ed. Archdall, ir. 
16*.] A, F. P. 



DILLON, Sib KOBEUT {d, 1597), Iriah 
judge, was oldest son of Thomas Dillon <d 
Riverston, and his wife Anne, daughter of 
Sir Thomas Luttrell (</. 1554), r» • ■ -Jce 
of th«; common pleas. His gran <\r 

Bartholomew Ddlon(^/. 15:? I > . .,,...or 

of Sir Robert Dillon (lo' » fq. ▼. 

Suppl.], was appointed chi ! i of the 

exchequer on 1 Fob. 16Ri-4, and deputy 
treasurer of Ireland on 2 July 1510; he waa 
knighted soon afterwards, and on 15 Jan. 
1532 3 was made chief justice of the king's 
bench, dyin^ in the next year. 

Robert Dillon received his first appoint- 
ment on 15 June 1569, when he was made 
second justice of the newly formed presi- 
dency of Connaught. In that capacity he 
favourably impressed the president, Sir Ed- 
ward Fitton the elder [q. v."), and when 
Fitton became vice-treasurer Dillon was ap- 
pointed to the subordinate office of chancellor 
of the Irish exchequer on 5 June 1572. In 
the same month Loftus recommended Dil- 
lon's appointment to the mastership of the 
rolls ; but Dillon, like his friend Sir Edward 
Fitton, had incurred the enmity of the lord 
deputy, Sir William Fitzwilliam (1526-1 599J> 
[q, v.], who, according to Loftus, misliked 
Dillon through malicious information {Cal. 
State Papers, Ireland, 1509-75, p. 494). In 
June 1573 Fitzwilliam committed Fitton to 
prison, and urged Elizabeth to send Dillon, 
who was proceeding to London to complain 
of the lord deputy, to the F'leet {ib. p. oil). 
Elizabeth, however, sided with Fitton and 
Dillon and reprimanded Fitzwilliam. 

In 1575 Sir Henry Sidney [q.v.] succeeded 
Fitzwilliam, and on 20 Nov. 1577 Dillon was 
appointed second justice of the court of com- 
mon pleas. He was promoted to be chief 
justice on 28 June 1581 in succession to his 
great- uncle, Sir Robert Dillon. Sir William 
Gerard [q.v.l had recommended Nicholas 
Nugent|q.v.J for the post, and soon after- 
wards >> ugent was accused of plotting the 
assassination of Dillon and his cousin, Sir 
Lucas, and of being privy to the rebellion 
of his brother, William Nugent [q.v.l The 
Dillons took the chief part in in. ig 

these charges against their her- 
mies, but the jury empanelled to try Nuiii>- 
las Nugent were inclined to acquit him, 
until the two Dillons 'com; " ' ''em by 
menace to alter their verdii • MS, 

4793, f. 1,30), and popular ui ihsome 

justice attributed S'ugent's death to IHllon's 
malice. Henceforth the Nugents left no 
stone untunied to pnxMire Dillon's ruin; they 
found their opportunity in Dillons alleged 
complicity in the rebellion of Sir Brian-na- 
murtha O'Rourke [q.v.] Dillon w 



Dimock 



136 



Dixon 



of having written urging O'Rourke to rebel, 
and saying that his rising against Sir Ri- 
chard Bingham [q.v.], the president of Con- 
naught, would not be ill taken by the lord 
deputy (Perrot). Dillon was in 1591 one of 
the commissioners appointed to restore peace 
after O Rourke's rebellion, but, partly owing 
to his differences with Bingham, little was 
effected. In November 1592 William Nu- 
gent [q.v.], who had recovered some of his 
influence, brought various charges against 
Dillon, accusing him of corruption and 
cruelty in connection with the suppression of 
his own rebellion, and of complicity in 
O'Rourke's. There is no doubt that Dillon had 
been guilty of grave misdemeanours, but the 
government hesitated to punish one who had 
done good service to the crown at the instiga- 
tion of an ex-rebel like Nugent. Dillon was 
committed to prison, removed from the privy 
council, and in October 1593 made to resign 
the chief-justiceship. Further the government 
refused to go ; in May 1693 Dillon was re- 
stored to his place in the council, perpetual 
obstacles were placed in the way of his trial 
^the journal of the commissioners appointed 
for the trial is calendared in Carew MS. 
iii. 62), and on 22 Nov. 1593 the lord-chan- 
cellor declared him to be innocent of the 
charges brought against him. On 23 Sept. 
1594, the day of his successor's death. Fen- 
ton wrote to Burghley that Dillon was to be 
restored |to the chief-justiceship, and this 
decision was confirmed by patent of 15 March 
1594-5. He retained this dignity until his 
death on 15 July 1597; he was buried in 
Tara church. His will is given in Lodge's 
* Peerage of Ireland * (ed. Archdall, iv. 
145-6). He married, first, Eleanor, daugh- 
ter of Thomas Allen of Kilheel (his only 
son by whom predeceased him unmarried) ; 
and secondly, Catherine {d. 1615), daughter 
of Sir William Sarsfield of Lucan, by whom 
he had issue five sons and nine daughters. 

[Cal. State Papers, Ireland, 1509-98; Cal. 
Carew MSS. ; Cal. Fiants, Ireland, Elizabeth ; 
Lascelles's Liber Mun. Hib. ; Smyth's Law Offi- 
cers of Ireland ; Lodge's Peerage, ed. Archdall, 
iv. 144-7 ; Bagwell's Ireland under the Tndors.] 

A. F. P. 

DIMOCK, JAMES FRANCIS (1810- 
1876), divine and historical scholar, son of 
John Giles Dimock, rector of Uppingham, 
Rutlandshire, was born at Stonhouse, Glou- 
cestershire, on 22 Nov. 1810. He was edu- 
cated at Uppingham School under Dr. 
Buckland, was admitted pensioner of St. 
John's College, Cambridge, on 21 Feb. 1829, 
and was elected Bell's scholar in 1830. He 
J^duated B.A. as twenty-ninth wrangler 
m 1833, and M.A. in 1837. Having been 



ordained deacon and priest by the bishop of 
Lincoln, he was in 1846 appointed minor 
canon of Southwell ; he gave up the canonry 
on his appointment as rector of Barn- 
borough, near Doncaster, in 1863. In 1869 
he was made prebendary of Lincoln, and he 
held the prebend with his rectory until his 
death at Barnborough on 21 April 1876 
{Guardian, 26 April 1876, p. 544). 

Dimock was deeply interested in eccle- 
siastical and mediaeval history ; his earliest 
work was ^ Illustrations of the Collegiate 
Church of Southwell,' London, 1854, 8vo. 
In 1860 he published at Lincoln an edition 
of the ' Metrical Life of St. Hugh,' and in 
1864 he edited for the Rolls Series the 
* Magna Vita S. Hugonis, Episcopi Lin- 
colniensis,' 1864. He also published ' The 
Thirty-nine Articles . . . explained, proved, 
and compared with her other authorized 
formularies,' London, 1843, 1845, 2 vols. 
8vo ; but his most important work was his 
edition of part of the works of Giraldu» 
Cambrensis for the Rolls Series ; the first 
four volumes were edited by J. S. Brewer, 
and vols, v-vii., which appeared between 
1867 and 1877, by Dimock ; the edition wa» 
completed with an eighth volume by Mr, 
G. F. Warner. 

[Graduati Cantabr. 1800-84; Crockford's- 
Clerical Directory, 1876 ; Boase's Mod. Engl. 
Brit. Biogr. ; Freeman's William Rufus, ii. 585 ; 
Stiibbs's Lectures on Mediaeval Hist., ed, 1887, 
p. 431 ; Dimock's works in Brit. Mus, Libr. ; 
information from K. F. Scott, esq., ot St. John's 
College, Cambridge.] A. F. P. 

^ DIXON, GEORGE (1820-1898), educa- 
tional reformer, born on 1 July 1820 at 
Gomersal, near Bradford in Yorkshire, was 
the son of Abraham Dixon of W^hitehaven. 
Soon after his birth his father removed to> 
Leeds, and on 26 Jan. 1829 he entered Leeda 
grammar school. About the age of seven- 
teen he spent a year in France, studying the- 
language. In 1838 he came to Birmingham 
and entered the house of Rabone Brothers 
& Co., foreign merchants. In 1844 he was 
made a partner, and ultimately on the re- 
tirement of his brother Abraham he became 
head of the firm. In connection with the- 
business of the house he resided for three 
years in Australia. 

After his return he threw himself into* 
municipal affairs. He was an active member 
of the Birmingham and Edgbaston Debating 
Society, in which almost all local politician* 
learned and practised the art of speaking. 
He embarked in several undertakings with 
a view to improving the condition of the 
people. Mainly owing to his efibrts Aston 
Hall and park were secured for the town 



Dixon 



137 



Dixon 



Mu 



and opened on 22 Sept, 1866. He was also 
one of the original promoters of the rifle 
volunteer movement in liirmingham, which 
was inaugurated at a meeting held in the 
committee-room of tlio town hall in Decem- 
ber lHr,i). 

Tn 186.3 Dixon entered the town council as 
a representative of Kdgbnaton ward, and on 
9 Nov. 1866 he was elected mayor. His 
vear of office was memorable for the riots in 
June 1867 occasioned by the 'anti-popery' 
ropaganda of a zealot named William 
lurpny and of (leorge Hammond Whalley 
[q. v.] It was necessary to call out a squa- 
dron of hussars to disperse the mob, and 
Dixon, who had previously refused Mur])hy 
the use of the town hall, rode boldly among 
the enraged crowd at Bull ring and read the 
Kiot Act. 

Dixon, who was an advanced liberal in 
politics, took an active interest in the ques- 
tion of popular education. Early in 1867 he 
initiated a series of conferences on the state 
of education in Birmingham, which were 
attended by representatives of all political 
parties and of various shades of religious 
thought. Among those who participated 
was Dr. Temple, then head-master of Rugby. 
The conference passed a resolution that it 
was desirable to promote an act of parlia- 
ment ' empowering municipal corporations 
to levy a rate for educational purposes,' and 
another deprecating the employment of chil- 
dren of tender age, unless due provision 
were made for their instruction at school. 
A third resolution advocating compulsory 
education, in which Dixon was supported by 
Mr. Joseph Chamberlain, found tne society 
divided m opinion. These conferences led 
to the formation of the Birmingham Educa- 
tion Aid Society, to assist to provide addi- 
tional schools, and to aid in paying the fees 
of the poorer children. In 1868, with the 
co-operation of Mr. Chamberlain, .lohn Sand- 
fonl (1801-1873) [q. v.], George Dawson 
0821-1876) [q. v.], and Robert William 
Dale [q. v. Suppl.l, the National Education 
League was founded at a private meeting 
at Dixon's residence. It had for its object 
* the establishment of a system which should 
secure the education of every child in Eng- 
land and Wales,' and carried on an active 
propaganda throughout the country. The 
first conference ot the league was held in 
Birmingham on 12 and 13 Oct. 1869, when 
Dixon filled the office of president. 

On the death of A\ illiam Scholefield 
fq. V.J Dixon was r»'tumed to parliament 
for Birmingham on 23 July I867. He re- 
tained his seat until June 1876, when, owing 
to his wife's ill-health, he retired, and was 



succeeded by Mr. Chamberlain. On the in- 
troduction of the elementary education bill 
into the House of Commons bv William 
Edward Forster [q. v.] in 1870, bixon took 
a lending part in endeavouring to amend it 
in accordance with the views 0? the advanced 
liberals. He moved an amendment to the 
second reading, opposing the proposal to 
leave the question of religious instruction to 
be determined by the local authorities. The 
amendment was negatived after a long de- 
bate. On 5 March 1872 he unsuccessfully 
moved a resolution in condemnation of the 
Elementary Education Act, chiefly because 
it omitted to provide for the general esta- 
blishment of school boards, and in 1874 he 
assisted to bring in a bill to make com- 
pulsory attendance general, which was sup- 
ported by Forster, but was not allowed to 
pass. 

Dixon was returned to the first Birming- 
ham school board on 28 Nov. 1870, and was 
re-elected in 1873 and 1876. After his 
withdrawal from parliament he devoted his 
entire attention for some years to the busi- 
ness of the board. In November 1876 he 
succeeded Mr. Chamberlain as chairman, 
and retained the post until 1897, when his 
health compelled him to relinquish it. He 
constantly advocated that school-board 
teaching should be of the very best character, 
and in accordance with his opinions he sub- 
scribed liberally to the cost of scholarships, 
and equipped at his own expense the 'seventh 
standard' or technical school at Bridge 
Street, which has served as a model for 
other schools of the same character. 

When the boundaries of the parlia- 
mentarj' borough of Birmingham were ex- 
tended in 1885 Dixon was returned for 
the Edgbaston division, a seat which he 
retained until his death. He separated 
himself from Gladstone in 1886 on the 
question of Irish home rule, and threw in his 
lot with the liberal unionist section of the 
party. In May 1896 he strongly opposed 
Sir John Gorst's education bill, retaining" 
his seat in parliament for that purpose, and 
reviving the National Education League to 
carry on external agitation against that and 
later conservative measures. On 4 Jan. 1808 
Dixon received the honorary freedom of 
Birmingham from the city council. He died 
at his residence, The Dales, Edgbaston, on 
24 Jan. 1898, and was buried in Wilton 
cemetery on 28 Jan. He married, in 1856, 
Mary, youngest fl..ii.'l.t..r,,f' 1..,,,..^ ^tangfeld^ 
judge of the Hn' d tister 

of Sir James St ^ " , i 1-] Slie 

died on 25 March 18S3, leaving three 
and three daughters. 



Dixon 



138 



Dixon 



[Birmingham Daily Post. 25, 27, 28, 29 Jan. 
1898; Times, 25, 29 Jan. 1898; Daily Chro- 
nicle, 25 Jan. 1898; Leeds Grammar School 
Register, 1897, p. 23; Reid's Life of Forster, 
1888; Smith's Life of John Bright, 1881, ii. 
512; Ann. Reg. ; Hansard's Parliamentary De- 
bates.] E- I- C. 

DIXON, HENRY HALL (1822-1870), 
sporting writer, known as ' The Druid,' the 
second son of Peter Dixon {d. 1866), a large 
cotton-spinner residing at Warwick Bridge, 
near Carlisle, who married in 1820 Sarah 
Rebecca, daughter of General Tredway 
Clarke, was born in Cumberland on 
16 May 1822. He was educated under 
Arnold at Rugby (1838-41), and proceeded 
to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he 
graduated B.A. in 1846, and would have 
obtained high honours in classics but for 
the temporary failure of his eyesight. He 
had written on sporting subjects for ' Bell's 
Life ' both at Rugby and at Cambridge, and 
when he settled as clerk to an attorney at 
Doncaster he was easily persuaded by the 
veteran James White, known as ' Mar- 
tingale,' to become a systematic writer on 
sporting topics. He showed remarkable 
aptitude from the first, became in a very 
short time the manager of the * Doncaster 
Gazette,' and was introduced from it to 
Vincent Dowling, editor of * Bell's Life in 
London,' for which he began writing in 
1850. On Bowling's death in November 
1S52 he was offered but refused the editor- 
ship of * Bell's Life ' with a commencing 
salary of 1 ,000/. He probably retained the 
idea of practising at the bar, for he was 
called in 1853, and went for a time upon 
the midland circuit. But this soon failed 
him as a resource, and he began writing re- 
gularly for the * Sporting Magazine,' first 
under the pseudonym of General Chass6, and 
then as ' The Druid.' Three of his best 
known works, ' Post and Paddock ' (1856), 
' Silk and Scarlet' (1859), and ' Scott and 
Sebright '(1862), which last he considered 
his best work, made their first appearance 
in the pages of that periodical. At the time 
that he was writing ' Silk and Scarlet ' he 
was, in order to conciliate his father, work- 
ing hard upon 'The Law of the Farm,' a 
useful compendium, which first appeared in 
1858, and has maintained its position as a 
standard work through numerous editions. 
After its appearance he began a column of 
freshly written information for the ' Illus- 
trated London News,' under the heading of 
'The Farm,' and in 1859 also he began a 
series of papers upon 'The Flocks and 
Herds of Great Britain' for the 'Mark 
Lane Express.* He visited upwards of 



eighty herds, and henceforth his attention 
was largely diverted from the turf to cattle 
and farming matters. Pie won four prizes 
for essays ofl'ered by the Royal Agricultural 
Society, the most important being his essay 
on the ' Breeding of Shorthorns' in 1865. In 
the same year appeared his ' Field and 
Fern,' the result of a careful perambulation 
of Scotland and inspection of the herds of 
that country, on the conclusion of which he 
rode from the Orkneys to his house at Ken- 
sington on the back of a small pony without 
stopping at an hotel, thus winning a 
sovereign, the largest bet he ever made, 
from the editor of the ' Field.' Like ' Field 
and Fern,' his larger work on the herds and 
cattle of England was issued in two 
volumes ('North' and 'South') under the 
title of ' Saddle and Sirloin ' in 1870. In 
the meantime Dixon had been appointed 
upon the regular staff of the ' Daily News,' 
in which paper his much appreciated article 
on 'Cub-hunting' appeared. But he had 
suffered terribly from severe exposure during 
his numerous tramps, and his health gradu- 
ally gave way. Working to the last with 
unflinching courage and industry, he died at 
his house in Kensington on 16 March 1870. 
He married in May 1847 Caroline, daughter 
of Thomas Lynes, who survived him with 
a large family. An excellent portrait was 
engraved by W. J. Alais for ' The Life and 
Times of the Druid' (1895). 

The Druid rarely hunted or betted on a 
horse race; he was not a Nimrod himself 
(like Apperley), but he was an interested 
spectator of all kinds of sport, and was em- 
phatically one of those lookers-on who see 
most of the game. He had not much in 
common with the ordinary turfite, having 
retained to the last ' the view he had im- 
bibed at Rugby as to the respect due to clas- 
sical scholarship, to liberalism in politics, 
and above all to religion.' Yet, as an ex- 
ponent of sporting tradition, he has no rival, 
though all sporting journalists have lit their 
torches at the Druid's fire. His sympathies 
were nearly universal, and, inclining always 
to take a kindly view of human nature, he 
studiously avoided writing a word to cause 
pain. His faults are lack of the finish and 
clearness that can only be obtained by re- 
vision (which he neglected), and the ob- 
scurity that comes from allusiveness. There 
is a strong vein of poetry in many of his 
vivid sporting recollections and impressions 
of landscape. A number of stories are told 
of the Druid's eccentricities, arising for the 
most part from his queer solitary habits and 
his singular indifference to money and to 
regular meals. 



Dixon 



"39 



Dixon 



[Life and Timis of the Druid by Hon. 
Frincis I^awloy, 1805 ; Thomianby's Kings of 
tho Turf ; IIohs^'m M<xlorn IlioRrnphy ; Snort- 
ing Review. 1870, i. 204; Field, 19 >larch 
1870; Sporting Times, 6 Fob. 1886; lllus- 
tratod Sporting and Dramatic (portrait), 187 4, 
i. 64.1 T. S. 

DIXON, RICHARD WATSON (1833- 

IIKX)), historiim, ]>oet, and divine, was the 
iddest son of Dr. .lames Dixon [q. v.], a dis- 
tinj^aiished Wesloyan preacher, by Mary, only 
(liiU),'hteroftheKev. Richard Watson (1781- 
1 s.M.'i ) [q. v.] In the biography he wrote 
ot his lather, Dixon describes his mother as 
'an excellent Latin and (4reek scholar, a 
perfect French and a sutUcient Italian lin- 
guist, and an exnuisite musician ; ' and of his 
grandmother, Mrs. AVatson, who made a 
home with her daugliter, he retained an 
affectionate recollection as of a very good 
and clever woman. Both the Watsons and 
Dixons belonged to the early school of 
methodists, who did not renounce their mem- 
bership in the church of England, so that 
there was no feeling that Dixon had been 
disloyal to their communion when he pre- 
pared for orders in the church. 

He was born on 5 May 1833 at Islington, 
and educated, under Dr. Giftard, at Kin^' 
Edward's School, Birmingham, where he hac 
for school friends Edwin Hatch [q. v. Suppl. 
and (Sir) Edward Burne-Jones [q. v. Suppl." 
In .Tune 1851 he matriculated at Pembroke 
ColU'ge, Oxford, and when in the Christmas 
t. rin of tho same year Edward Burne-Jones 
and William Morris [q. v. Suppl.] came up 
to Exeter College, they, with Fulford, Faulk- 
ner, Cormell l*rice, and a few more, formed 
a close brotherhood. An excellent account 
of these Oxford davs was contributed by 
Dixon to Mr. J. \V. Mackail's 'Life of 
Morris * (i. 42 sqq.) He says ' Jones and 
Morris were both meant for lioly orders, and 
the same may l>e said of the rest of us except 
Faulkner; but the bond of alliance was 
poetry and indefinite artistic and literary 
aspirations. We all had the notion of doing 
great thincs for men according to our own 
will and bent.* With Morris, Dixon pro- 
jected the ' Oxford and Cambridge Maga- 
zine,' and had a hand, under Rossetti's direc- 
tion, in the amateur distempering of the 
walls of Woodward's new debating hall at 
the Oxford I'nion with frescoes from the 
Arthurian Romances, now almost completely 
obliterated. Dixon did not in after life 
pur-iit D.iiiif ing as a study — a single canvas, 
a ^ ene from Chaucer, is, it is be- 

lit'\ nly ])icturc of his that survives 

— but he alwavs retained his interest, and a 
visit to the old masters in the National Gal- 



lery was a regular incident of anv ritit to 
London. At Oxford Dixon rand for the 
ordinary classical schools, and graduAted 
B.A. in 1857. Tho next yew he won the 
Arnold historical prize for an emuLj on 'The 
Close of tho Tentii Century of the Christian 
Era,' and in 1863 the Cramer prize for a 
sacred poem, the subject being ' St. John in 
Patmos.' The pw»m is in the heroic couplet, 
and is a very dignified and impressive piece 
of writing. His first published volume of 
poems, called • Christ's (;ompany,'had already 
appeared in 1861, and a second, * Historicu 
Odes,' followed in 1863. These early poems 
of Dixon were distinguished by not a little 
of the colour and imagination, and also by 
something of the eccentricity, that marked 
the early eflbrts of the Pre-Raphaelite school. 
The poems of the first volume, though 
largely upon religious subjects, are not 
strictly religious poetry; they are works of 
picturesque imagination rather than of de- 
votional feeling. The 'Historical Odes* 
show an advance in simplicity, and a power, 
that Dixon afterwards carried further, of 
ode constraction. The odes upon Wellington 
and Marlborough contain much good writ- 
ing, and deserve more attention than they 
have received. 

After leaving Oxford Dixon lodged for a 
time with Morris and Burne-Jones in Red 
Lion Square. In 1858 he was ordained to 
the curacy of St. Mary-t he-Less, Lambeth, 
Mr. Gregory, the present dean of St. Paul's, 
giving him his title. In 18C1 (9 April) he 
married the widow of William Thomson of 
Haddingtonshire (n6e Maria Sturgeon), in 
the same year removing to the curacy of 
St. Mary, Newington Butts. From 1863 to 
1868 he was second master at rarlisL-TTlD-h 
School, and from 1868 to 1875 .n 

and honorary librarian of Carli>i mI. 

After that he was for eight years vicar of 
Hayton, in Cumberland, and was then pre- 
sented by the bishop of Carlisle to the 
vicarage of Warkwortn in Northumberland, 
which he held till his death. Besides these 
small livings Dixon received no preferment 
in the church, although the best years of his 
life were devoted to writing a church history, 
which took rank from the first moment of its 
a])p<'arance as a standard authority. His 
friends would have greatly valued for nim the 
increase of leisure and opportunities for study 
which a cathedral stall would have afforded ; 
but it was not to be. The distinctions which he 
received after the app^^arnnoe of the fizst 
volume of his history, i re such as to 

reduce tho already St- .'. re of a hard- 

work* 1 -gymaa. In l>74hehadbeen 

made I inon of Carlisle ; in 1879 he 



Dixon 



140 



Dobson 



became rural dean of Brampton; in 1884 
rural dean of Alnwick ; and in 1891 examin- 
ing chaplain to the bishop of Newcastle. 
He was chaplain to the high sheriff of Cum- 
berland in 1883, and from 1890 to 1894 was 
a proctor in convocation. He was always 
singularly modest as to his claims upon re- 
cognition ; but it gave him genuine pleasure 
when in the last year of his life his univer- 
sity conferred upon him an honorary doctor's 
degree in divinity, and his college made 
him an honorary fellow. In 1885 he stood 
for the professorship of poetry at Oxford, but 
withdrew his candidature before the election. 
The short preface to * Eudocia and her 
Brothers ' upon the use of the heroic cou- 
plet shows that he possessed keen critical 
powers and a faculty of lucid exposition. 

In December 1891 Dixon had a severe 
attack of influenza, which for some long 
time diminished his power of writing, but 
he ultimately recovered ; a second attack in 
January 1900 carried him off after a few days' 
illness. His first wife having died in 1876, 
Dixon married in 1882 Matilda, eldest daugh- 
ter of George Routledge [q. v.] He had no 
children by either marriage ; but he proved 
an affectionate step-father to the daughters 
of his first wife. 

In manner Dixon rather appeared than 
was shy and melancholy, qualities which he 
notes in his father, whose portrait in middle 
life, as given in the biography, his son not 
a little resembled. It was often remarked 
that Dixon had a great look of Chaucer as 
he appears in Hoccleve's portrait ; and the 
resemblance was more than external, reach- 
ing to a characteristic and humorous interest 
in all sorts and conditions of people. At the 
same time he was a zealous and devoted 
parish priest. A sketch of Dixon by Mr. 
Will Rothenstein appears in the ' Northern 
Counties Magazine ' for June 1901. 

Dixon's published works besides the prize 
compositions referred to above are as follows : 
1. 'Christ's Company,' 1861. 2. 'Historical 
Odes,' 1863. 3. ' Life of James Dixon, D.D.,' 
1874. 4. ' An Essay on the Maintenance of 
the Church of England,' 1874. 5. 'The 
Monastic Comperta, so far as they regard 
the Religious Houses of Cumberland and 
Westmorland,' Kendal, 1879. 6. 'Seven 
Sermons preached in the Cathedral Church 
of Newcastle-on-Tyne,' edited with a preface, 
1888. 7. ' A Sermon preached on the 
Occasion of the Diamond Jubilee,' Alnwick, 
1897. 8. * Mano,' a narrative poem in terza 
rima, 1883. 9. ' Odes and Eclogues,' 1884. 
10. 'Lvrical Poems,' 1886. 11. 'The Story 
of Eudocia and her Brothers,' 1888 ; the last 
three being pamphlets printed at the private 



press of the Rev. H. Daniel in Oxford ; from 
them a selection was edited in 1896 (by his 
friend, Mr. Robert Bridges) and published in 
Elkin Mathews's ' Shilling Garland.' In 
1892 Dixon issued a Latin poem, ' Carmen 
elegiacum in obitum Edwini Hatch, D.D.' 
Dixon's latest poems are his best. They 
grew to the end in simplicity and intellectual 
force. His later songs have some of the 
directness and music and imaginative quality 
of Blake's. His masterpieces maybe reckoned 
the odes ' On Conflicting Claims ' and ' On 
Advancing Age,' and that entitled 'The 
Spirit Wooed.' The work, however, by 
which he must take rank is ' The History 
of the Church of England from the Abolition 
of the Roman Jurisdiction,' which happily 
he lived to complete, the fifth and final volume 
being ready for publication at the time of 
his death. This work is not a philosophical 
history of the Reformation, but a chronicle 
history. The attempt is made, and made 
with success, to narrate the events one after 
another as they happened ; in fact, to ' beget 
the time again.' Dixon's object was partly 
to correct Froude's view of the Reformation 
in England, and he held that ' a reforma- 
tion was needed in many things ; but it was 
carried out on the whole by bad instruments, 
and attended by great calamities' (Hist, 
i. 7). The style of the work is the prose- 
style of a poet ; that is to say, words are 
used not merely as conventional counters, 
but with a full sense of their value. In some 
places the effect of the writing is somewhat 
odd, but on the whole it is striking and satis- 
factory. The character sketches, generally 
critical in tone, of the chief actors in the 
historic drama show Dixon's imaginative 
insight and genius for reconstructing past 
events ; and they are among the most inte- 
resting passages in the several volumes. 

[Life of James Dixon, D.D., by his son,R. W. 
Dixon; obituary notices ; private information. A 
slight notice of his poetry appears in vol. v. of 
Poets and Poetry of the Century, by A. H^ 
Miles, and in Non Sequitur, a volume of essays 
by Miss M. E. Coleridge, there is a paper re- 
printed from the Northern Counties Magazine, 
entitled ' The Last Hermit of Warkworth.'] 

H. C. B. 

DOBSON, GEORGE EDWARD (1848- 
1895), zoologist, born on 4 Sept. 1848, at 
Edgeworthstown, co. Longford, was the son 
of Parke Dobson of Killinagh in West 
Meath. He was educated at the royal 
school of Enniskillen and at Trinity College, 
Dublin, where he graduated B.A. in 1866, 
M.B. and M.Ch. in 1867, and M.A. in 1875. 
He was first senior moderator and first gold 
medallist in experimental and natural science, 



Dobson 



141 



Dobson 



and was also awarded the jfold medal of the 
Dublin Pntliolojrlcnl Society for his * F^saay 
on the Diagnosis and Prtthology of tho In- 
juries and Diaenses of tho Shouklerbhule.' 
Ilo entered the nrmy medical department in 
1868, retiring in 1888 witli the rank of 
eurgeon-major. He was elected a fellow of 
tho Linnean Society on 16 April 1874, and a 
fellow of the Hoyal Society on 7 June 1883. 
Ilo was also a fellow of the Zoological 
Society and a corresi)onding member of the 
Academyof Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 
and of the Biological Society of Washington. 

Dobson will be chiefly remembered for his 
laborious investigation into the structure 
and classification of two groups of mammals, 
the chiroptera and insectivora, on both of 
which he became the chief authority of his 
time. This occupation formed the main 
employment of twenty years of his life. 
While stationed in India he made a careful 
study of the bats of that country. His first 
published paper on the subject, entitled ' On 
lour new Species of Malayan Bats from the 
Collection of Dr. Stoliczka,' appeared in the 
* Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Ben- 
gal'for 1871. This was followed by numerous 
memoirs upon various members of the group 
in the same journal, in the ' Proceedings of 
the Zoological Society,' and in the ' Annals 
and Magazine of Natural History.* In 1876 
the trustees of the Indian Museum brought 
out his * Monograph of the Asiatic Chiro- 
ptera,' Calcutta and London, 8vo, which led 
to his being employed by the trustees of the 
British Museum on his return to England to 
prepare the 'Catalogue of the Chiroptera 
in the Collection of the British Museum,' 
•which appeared in 1878 (London, 8vo). It 
atill remains the standard work on the 
anatomy, nomenclature, and classification of 
bats, although the four hundred species de- 
scribed in it nave been considerably increased 
by subsequent investigators. 

Dobson was soon afterwards placed in 
charge of the museum of the Royal Victoria 
Hospital at Netley, where he had further 
opportunities of pursuing his zoological 
studies. He began to extend his researches 
to other groups of mammals, and in 1882 
commenced * A Monograph of the Insecti- 
vora, Systematic and Anatomical,' London, 
8vo. The second part appeared in 1883, and 
the first division of the third in 1890, but it 
was not completed at the time of Dobson's 
death. He also made investigations into 
muscular anatomy, which resulted in an 
important paper * ()n the Homologies of the 
long Flexor Muscles of the Feet of Mam- 
malia,' published in the 'Journal of Anatomy 
and Physiology ' in 1883. 



Dobson died on 26 Nov. 1895, and wa» 
burled on 29 Nov. at West Mailing. Be- 
sides the works already mentioned he wrote 

* Medical Hints to Travellers,' published by 
the lloyal Geographical Society, which 
reached a seventh edition in 1893, and con- 
tributed the sections ' Insectivora,' * Chiro- 
ptera,' and ' Rodent ia,' in the article ' Mam- 
malia,' and the articles ' Mole,' ' Shrew,' and 
' Vampire ' to the ninth edition of the * En- 
cyclopedia Britannica.' These articles were 
afterwards used by (Sir) William Henry 
Flower [q. v. Suppl.l and Mr. Richard Ly- 
dekker in their ' Introduction to the Study 
of Mammals,' 1891. He wrote numerous 
papers on zoology and comparative anatomy 
for British and foreign scientific journals. 

[Nature. 28 Nov. 1895 ; Proceedings of Royal 
Society, 189o-6, vol. lix. pp. xv-xvii ; Men nnd 
Women of the Time, 1895.] E. I. C. 

DOBSON, WILLIAM CHARLES 
THOMAS (1817-1898), painter, bom at 
Hamburg in 1817, was the son of a mer- 
chant, John Dobson, who had married in 
Germany. After some losses in business the 
father came to England in 1826, and his 
children were educated in London. William, 
who showed a taste for drawing, studied 
from the antique in the British Museum, 
and was taught by Edward Opie, a nephew 
of John Opie [q.v.1 In 1836 he entered the 
Royal Academy schools, where he made rapid 
progress, receiving special attention from 
(Sir) Charles Lock Eastlake [q.v.] Through 
Eastlake's influence Dobson obtained a posi- 
tion of some importance at the government 
school of design, then newly established in 
the old Royal Academy rooms at Somerset 
House. In 1843 he became head-master of 
the government school of design at Bir- 
mingham. Disliking the restrictions to 
which he was subjected, he resigned this 
post in 1845, and went to Italy. He had 
already exhibited several portraits, and 

* The Hermit,' a subject from Parnell's poem, 
at the Royal Academy Exhibitions of 1842- 

1845. ' The Young Italian Goatherd,' 
painted in Italy, was at the exhibition of 

1846. From Italy, where he spent most of 
his time at Rome, Dobson proceeded to 
Germany, where he stayed several years, 
and received a deep impression from the re- 
ligious art of the * Nazarene ' school of that 
time. On returning to England he devoted 
himself to overcoming that indifference to 
religious painting, on the part of artists rather 
than of the public, which struck him as the 
great defect in the English art of the day. 
lie painted numerous scriptural subjects, at 
first in oils, afterwards in water-colours also. 



Dodgson 



142 



Dodgson 



whicli enjoyed a great vogue in their own 
day, and were popularised by engraving. 
The public liked their prettiness, simplicity, 
and refinement, and did not object to their 
sentimentality and want of realism. Some 
of his most ambitious pictures were 'Tobias 
and the Angel,' 1853 ; 'The Charity of Dor- 
cas,' 1854 ; ' The Aims-Deeds of Dorcas,' 
1855, which was bought by the Queen; 
' The Prosperous Days of Job,' 1856 (the 
two last-named pictures were engraved by 
H. Bourne for the 'Art Journal'); 'The 
Child Jesus going to Nazareth with his 
Parents,' and ' Reading the Psalms,' 1857, 
both the property of the Baroness Burdett- 
Coutts ; ' The Holy Innocents ; ' ' The 
Good Shepherd ; ' ' Abraham and Ilagar ; ' 
and among secular subjects, ' The Picture 
Book ' (International Exhibition, 1862) ; 
* The Camellia,' ' The Dresden Flower-Girl,' 
' Sappho,' ' Mignon,' and ' lone.' Dobson 
w^as elected an associate of the Royal 
Academy on 31 Jan. 1860, and an academi- 
cian in January 1872. He was a member 
of the Etching Club, founded in 1842. In 
1870 he was elected an associate of the 
Royal Water-colour Society, of which he 
became a full member in 1875. As a water- 
colour painter his mission was to stand up 
for the old tradition of painting entirely in 
transparent washes, and to protest by quiet 
insistence against the corruption of the art, 
as he deemed it, which had been introduced 
by artists like Walker and George John 
Pinwell [c[.v.], who used body-colour. Dob- 
son remained a constant exhibitor almost to 
the last, both at the Royal Academy and at 
the Old Water-colour Society, contributing 
about a hundred and twenty pictures to the 
former and about sixty to the latter gallery. 
He became a retired academician in 1895, 
and died at Ventnor on 30 Jan. 1898. 

[Mag. of Art, i. 183; Athengeum, 5 Feb. 
1898 ; Daily Graphic, 3 Feb. 1898; Memoir by 
M. H. Spielmann, with portrait.] C. D. 

DODGSON, CHARLES LUTWIDGE 

(1832-1898), author and mathematician, best 
known by his pseudonym, ' Lewis Carroll,' 
was born at Daresbury, near Warrington, 
on 27 Jan. 1832, the eldest son of Charles 
Dodgson, incumbent of Daresbury, after- 
wards archdeacon of Richmond and one of 
the canons of Ripon Cathedral, and of his 
wife and first cousin, Frances Jane Lut- 
widge. 

As a child he displayed quaint precocity. 
It is told of him that he supplied earthworms 
with weapons in order that they might fight 
with more effect, fostered snails and toads, 
and inquired persistently the meaning of 



logarithms (S. D. Collingwood, Life and 
Letters of Lewis Carroll). He also wrote 
and performed plays for marionettes. In 
1844, at the age of twelve, he was sent to 
school at Richmond in Yorkshire. In 1846 
he entered Rugby, where he remained three 
years and won success in mathematics and 
divinity, but he seems to have had few of 
the schoolboy's enthusiasms. His tastes lay 
in the direction of authorship, and certain 
home magazines, notably ' The Rectory Um- 
brella,' are still preserved, largely written 
and illustrated by himself. Even as a boy 
his verses were sprightly, and he had a flow 
of comic ideas. 

Dodgson matriculated at Christ Church, 
Oxford, on 23 May 1850, at the age of eigh- 
teen, and on 24 Jan. 1851 entered into 
residence — a residence that practically was 
uninterrupted until his death. His career 
as an undergraduate was exemplary. In 
his first year he won a Boulter scholarship ; 
in his second he took first-class honours in 
mathematical, and second-class honours in 
classical, moderations, and was admitted on 
Pusey's nomination a student of Christ 
Church. In 1854 he was placed in the first 
class in the final mathematical school and 
in the third class in Uteres humaniores, and 
on 18 Dec. he graduated B.A. In 1855 
began the career of mathematical lecturer 
which was to continue until 1881. In 1857 
he proceeded M.A., having been a ' Master 
of the House' (i.e. the senior B.A. enjoying 
the privileges of an M. A.) since 15 Oct. 1855, 
when Liddell became dean. On 22 Dec. 1861 
he was ordained deacon, never, however, pro- 
ceeding to priest's orders, partly perhaps from 
shyness, and partly from a constitutional 
stammer which prevented reading aloud. 
He was able, however, to preach, which he 
did occasionally, and he gave a number of 
lectures, principally to children. He chose 
sometimes a Bible subject, such as the Epi- 
phany, but for the most part the entertain- 
ment took the form of narrations of portions 
of his books, illustrated by lantern slides of 
his own devising. He also made a me- 
chanical Humpty-Dumpty (a character in 
'Through the Looking Glass') for this pur- 
pose. 

To Dodgson's shyness may partially be 
attributed the circumstance that his friend- 
ships were carried on more by letter than 
by personal intercourse ; and it may account 
to some extent for the fact that his most 
cherished intimates were little girls, in en- 
tertaining whom he was tireless. There is 
also no doubt that the dictates of a con- 
science which was perhaps over exacting 
for daily life were obeyed too closely for 



Dodgson 



143 



Dodgson 



him to be companionable to ordinary adult 
persons. Flo made, however, acquaintance 
witli eminent men— amon^ them Iluskin, 
Tennyson, Millais, and Uossetti — of wliom 
he has left valuable photographs, amateur 
photogrnphy having been successfully prac- 
tised by him almost from boyhood. 

Dodgson went to Russia with Dr. Liddon 
in 1H67, and visited London and its theatres 
periodically ; but he remained essentially 
an Oxford man to the very last. At the 
same time he took practically no part in 
college business, and had no wide educa- 
tional enthusiasms or university ideals. But 
he was always quick to comment upon any 
Oxford matters that interested him. His 
curious ironical gifts are nowhere better 
exemplified than in the humorous oblique 
protests which he put forth every now and 
then in the sixties and early seventies as his 
contribution to public discussions on ques- 
tions affecting Oxford: such as 'The Dyna- 
mics of a Particle,' in 1866, when Gladstone 
and Mr. Gathorne Hardy (afterwards Vis- 
count Cranbrook) were contesting the repre- 
sentation of the university; and ' The New 
Belfry,' in 1872, a very successful attempt 
to throw ridicule on the ugly wooden box 
which was placed on the roof over the hall 
staircase at Christ Church in order to house 
the bells that had to be removed from the 
cathedral tower. The new Wolsey tower 
was built instead, in answer to the outcry. 

Dodgson also occasionally displayed some 
interest in more general matters, and from 
time to time addressed letters to the Lon- 
don papers on subjects near to him, such as 
the employment of children in theatres — a 
practice in which he saw no harm — and the 
eight hours question. These public utter- 
ances were always shrewd and witty. To a 
large extent, however, Dodgson was a solitary 
from first to last, living his own half-clois- 
tral, fastidious, eccentric life, with the odd 
creations of his nimble fantastic brain for 
principal company. He died at Guildford, 
at his sisters' home, on 14 Jan. 1898, aged 
60. 

Dodgson's first literary efforts for anything 
more public than Oxford periodicals were 
written for the * Comic Times,' founded in 
1853. In 18/56 'The Train' was started, 
under the editorship of Edmund Yates, and 
to this Dodgson contributed verse. It was 
Yates who fixed upon the name * Lewis 
Carroll' from a list ot four suggested pseudo- 
nyms sent him by Dodgson, Lewis being 
derived via Ludovicus from Lutwidge, and 
Carroll via Carolus from Charles. By this 
name he is known to thousands who have 
never heard of his patronymic. 



In I8<r) appeared ' Alice's Adventures in 
Wonderland,' the work by which, with it» 
pendant, 'Through the Looking Glass and 
what Alice found thorn' HHTl), his name 
is best known and will be Known. Therein 
the autlior's gift of absurd comic invention 
and delicate fanciful fun is at its richest ; 
while the circumstance that the books ori- 
ginated in the wish to amuse one of his little 
girl-friends animated them with a charm 
and humanity that are not to be found in 
the same degree in anything else he wrote. 
The little girl in question was Alice Liddell 
(afterwards Mrs. Reginald HargTeave8),Dean 
Liddell's second daughter, to whom the ori- 
ginal story of Alice was told on a river 
excursion. It was then written out as * Alice's 
Adventures Underground,' afacsimile reprint 
of which was issued in 1886. The first 
edition of ' Alice's Adventures in AVonder- 
land,' issued in July 1865, was withdrawn 
by the author on account of the defective 
printing of Tenniel's illustrations. The 
book was reissued in November of the same 
year, although dated 1866 {Athenesmrif 
11 Aug. 1900). On its true appearance, 

* Alice's Adventures in Wonderland' — or 
[ ' Alice in Wonderland,' as it is abbreviated 

by most persons — was immediately popular, 
I and it has been popular ever since, with a 
' popularity only equalled by its companion, 

* Through the Looking Glass,' which, under 
I the full title, ' Through the Looking Glass 
' and what Alice found there,' when pub- 
lished in 1871, received a welcome the more 
warm for having had such a predecessor. 

i The success of both books was greatly for- 
i tified by the drawings of Mr. (afterwards 
Sir) John Tenniel. 'Alice in Wonderland' 
has been translated into French, German, 
Italian, and Dutch ; quotations from it and 
from its companion volume have passed into 
the language, and their dramatis persones 
constitute a new nursery mythology. The 
author accomplished what was practically a 
' new thing in writing— a persuasive yet rol- 
j licking madness that by its drollery fasci- 
nates children, and by its cleverness their 
elders. The two 'Alice' books were dra- 
I matised in 1886 by Mr. Savile Clarke, and 
: the play was successfully produced in London 
for the Christmas holidays of that year. It 
[ has since been revived more than once, and 
I has been performed on provincial tours. 
' Dodgson took great interest in the adapta- 
' tion, and wrote for it a song to be sung by 
j the ghosts of the oysters which the walrus 
and carpenter had eaten, and also additional 
lines to the verses beginning ' 'Tis the voice 
of the lobster.* 

Dodgson's next notable experiment in his 



Dodgson 



144 



Dodson 



nonsense vein was ' The Hunting of the 
Snark,' 1876, a bewildering story in verse, 
technically as brilliant as anything its author 
wrote, the meaning of which, however, still 
defies students. The theory that it is an 
allegory of the pursuit of fame has perhaps 
most favour. Not until 1889 did ' Sylvie 
and Bruno,' Dodgson's next book for chil- 
dren, appear, to be followed in 1893 by 
* Sylvie and IBruno Concluded.' This story 
cannot be called successful. The author 
attempted to do two things at once : he tried 
to write a drolly fanciful story for children, 
after his known manner, and also to provide 
their elders with theological dogma. Though 
the book exhibits his deeply religious mind 
in a beautiful light, and shows now and 
again that his powers of comic invention 
had not weakened, it remains divided against 
itself. 

Besides the fanciful works which Dodg- 
son issued under his familiar pseudonym of 
Lewis Carroll, he made many serious con- 
tributions in his own name to mathematical 
literature ; but, despite the true greatness of 
his mathematical talent, the limited charac- 
ter of his reading in mathematics deprived 
most of his published mathematical work of 
genuine value. The native acuteness and 
ingenuity of his intellect led him to devote 
much attention to formal logic, in whose 
intricate puzzles he delighted, and he almost 
seemed to have convinced himself that it 
was an engine for the discovery of new 
truth, instead of a means of detecting error — 
that more could be got out of the premisses 
than was put into them. But this failing 
did not hamper him in dealing with a sub- 
ject in which he was especially interested — 
■elementary geometry. Perhaps it even 
added to the enthusiasm with which he 
pursued its study. His one valuable con- 
tribution to mathematics is * Euclid and his 
Modem Rivals' (London, 1879). Many, 
excusably, refused to accept the book 
seriously ; it was dedicated to the memory 
of Euclid, and thrown into dramatic form, 
while scattered up and down it were many 
jokes, which would have been more numerous 
but for the criticism of friends to whom the 
proof-sheets were shown. But when stripped 
of its external eccentricities it was a really 
serious contribution to Euclidian geometry, 
and went far to vindicate the unique posi- 
tion of Euclid's elements as a first text-book 
of geometry, by a careful and systematic 
examination of the various treatises which 
had been produced by way of substitutes 
for it. 

Besides the books already mentioned, 
Dodgson wrote : 1. * Syllabus of Plane Alge- 



braical Geometry,' Oxford, 1860. 2. 'For- 
mulae of Plane Trigonometry,' Oxford, 1861. 
3. 'An Elementary Treatise on Deter- 
minants,' London, 1867. 4. 'Phantasma- 
goria and other Poems,' London, 1876. 

5. ' Euclid, Books I and II,' London, 1882. 

6. 'Rhyme? or Reason?' (a reprint, with 
additions, of ' Phantasmagoria ' and * The 
Hunting of the Snark'), London, 1883. 

7. ' The Principles of Parliamentary Repre- 
sentation,' London, 1884. 8. ' A Tangled 
Tale,' London, 1885. 9. 'The Game of 
Logic,' London, 1887, 10. ' Curiosa Mathe- 
matica,' 3 parts, London, 1888-93. 11. 'The 
Nursery Alice,' London, 1890. 12. ' Sym- 
bolic Logic,' London, 1896. 

Dodgson issued from time to time pam- 
phlets on various subjects, such as descrip- 
tions of games of intellectual activity that 
he had invented; hints to mathematical 
examiners; and advice concerning letter- 
writing. 

[The Life and Letters of Lewis Carroll, by 
Stuart Dodgson Collingwood, 1898 ; The Lewis 
Carroll Picture Book, edited by Stuart Dodg- 
son Colhngwood, 1899; The Story of Lewis 
Carroll, by Isa Bowman, 1899; Reminiscences 
of Oxford, by Rev. W. Tuckwell, 1900, pp. 
161-3; Times obituary notice, 15 Jan. 1898; 
information from the Rev. E. F. Sampson.] 

E. V. L. 

DODSON, JOHN GEORGE, first 
Baron Monk-Bretton (1825-1897), politi- 
cian, born at 12 Hertford Street, Mayfair, 
London, on 18 Oct. 1825, was the only son 
of the Right Honourable Sir John Dodson 
[q.v.] He was educated at Eton from 1838 
and gained there in 1841 and 1842 the prince 
consort's prizes for modern languages. He 
matriculated from Christ Church, Oxford, 
on 9 June 1843, and graduated B.A. in 1847, 
when he obtained a first class in classics, 
and M.A. in 1851. In 1853 he was called 
to the bar at Lincoln's Inn. 

On leaving Oxford in 1847 Dodson spent 
two years in travel in the East, going as far 
as Baghdad, and on his return journey visit- 
ing Albania and Montenegro. He stayed 
for three months in 1848-9 in Cyprus, and 
his account of that island, which was then 
little known, was reproduced in successive 
editions of Murray's ' Handbook ' down to 
1872. His eastern tour was soon followed 
by travel in other parts of the world. In 
1853 he visited the United States, and 
during the Crimean war of 1854-5 visited 
the Crimea. He possessed great facility as 
a linguist, which he retained through life. 
An ardent mountaineer, he was a member 
of the Alpine Club. His narrative of an as- 
cent of ' the passages of the Glacier du Tour 



Dodson 



145 



Donaldson 



and of the Col (If Miago in September 18/>0 ' 
is printed in ' Peaks, i'asses, and Glaciers ' 
(L'nd series), i. 189-207. 

Dodson unsiiccessfullv contested in the 
liberal interest the division of East Sussex 
in July 1852 and March 1857, but in April 
1857 he was returned at the head of the 
poll and was a re])resentative of the con- 
stituency until February 1874. At the 
general election of 1874 he was returned to 
parliament for the city of Chester, and was 
aj^ain returned in April 1880, being shortly 
afterwards re-elected on receiving an office 
under the crown. But subsequently the 
earlier election was declared void on peti- 
tion; and, although the second election re- 
mained unimpugned, he could neither sit 
nor vote. lie consequently found a new 
seat at Scarborough, and represented that 
constituency from July 1880 until 1884, 
when he became a peer. 

For three years (1858-61) Dodson was 
prominent in urging in the House of Com- 
mons the repeal of the hop duties, which 
Gladstone removed in 1861. In 1863 he 
carried through the House of Commons the 
lyfct enabling university electors to vote by 
means of voting papers. He introduced in 
1864 a bill for the abolition of tests at the 
universities (Speaker Denison, Notes, 1900, 
pp. 167-8). From February 1865 to April 
1872 Dodson was chairman of committees 
and deputy-speaker of the House of Com- 
mons, and on 10 May 1872 he was created 
a privy councillor. He was an authority on 
parliamentary procedure, and his speech 'on 
private bill legislation ' on 18 Feb. 1868 was 
printed. He was financial secretary to the 
treasury from August 1873 to February 1874, 
and for three years (1874-6) he was chair- 
man of the committee of public accounts. 

In April 1880, on the formation of Glad- 
stone's second ministry, Dodson was made 
president of the local government board 
with a seat in the cabinet. During his first 
year of cabinet office he carried the govern- 
ment's Employers' Liability Act through 
the House of Commons. On 20 Dec. 1882 
he was transferred to the post of chancellor 
of the duchy of Lancaster. That office he 
retained till October 1884. when he retired 
from the government and was created Baron 
Monk-Bretton of Conyboro and Hurstpier- 
point on 4 Nov. 1884 (upon this curious com- 
bination in a title see G. E. C[ok.vyne], Peer- 
ttf/e, y. 330). He filled political office with 
credit, and was reckoned a sound man of 
business, but liis abilities * did not appear on 
the surface, and many people were puzzled 
at the success he attained' (Algernon West, 
liecol led ions, i. 55). 

VOL. II.— SUP. 



In 1886 Lord Monk-Bretton declined to 
accept Gladstone's home-rule policy, and 
thenceforth took no prominent part in poli- 
tics. During the parliamentary recess he 
had always lived a retired life in his country 
home at Conyboro, Sussex, and took much 
part in county business. He was the first 
chairman of the East Sussex County Coun- 
cil (1889-92). 

Lord Monk-Bretton died at 6 Seamore 
Place, London, on 25 May 1897, and was 
buried in the churchyard of Barcombe, Sussex, 
on 29 May, his estate of Conyboro being 
in that parish. There is a memorial tablet 
to him in the church of Hurstpierpoint, 
Sussex, where several of his forefathers 
were buried. He married there, on 3 Jan. 
1856, Florence, second daughter of William 
John Campion of Danny, Sussex, and had 
issue one son and three daughters. His 
widow still survives. A portrait by Sir 
Francis Grant was presented to her by his 
East Sussex constituents in 1874 on his re- 
tirement from the representation. Another 
was painted by Frank Topham, K.I., in 
1896; a replica, paid for by subscription, 
hangs in the council chamber of the East 
Sussex County Council. 

He wrote in the * Edinburgh Review,* 
and contributed to the collections of the 
Sussex Archaeological Society (xv. 138-47) an 
article on some old acts of parliament relating 
to Sussex roads. He was chairman of that 
society's annual meetings for 1870 (Rye and 
Camber Castle), 1872 (Parham), and 1875 
(Lewes). 

[Burke's Peerage ; Foster's Alumni Oxen. ; 
Men of the Time, 1895 edit. ; Sussex Daily News, 
26 May 1897, p. 5, 31 May, p. 5; private in- 
formation.] W. P. C. 

DONALDSON, JOHN (1799-1876), 
author of * Agricultural Biography,' was 
born in Northumberland in 1799, and was 
probably related to James Donaldson (^. 
1794) [q. v.], whose subjects he made his 
own. His chief writings, upon the title- 
pages of which he is described as * Professor of 
Botany' and 'Government Land Drainage 
Surveyor,' were : 1. * A Treatise on Manures,' 
1842. 2. ' The Enemies to Agriculture, Bo- 
tanical and Zoological,' 1847. 3. * Soils and 
Manures,' 1851. 4. ' Agricultural Bio- 
graphy,' 1854 : a very useful specimen of 
biographical grouping, though the notices 
are often merely bibliographical. 5. * British 
Agriculture : Cultivation of Land, Manage- 
ment of Crops, Economy of Animals,' 1860, 
4to : an elaborate compilation dedicated to 
the Duke of Argyll. 

Donaldson was presented to the Charter- 
house by the Prince Consort in August 1855, 

L 



Donnelly 



146 



Dorion 



and died a poor brother there on 22 March 
1876, leaving a will in favour of Elizabeth 
Saine, a widow. In the vear after his death 
a posthumous work on * Suburban Farming ' 
•was edited by Robert Scott Burn. 

[Times, 29 March 1876 (an account of the 
inquest of whioh Donaldson's sudden death by 
syncope was the cause); Notes and Queries, 
7ih ser. v. 8, 76; Donaldson's Works; Brit. 
Mu8. Cat.] T. S. 

DONNELLY, Sir ROSS (1761 P-1840), 
admiral, son of a Dr. Donnelly, was born 
obout 1761. After serving under Vice- 
admiral Marriot Arbuthnot [q. v.] on the 
coast of North America, and at the capture 
of Charlestown in 1780, he was promoted on 
the Newfoundland station to be lieutenant 
y of the sloop Morning Star on 27 Sept. 1781. 
After the peace he served as mate in the 
East India Company's service, but returned 
to the navy in 1793, and was appointed first 
lieutenant of the Montagu, which ship, 
after the death of her captain, James Mont- 
agu [q. v.], he commanded in the battle of 
1 June 1794. As Howe expressed approval 
of his conduct, and Sir Alexander Hood 
(Lord Bridport) [q. v.] wrote him a com- 
plimentary letter, Donnelly and his friends 
expected some more marked acknowledg- 
ment of his service than the promotion to 
commander's rank, which, together with 
the other first lieutenants of the ships en- 
gaged, he received on 6 July 1794. He 
hoped that the gold medal given to some of 
the flag officers and captains [see Howe, 
Richard, Earl] would be given to him, and 
applied for it ; but was told that it was 
only given to those who were post captains 
at the date of the battle. This rule was 
afterwards modified, and, both after the Nile 
and Trafalgar, first lieutenants who suc- 
ceeded to the command by the death of 
their captain received the gold medal. 
Donnelly was, however, promoted to be 
captain on 24 June 1795, and appointed 
to the Pegasus frigate in the North Sea with 
Admiral Duncan. From her he was moved to 
the Maidstone on the coast of France, in 
which, in 1801, he brought home a valuable 
convoy of 120 merchant ships from Oporto 
— a service for which the merchants of 
Oporto presented him with a handsome 
piece of plate. Towards the end of the 
year he was moved to the Narcissus, which 
for the next three years he commanded in 
the Mediterranean, attached to the fleet 
under Nelson. In 1805, still in the Nar- 
cissus, he accompanied Sir Home Riggs 
Ponham [q. v.] to the Cape of Good Hope, 
ana afterwards to Buenos Ay res, whence 



he returned to England with despatches, in 
which his individual services were highly 
commended both by Popham and the 
general in command of the troops He was 
then appointed to the Ardent of 64 guns, 
and went back to the Rio de la Plata in 
command of a convoy of transports. At 
the capture of Monte Video he commanded 
the naval brigade, and rendered important 
service both in transporting the heavy guns 
and in erecting batteries [see Auchmtjty, 
Sir Samuel]. In 1808 Donnelly was ap- 
pointed to the Invincible, a 74-gun ship, in 
which he joined the squadron oft" Cadiz, and, 
later on, the main fleet off Toulon under 
Lord Collingwood. In 1810 his eyes be- 
came disabled by cataract, and he was 
forced to resign his command. Two years 
later he had so far recovered as to apply 
for employment, and was appointed 
to the Devonshire, which he fitted out. 
The conclusion of peace, however, prevented 
her going to sea, and Donnelly had no 
further service, though he was promoted to 
be rear-admiral on 4 June 1814 ; vice- 
admiral on 27 May 1825; admiral on 
28 June 1838. He was nominated a K.C.B. 
on 28 Feb. 1837. He died on 30 Sept. 1840. 
He was married and left issue. His eldest 
daughter, Anne Jane {d. 1855), married, on 
18 April 1816, George John, twentieth lord 
Audley, and had issue. 

[Marshall's Roy. ISTav. Biogr. ii, (vol. i. pt. 
ii.) 613*. This memoir, apparently supplied by 
Donnelly himself, is reproduced with a few ad- 
ditions in Gent. Mag. 1841, i. 95 ; Navy Lists.] 

J. K. L. 
DORION, Sir ANTOINE AIME (1818-^ 
1891), chief justice of the court of queen's 
bench, Quebec, born in the parish of Ste.- 
Anne de la Perade, in the county of Cham- 
plain, Lower Canada, on 17 Jan. 1818, was 
son of Pierre Antoine Dorion by his wife 
Genevieve, daughter of P. Bureau. Edu- 
cated at the Nicolet College, Dorion studied 
law and was received as advocate in January 
1842. He took a leading position at the 
Montreal bar from an early date, and main- 
tained it with ease until he retired in 
1874. He was created queen's counsel in 
1863. 

Dorion's name is found among the 325 ^ 
subscriptions to the annexation manifesto 
of 1849. About the same time he joined 
the very advanced Rouge party founded by 
Louis Joseph Papineau [q.v.], and became a 
frequent contributor to the columns of its 
organ, * L'Avenir.' In 1854 Dorion was 
elected member for Montreal, and retained 
the seat till 1861. A clear, easy, and ornate 
speaker both in English and French, he be- 



Dorion 



147 



Doudncy 



camo leail(?r of tho oxtromo wing of tho 
I'loncli Canadian liberal party. In 18o7 ho 
declined 10 join the Tacl»6-Macdonald go- 
vernment; but the year following he cast 
in his fortunes with George Brown [q. v. 
Suppl.] Their administration lasted only 
forty-eight hours, yet it gave rise, directly 
and indirectly, to many intricate questions 
of a constitutional character that troubled 
tho peace of Canada for nearly twenty years 
(Mackenzie, Life of Brown, chap. x. ; Todd, 
Parliament an/ Government in the British 
Colonies, 1894, pp. 762-9). 

Although he suilered defeat in Montreal 
at the hands of (Sir) George Etienne Car- 
tier [q. v.] in 1861, Dorion joined the Sand- 
iield Macaonald-Sicotte cabinet as provincial 
secretary in May 1862, and found a con- 
stituency in Ilociielaga, which he continued 
to represent for the next ten years. He 
withdrew from the ministry within a year 
avowedly on the ground that he had no 
faith in the intercolonial railway project 
then advocated by the government. A few 
weeks later the cabinet was reconstructed 
with a view to the forthcoming elections i 
and on the basis of abolishing, in so far as 
representation in the assembly is concerned, , 
the dividing lines between Upper and Lower 1 
Canada. Thereupon Dorion became attorney- ^ 
general east and the acknowledged leader 1 
of the French-Canadian liberals (June 1863). I 
The change of programme gave little strength 1 
to the ministers. After a severe struggle 1 
for existence the administration resigned | 
(March 1864). | 

The Quebec resolutions, the basis of the | 
present system of Canadian federation, came \ 
up for consideration in 1865. Dorion op- 
posed them with great force, expressed his 
preference for a federal union of the Canadas 
only, with guarantees for the special inte- 
rests of each section, and declared that a 
scheme of that kind would have been laid 
before the house by the Brown-Dorion go- 
vernment if it had been permitted to unfold 
its policy. 

In 1872, having continued to represent 
Ilochelaga after the federation, he announced 
his intention to retire from public life, but 
he was induced to olFer himself as a candi- 
<l;\te for Napierville at the general elections 
of that year, and was triumphantly returned. 
I le was named in the ensuing session with 
Mr. Edward Blake to represent the opposi- 
tion on a select committee appointed to in- 
quire into certain charges which were made 
against the government in connection with 
the Pacific Railway charter (1873). The 
committee took no evidence and made no 
report. Other disclosures brought about 



the resignation of the ministry, and, on the 
accession of the liberals, Dorion became 
minister of justice and member of the privy 
council (7 Nov. 1873). Tho laws of the 
dominion which pertain to elections and 
election trials are his work. On 1 June 
1874 he was appointed chief-justice of the 
court of queen's bench in Quebec. He was 
administrator of his native province for a 
short time during 1876, from tlie death of 
Lieutenant-governor Caron to the appoint- 
ment of Luc Letellier de St.-Just, The 
order of knight bachelor was conferred on 
him on 4 Oct. 1877. 

Dorion's judgments have contributed much 
to the elucidation of the Canadian federal 
system. They bear principally on the pro- 
vincial taxing power, on the meaning to be 
attributed to the words * direct taxation 
within the province.' Among them may be 
mentioned the case of the Queen's Insurance 
Co. (1 Cart. 151), Reed's case (1 Cart. 196), 
and the Bank of Toronto v. Lamb (4 Cart. 
44). A more general review of the Canadian 
division of power will be found in Dobie v. 
The Temporalities Board (1 Cart. 393), where 
Dorion's decision, leaning in favour of the 
province, was reversed on appeal to this 
country. But, whether set aside or sus- 
tained, his judgments in all cases carry the 
impression of calm deliberation, wide juri- 
dical culture, logical training, and a happy 
power of expression. 

He died on 31 May 1891. In 1848 Dorion 
married the daughter of Dr. Trestler of 
Montreal. 

[Taylor's Port, of Brit. Americans, i. 229- 
24G; Bibaud's Le Pantheon Can. p. 77 ; Dent's 
Can. Port. Gall, i v. 65 ; Morgan's Legal Directory, 
p. 212 ; N. 0. Cote's Political Appointments, p. 
86 ; Gray's Confederation, i. 196, 229, 230-43 ; 
Turcotte's Canarle sons I'union, pt. iii, c. ii. ; 
Dent's Last Forty Years, chaps, xxxvii. xxxviii. ; 
Gerin-Lajoie's Dix Ans au Can. pp. 485-.o29 ; 
Toronto Globe, 1 June 1891; Canadian Han- 
sard.] T. B. B. 

DOUDNEY, DAVID ALFRED (1811- 
1894), educationist and author, son of John 
Doudney {d. 1834), was bom on 8 March 
1811 at his father's house, 386 Mile End 
Terrace, Portsea. Charles Dickens was bom 
in the next house eleven months later. At 
the age of thirteen Doudney was appren- 
ticed to a printer at Southampton, and he 
subsequently joined the stall' of the ' Hamp- 
shire Advertiser.' In 1832 he moved to 
London, and was engaged by Messrs. Jowett 
& Mills, printers, of Bolt Court, Fleet Street, 
until 1835, when he set up a printing busi- 
ness of his own, first at Hollo way, and then 
in Long Lane, Aldersgate Street, a site now 

l2 



Doudney 



148 



Douglas 



occupied by the Metropolitan Railway sta- 
tion. In 1840 Doudney purchased and be- 
came editor of the ' Gospel Magazine,' and 
in 1846 he retired from his printing press. 

In November of the latter year he went 
to Ireland to distribute funds raised by 
readers of the 'Gospel Magazine' for the 
relief of the Irish famine. In the following 
year he was ordained deacon and priest in 
the Anglican church by the bishop of 
Cashel, and from 1847 to 1859 he was vicar 
of Kilrush and curate of Monksland, co. 
Waterford. Impressed by the poverty and 
ignorance of the people, Doudney established 

* industrial, infant, and agricultural ' schools 
at Bunmahon or Bonmalion, as he spelt it. 
Various kinds of technical instruction were 
supplied, and a printing press set up, from 
which was issued Doudney's abridgment of 
Gill's 'Exposition of the Old and New 
Testaments;' the former, which comprised 
four stout double-column volumes, appeared 
between 1852 and 1854, and the latter in 
two volumes, 1852-3. He also issued from 
the Bonmahon press a periodical entitled 

* Old Jonathan,' which he continued to edit 
until his death. Doudney published at 
Bonmahon an account of these schools in 

* A Pictorial Outline of the Rise and Pro- 
gress of the Bonmahon Schools,' 1855, 16mo. 

Doudney left Ireland in 1859 to become 
perpetual curate of St. Luke's, Bedminster, 
Bristol, where he established industrial 
schools similar to those at Bonmahon. He 
continued to edit the ' Gospel Magazine ' 
and * Old Jonathan,' and published a large 
number of tracts and other devotional works. 
In 1806 he edited the 'Recollections and 
Remains' of the Rev. George David Doudney, 
his cousin and brother-in-law, an evangelical 
divine like himself. Doudney also took an 
active part in many charitable institutions, 
particularly the Printers' Corporation. He 
retired from St. Luke's in 1890, and in that 
year was presented with a thousand pounds 
in recognition of his fifty years' editorship 
of the 'Gospel Magazine.' He moved to 
Southville, Granada Road, Southsea, where 
he died on 21 April 1893. He was buried 
in Southsea cemetery on the 25th. He was 
twice married, and left four sons and two 
daughters. A portrait of Doudney is given 
in the ' Gospel Magazine 'for May 1893, and 
is prefixed to his * Memoir.' 

[Memoir of D. A. Doudney, by his eldest son 
and eklcRt daughter, 1893 C2nd edit. 1894); 
works in Brit. Mus. Libr.; Crockford's Clerical 
Directory, 1891 ; Times, 24 and 25 April 1893; 
City Press, 26 April 1893 ; Men of the Time, 
13th edit.; Gospel Magazine, May and June 
1893.] A. F. P. 



DOUGLAS, Sir JOHN SHOLTO, 
eighth Marquis of Queensberrt (1844- 
1900), eldest son of Archibald William 
Douglas (1818-1858), seventh marquis, who 
married on 2 June 1840 Caroline Margaret, 
younger daughter of General Sir William Ro- 
bert Clayton, bart., was born on 20 July 1844, 
and succeeded his father as eighth marquis 
in 1858. He served in the navy for five 
years (1859-64) and held a commission in 
the first Dumfriesshire volunteers. From 
1872 until 1880 he sat as a representative 
peer for Scotland, but he was not re-elected 
in 1880. Except in this capacity his public 
acts were of a strictly unofficial character. 
He became somewhat notorious as a sup- 
porter of Charles Bradlaugh [q. v. Suppl.] 
and secularism, and at the Globe Theatre on 
14 Nov. 1882 he rose in the stalls and de- 
nounced Tennyson's ' imaginary free-thinker ^ 
in the ' Promise of May ' as an ' abominable 
caricature.' The marquis became even more 
notorious in 1895, when he was charged at 
Marlborough Street police-court with pub- 
lishing a defamatory libel on Oscar Wilde 
[q. V. Suppl.], and on taking his trial at the 
central criminal court was acquitted (5 April) 
on the grounds that the 'libel 'was justifiable 
and was published ' for the public benefit.' 

Queensberry is best remembered as a 
patron of boxing. When the prize-ring fell 
into final disrepute in England about 1860, 
the Amateur Athletic Club was founded by 
John Chambers, whom Queensberry sup- 
ported, with a view to encourage boxing 
contests. Handsome challenge cups were 
off*ered by Queensberry, and in 1867 a body 
of special rules was drawn up under his 
supervision, which have since borne the 
name of 'Queensberry rules.' In 1881 
Queensberry published a meditation in blank 
verse entitled ^The Spirit of the Matter- 
horn.' He died in London on 31 Jan. 1900,. 
and his remains after cremation were buried 
in the family burying-place at Kinmount,. 
Dumfriesshire, on 3 Feb. 1900. He married,, 
first, on 26 Feb. 1866, Sibyl (who divorced 
him on 22 Jan. 1887), younger daughter of 
Alfred Montgomery, and had issue four sons 
and one daughter. He married, secondly,. 
on 7 Nov. 1893 Ethel, daughter of Edward 
Charles Weedon of Exeter (marriage an- 
nulled 1894). He was succeeded as ninth 
marquis by his eldest surviving son, Percy 
Sholto Douglas. 

His elder son, Francis Archibald Douglas,, 
called Viscount Drumlanrig (1867-1894),. 
lord-in-waiting to the queen (1892-4), acted 
as assistant private secretary to Lord Rose- 
bery when the latter became foreign secre- 
tary in Gladstone's 1892 ministry. In order- 



Douglas 



149 



Douglas! 



that he might be able to sit in the House of 
Lords with his chief he was created a peer 
of tiie United Kingdom on 2'J Juno 1H9'J, 
and took his seat in tiio House of Lords 
(from which his father, after 1880, was ex- 
cluded) as JJaron Kelhead. 

[Times, 1, 6, and 7 Feb. 1900, and April and 
May 1895, passim; G. E. C[oknyne]'8 Complete 
Pecra^ie; Burke's IVerago; Archer's About the 
Theatre, 1886, p. 85 ; Jirit. Mus. Cat.] T. S. 

DOUGLAS, Sir WILLIAM FETTES 

(1822-1891), artist and connoisseur, the 
eldest son of James Douglas and Martha 
I'rook, grand-niece of Sir William Fettes, 
hart. [q. v.], the founder of Fettes College, 
was born on 12 March 1822 in Edinburgh. 
On the completion of his education at the 
Iligli School of Edinburgli, he entered the 
Commercial Bank, in which his father was 
accountant ; but the elder Douglas was an 
amateur of some talent, and the son de- 
voted the leisure of the ten years he was in 
the bank's service to painting and drawing, 
and in 1847 resolved to become an artist. 
33eyond a few months in the Trustees' 
Academy, then under Sir William Allan 
[q. v.], he did not receive any systematic 
training, but he disciplined his hand and eye 
bv the care and accuracy of the drawing he 
<lid by himself, and he attended the botany 
and anatomy classes of the university, while 
at a somewhat later date he painted a good 
deal in the country with the Faeds and Alex- 
ander Eraser [q. v.], the landscape painter. 

In 1845 he exhibited for the first time at 
the Royal Scottish Academy, and soon his 
pictures attracted such notice that in 1851 
he was elected an associate, and three years 
later a full member. Some of his finest 
pictures belong to about this time, and in 
such as 'The Ruby Ring' (1853); 'The 
Alchemist' (1855); ' Hudibras and Ralph 
visiting the Astrologer' (1856), an incident 
from Butler's famous work ; 'The Rosicru- 
cians' (1856), one of his finest things in \ 
colour ; and ' The False Astrologer,' the | 
painter's interest in out-of-the-way subjects i 
and his definite leaning to archicology are 1 
clearly visible. Many of them show much 1 
of the pre-Raphaelite spirit, and are re- | 
markable for wonderfully perfect and de- j 
tailed handling and rich and beautiful 
colour. ' The Summons to the Secret Tri- 
bunal ' (1860) ; 'David Laing, LL.D.,' a 
portrait picture (1862) ; and ' The Spell ' 
(1864), are among the more important 
works of a later date. 

In 1859 he made the first of several visits 
to Italy, where he devoted much time to 
studying coins and ivories, enamels and 



bookbindings, of which and other rare and 
beautiful things he subsequently made a 
fine collection. Many of his einaller 
pictures areraasterly studies of such objects, 
and in nearly all of his principal pictures 
they figure as accessories. As a collector 
he is said to have combined the specific 
knowledge of the connoisseur with the 
practical and general discernment of the 
artist ; but the only contributions he made 
to the literature of the subject were the 
notes in Mr. Gibson Craig's privately issued 
'Facsimiles of old Bookbinding' (1882). 
He also possessed a wide and accurate know- 
ledge of pictorial art, which fitted him admi- 
rably for the curatorship of the National 
Gallery of Scotland, in which he succeeded 
James Drummond (1816-1877) [q. v.] But 
here again he wrote nothing, although he in- 
corporated much of what he knew in the 
catalogue of the gallery. This ofiice he held 
from 1877 to 1882, when he was elected to 
the presidential chair of the Royal Scottish 
Academy, vacant through the death of Sir 
! Daniel Macnee [q. v.] He was knighted at 
I Windsor on 17 xMay 1822, and appointed a 
I member of the Board of Manufactures, 
j while in 1884 the university of Edinburgh 
I conferred the degree of LL.D. upon him. 
I After 1870 he turned more to landscape, 
'and in 1874-5 he produced 'Stonehaven 
I Harbour' and 'A Fishing Village,' which 
j are perhaps the finest pictures that he 
painted. But for some time after 1879 the 
[ eftects of a serious illness laid him aside, and 
j when he resumed his art it was to practise in 
I water-colour only. His drawings are small 
I in size but very charming, and show a true 
appreciation of the medium. In the 
I National Gallery of Scotland he is repre- 
[ sented by three characteristic works ; South 
j Kensington Museum has * The Alchemist,* 
1 and Glasgow Corporation Galleries ' Biblio- 
1 mania.' 

He died at Newburgh, Fife, on 20 July 
1891, and was buried at St. Cyrus. In 
November 1880 he married Marion, second 
daughter of Barron Grahame of Morphie. 
There were no children. His portrait, 
painted by Sir George Reid in 1883, hangs 
in the library of the Scottish Academy. It 
is reproduced in photogravure in the selec- 
tion from his works published by the Royal 
Association for the Promotion of Fine Arts 
(1885), and edited by John Miller Gray 
[q. V. Suppl.] 

[Critical Sketch by J. M. Gray, 1885; Scots- 
man, 21 July 1891 ; U.S.A. Report, 1891 ; 
Academy, 26 July 1891 ; CrttAlogues of exhibi- 
tions anvl of Scottish National Gallery, ed. 
1899; private information.] J. L. C. 



Douglass 



150 



Doulton 



DOUGLASS, Sir JAMES NICHOLAS 

(1826-1898), engineer, eldest son of Nicholas 
Douglass of Stella House, Penzance, super- 
intendent engineer to the corporation of 
Trinity House, and his wife Alice, daughter 
of James Douglass of Winlaton, co. Durham, 
was born at Bow on 16 Oct. 18:>6,his father 
then being in the employ of Messrs. Hunter 
& English. He was educated at Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, and at Bridgend under the Rev. E. 
Jones, and was then apprenticed to Messrs. 
Hunter & English at 33ow. 

In 1847 he became assistant to his father, 
and helped him in the erection of the light- 
house on the Bishop's Rock in the Scilly Isles. 
He then became manager to Messrs. Laycock 
on the Tyne, where he remained till 1854, 
when he was appointed resident engineer of 
the Gun Fleet Pile lighthouse, and afterwards 
of the Smalls Rock lighthouse near Milford 
Haven. This latter work was one of extra- 
ordinary difficulty and danger. Douglass 
always accompanied the working party, and 
was the first to land and the last to leave. 
He had many narrow escapes, and during 
the terrible gale of October 1859, when the 
Royal Charter was wrecked, it was thought 
that the whole of the working party had 
been drowned ; but the small sailing tender 
in which the party embarked from the rock 
succeeded at length in making Swansea 
harbour. 

In 1861 Douglass became resident engi- 
neer on the Wolf Rock lighthouse; this 
lighthouse was not completed till 1870, and 
the dangerous nature of the work is clearly 
shown in the paper written by Douglass, 
which described its construction {Proceedings 
Inst. Cicil Engineers, xxx. 1). In October 
1862 he was appointed chief engineer to the 
corporation of Trinity House in succession 
to James Walker. For the Trinity Brethren 
he designed many important lighthouses, 
but the work with which his name will 
always be connected was the design and 
erection of a new structure to take the place 
of the famous Eddystone lighthouse, built 
by John Smeaton [q. v.] Owing to the dis- 
integration of the rock upon which Smeaton's 
etnicture stood, it was necessary to find a 
new site and to take down most of the old 
lighthouse. Not only was the new structure 
a very remarkable one, but the work of 
taking down the upper portion of Smeaton's 
buildmg and re-erecting it on the Hoe at 
Plymouth involved a task of very consider- 
able difficulty. Work was begun on 17 July 
1878, and the new lighthouse was opened 
on 18 May 1882, the cost (below the original 
estimate) being only 59,260/. On the com- 
pletion of this work he was knighted in 



June 1882 (see ib, liii. 247, and Ixxv. 20, 
for a description of the lighthouse and of 
its erection). 

Douglass carried out, in conjunction with 
Tyndall and Faraday, many exhaustive ex- 
periments on lighthouse illumination and on 
fog-signalling ; and in 1879 he presented a 
paper to the Institution of Civil Engineers, 
entitled * Electric Light applied to Light- 
house Illumination ' {Proc. Inst. Civil Eng. 
Ivii. 77). In 1884 he was nominated a 
member of the committee appointed by the 
Elder Brethren of Trinity House to carry 
out a series of experiments on different illumi- 
nants for lighthouse work. The committee 
made their experiments at the North Fore- 
land, and, as a result of them, they reported 
that oil was the most economical and suit- 
able illuminant for ordinary lighthouses, but 
for the more important structures on lofty 
headlands, &c., electric lighting was better. 

Douglass became a member of the Insti- 
tution of Civil Engineers on 5 Feb. 1861, 
and was elected to the council in 1881. He 
was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 
1887, and in 1886, at the Birmingham 
meeting of the British Association, he served 
as president of section G. 

He married, on 6 July 1854, Mary, daugh- 
ter of James Tregarthen of St. Mary's, 
Scilly Isles, and died at Bonchurch in the 
Isle of Wight on 19 June 1898. 

In addition to the papers contributed to 
the Institution of Civil Engineers mentioned 
above, he published the following pamphlets : 
' Specification for Framing Lighthouses,' 
London, 1864 ; * Improvements in Coast 
Signals with Remarks on the New Eddy- 
stone Lighthouse,' London, 1884 ; and * On 
Fluted Craterless Carbons for Arc Lighting,' 
London, 1886. 

[Life of Sir J. N. Douglass, by T. Williams, 
Lond. 1900; obituary notice in Proc. Inst. Civil 
Engineers, vol. cxxxiv.] T. H. B. 

DOULTON, Sir HENRY (1820-1897), 
the * greatest potter of the nineteenth cen- 
tury,' second son of John Doulton, by his 
wife Jane (Duneau), was born in Vauxhall 
Walk, Lambeth, in 1820. His younger bro- 
ther Frederick (1824-1872) was M.P. for 
Lambeth from 1862 to 1868. His father had 
started a small pottery at Lambeth with 
three kilns in 1815, and he moved to High 
Street, Lambeth, in 1828. His staple pro- 
ductions appear at first to have been black- 
ing and oil bottles and ' Toby-fillpot ' jugs. 
Among other early products were * reform * 
bottles, bearing the heads of the king, Grey, 
Russell, and Brougham. On leaving Uni- 
versity College school in 1835, Henry joined 



Doulton 



151 



Dowel 1 



his father at the potter}'. Working hia own 
wheel with foot-power ho soon became an 
expert * tlirower,' and in 1846 made his first 
distinct success witli glazed pipes for sanitary 
purposes. With these, and witli eartlien- 
ware sinks, in the face of many prejudices, 
progress was slowly made. Tlie firm ob- 
tained medals in 1851 and 1802 for large 
stoneware vessels and appliances for chemical 
purposes. In 1S67 they first exhibited orna- 
mental work at l*aris. About 1>^70 Doulton 
began to develop his famous 'sgrailito' ware, 
a revival in a modified form of the old 'agate' 
or self-glazed stoneware of the late seven- 
teenth century, made of a rather hard grey 
or brown material, on which a sharply in- 
cised design from nature is generally drawn, 
a part or the whole being then richly enamelled 
in blue or dark brown. At the exhibition 
at South Kensington in 1871 a striking dis- 
play was made of the new ware, which was 
justly described as 'honest, useful, and in 
thoroughly good taste.' A quantity of the 
pottery was bought by Queen Victoria, a 
sensation was created among connoisseurs, 
and a brilliant future assured to the Doulton 
•ware. The firm had a magnificent show at 
Vienna in 1873, and in 1878, after the ex- 
hibition at Paris in that year, Doulton was 
made a chevalier of the L6gion d'honneur. 
His success encouraged him to undertake 
the revival of the old local art of under- 
glazed painting. A school of art was now 
grafted upon the original commercial under- 
taking, and by 1885 Doulton had in his 
employ as many as four hundred male and 
female artists, each one an independent de- 
signer, bound by the rules of the firm to 
copy no previous pattern and to keep no 
duplicate for imitation, in order as far as 
possible to avoid mechanical reproduction. 
A number of individual marks employed by 
the most talented of the Doulton artists 
(such as George Tinworth, Arthur and 
Ilannah Barlow) are given in Chaffers's 
' Marks on I*ottery and Porcelain ' (1900, p. 
879). At the Lambeth works on 21 Dec. 
1885, in recognition of the impulse given by 
him to the production of art pottery in Eng- 
land, the gold Albert medal of the Society of 
Arts was conferred upon him by the prince 
of Wales. Two years later (on the occasion 
of the jubilee, wlien he presented Doulton 
mugs to all the children reviewed by't he queen 
in Ilyde Park) he was knighted, and the 
same year witnessed the erection of the new 
Doulton works above Lambeth Palace, with 
the slender tower familiar as a landmark on 
the south bank of the Thames. A number 
of developments, each with distinctive 
features of its own, were gradually intro- 



duced into the fabrique, 8uch as the Lambeth 
Faience, Doulton Imnasto, Silicon, Chin6, 
Marquetrie, and Burslem wares. In 1897, 
in the sanitary and faience works Pf)iiil.;n..d, 
over four thousand persons were 
and the original factories were sujij 1 

by establishments at liurslem, Smethwick, 
Rowley Regis, St. Helen's, Paisley, and 
Paris. 

Sir Henry, who was vice-president of the 
Society of Arts from 1890 to 1894, took a 
keen interest in local affairs, and was almoner 
of St. Thomas's Hospital for many years. He 
died at his residence, 1 Queen's Gate Gardens, 
London, on 17 Nov. 1897, and was buried at 
Norwood cemetery. He married, in 1849, 
Sarah {d. 2G Oct. 1888), daughter of John L. 
Kennaby, and left issue. The business was 
turned into a joint-stock company in 1899. 

[Times, 19 Nov. 1897; Illustrated London 
News, 27 Nov. 1897 (portrait); the Pottery 
Gazette, 1 Dec. 1897 (portrait) ; Architecture, 
January 1898 (portrait); Litchfield's Pottery 
and Porcehiin, 1900; Portfolio, xxi. 85; Art 
Journal, December 1897 ; Society of Arts Jour- 
nal, 26 Nov. 1897 ; Mackenzie's Encyclopsedia 
of Art and Manufacture, p. 709; Chaffers's 
Pottery and Porcelain, 1900 : Magazine of Art, 
August 1897 ; All the Year Pound, Ixii. 250.] 

T. S. 

DOWELL, STEPHEN (1833-1898), 
legal and historical writer, born at Shorwell 
in the Isle of Wight on 1 May 1833, was the 
eldest son of Stephen Wilkinson Dowell 
(1802-1870), rector of Mottiston and Shor- 
well, and from 1848 till his death vicar of 
Gosfield, Essex ; his mother was Julia, 
daughter of Thomas Beasley of Seafield, co. 
Dublin. He was educated at Cheltenham 
College and Highgate school, whence he pro- 
ceeded to Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 
matriculatingon7 June 1851. Hegraduated 
B.A. in 1855 and M.A. in 1872. In 1855 
he was articled to R. Bray, a solicitor of 99 
Great Russell Street, W.'C, and on 1 May 
1863 he was admitted student of Lincoln's 
Inn. In the latter year Palmerston ap- 
pointed him assistant solicitor to the board 
of inland revenue. He resigned this post in 
August 1896 and died of pneumonia at 
46 Clarges Street on 27 March 1898 ; he 
was unmarried. Besides writing various 
legal tracts, one of which, on ' The Income 
Tax Laws,' was published in 1874 and 
reached a third edition in 1890, and compil- 
ing a privately printed selection from various 
writers entitled 'Thoughts and Words' (3 
vols. 1891, 1898), Dowell made a valuable 
contribution to historical knowledge by his 
work on taxation. In 1876 he published ' A 
Sketch of the History of Taxes in England,' 



Dowse 



152 



Doyle 



which was followed in 1884 by his * History 
of Taxation and Taxes in England from the 
Earliest Times to the Present Day,' Lon- 
don, 4 vols. Svo. This is the standard work 
on the subject, and reached a second edition 
in 1888. 

[Works in Brit. Mus. Library ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxen. 1716-1886; Liucoln's Inn Records, 1896, 
ii. 307: Times, 16 June 1898; Athenaeum, 1898, 
i. 792; information kindly supplied by the Eev. 
A. G. Dowell.] A. F. P. 

DOWSE, RICnARD (1824-1890), Irish 
judge, son of William Henry Dowse of Dun- 
gannon, by Maria, daughter of Hugh Donald- 
son of the same town, was bom in Dungan- 
non on 8 June 1824, and received his early 
education in the royal school there. In 1845 
he entered Trinity College, obtaining a sizar- 
ship, and, gaining the distinction of a clas- 
sical scholarship in 1848, graduated with 
honours in 1849. In 1852 Dowse was called 
to the Irish bar. Joining the north-west 
circuit, he early displayed marked forensic 
ability, and in 1863 became a queen's coun- 
sel, in 1869 he was appointed one of the 
queen's serjeants-at-law, and in the same 
year was elected a bencher of the King's 
Inns. A liberal in politics, Dowse was a 
successful candidate for the parliamentary 
representation of Londonderry city (18 Nov. 
1868), and, taking his seat as a supporter of 
Gladstone's Irish Church Act, he was ap- 
pointed in February 1870 solicitor-general 
for Ireland, being re-elected for London- 
derry on 15 Feb. In the House of Commons, 
where the prominence of Irish questions 
during his career in it gave him exceptional 
opportunities. Dowse quickly obtained a high 
reputation both for ability and wit, his 
speeches being marked by a racy humour, 
joined to a keen incisiveness, which made 
him a very effective parliamentary debater. 
In January 1872 Dowse became attorney- 
general for Ireland in succession to Charles 
Robert Barry (1834-1897), raised to the 
bench, and was appointed a member of the 
Irish privy council ; but in November of 
the same year his parliamentary career was 
closed by his acceptance of the office of a 
baron of the Irish court of exchequer, a title 
which Dowse was the last among Irish 
judges to accept. He remained a member of 
the Irish bench until his death, which oc- 
curred suddenly in the court-house at Tralee, 
where he was sitting as judge of assize, on 
14 March 1890. His career as a judge was 
not one of special distinction, nor did Dowse 
ever attain the reputation of a lawyer of the 
first rank ; but his judgments were marked 
by sound common sense and breadth of view, 
and pointed by his always ready wit. 



Dowse was a visitor of the Queen's Col- 
lege, Galway, and was twice appointed a 
lord justice for the government of Ireland 
in the absence of the viceroy. 

He married, on 29 Dec. 1852, Catherine, 
daughter of George Moore of Clones, co. 
Monaghan, who died in 1874. 

[Private information ; Todd's Graduates of 
Dublin Uuiversity; Official Return of Mem- 
bers of Pari. ; Haydn's Book of Dignities, ed. 
Ockerby.] C L. F. 

DOYLE, Sir FRANCIS HASTINGS > 
CHARLES, second baronet (1810-1888), 
poet, born at the house of his grandfather, Sir 
William Mordaunt Milner, at Nunappleton, 
near Tadcaster in Yorkshire, on 21 Aug. 
1810, was the only son of Major-general Sir 
Francis Hastings Doyle, first baronet (1783- 
1839), by his wife Diana Elizabeth (d. 14 Jan. 
1828), eldest daughter of Sir William 
Milner. General Sir John Doyle, baronet 
[q. v.], was his great-uncle ; while General 
Sir Charles Hastings Doyle [q. v.] was his 
second cousin, and Lieutenant-general Sir 
Charles William Doyle [q. v.] and Colonel 
Sir John Milley Doyle [q. v.] were his 
father's first cousins. He was first sent to a 
well-known private school at Chelsea, kept 
by a Frenchman named Clement, where 
Walter Kerr Hamilton [q. v.], (Sir) Henry 
John Codrington [q. v.], and others after- 
wards well known were his contemporaries. 
At the beginning of 1823 he entered Eton 
as the pupil of Richard Okes [q. v.], and 
under the head-mastership of John Keate 
[q. v.] There, through the debating society 
held at Miss Hatton's, ' a cook and confec- 
tioner,' he formed friendships with Glad- 
stone, Arthur Henry Hallam, James Bruce 
(afterwards eighth Earl of Elgin) [q. v.], 
Charles John Canning (afterwards Earl 
Canning) [q. v.], George Augustus Selwyn 
(1809-1878) [q. v.], and (Sir) John Hanmer 
(afterwards Baron Hanmer) [q. v.] He heard 
Gladstone's maiden speech delivered to this 
society, and co-operated with him in editing 
the ' Eton Miscellany.' 

At Christmas 1827 Doyle left Eton to 
study with a private tutor, Henry De Foe 
Baker, rector of Greetham in Rutlandshire. 
He matriculated from Christ Church, Ox- 
ford, on 6 June 1828, and went into resi- 
dence in January 1830. Among his Oxford 
friends were (Sir) Thomas Dyke Acland 
[q. V. Suppl.], Sidney Herbert (afterwards 
Baron Herbert) [q. v.], Joseph Anstice [q. v.], 
and (Sir) Robert Joseph Phillimore [q. v.] 
He was also acquainted with Manning, while 
his intercourse with Gladstone became very 
intimate. He acted as best man at Glad- 



I 



Doyle 



53 



Doyle 



stone's marriage in 1889, but in after life the 
difference in their interests and the great 
chunL^e in fJladstone's political views tended 
to drive them apart. 

Doyle took a first class in classics, gra- 
duating B.A. in 1832, B.C.L. in 1843, and 
M.A. in 1867. lie was elected a fellow of 
All Souls' in 1835, retaining his fellowship 
until his marriage. After completing his 
university studies he turned his attention to 
the law. On 11 Oct. 1832 he entered the 
Inner Temple as a student, and in 1834 and 
1835 was taken on the northern circuit as 
marshal by Sir James Parke (afterwards 
Baron Wensleydale) [q. v.], an old family 
friend who was at that time baron of the 
court of exchequer. On 17 Nov. 1837 he 
was called to the bar and joined the north- 
ern circuit, where he was shortly nomi- 
nated a revising barrister. He succeeded 
to the baronetcy on his father's death on 
6 Nov. 1839. lie had not, however, ac- 
quired much practice when his marriage in 
1844 rendered it necessary for him *to look 
out for some more remunerative occupation 
than the periodical donning of a wig and 
gown by a briefless barrister.' In 1845 Sir 
Kobert Peel offered him the assistant-solici- 
torship of the excise, with the promise that 
after a year he should be appointed receiver- 
general of customs. Tliese offers he ac- 
cepted, and abandoning his early ambition 
for legal or parliamentary distinction, he 
continued to hold the receiver-generalship 
until 1869. 

Doyle's earliest verses appeared in the 
' Eton Miscellany.' In 1834 he published 
his first volume of poetry entitled 'Mis- 
cellaneous Verses ' (London, 8vo), which he 
reissued in 1840 with a number of additional 
poems. These early verses were some- 
what immature, several of the best poems, 
including 'The Eagle's Nest,' 'Mehrab 
Khan," The Crusader's Return,' and 'The 
Catholic,' appearing for the first time in the 
second edition. In 1844 he issued * The 
Two Destinies' (London, 8vo), a poem 
dealing with social questions; in 1849 
' Q^dipus, King of Thebes ' (London, IGmo), 
a translation from the ' (Edipus Tyrannus ' 
of Sophocles, and in 1852 'The Duke's 
Funeral,' in memory of the Duke of Wel- 
lington. For the next fourteen years lie 
Dublished nothing; but in 1866, finding 
Matthew Arnold's tenure of the professor- 
ship of poetry at Oxford coming to an end, 
and desiring to be appointed his successor, 
he published 'The Return of the Guards 
and other Poems' (London, 8vo), with a 
view, as he himself states in his preface, to 
bring himself before the younger members 



of the university. This volume containi 
almost all his best poems, including one or 
two which had appeared in Lis former col- 
lection. 

lie was elected professor of poetry in 
1867, and was re-elected in 1872 for a fur- 
ther period of five years, holding a fellow- 
ship at All Souls' with his university 
appointment. On resigning the professor- 
ship he received the honorary degree of 
D.C.L. on 11 Dec. 1877. His 'Lectures' 
were published in 1869, a second series ap- 
pearing in 1877. Full of interest, like all 
his prose writings, they are discursive and 
without much unity of plan. They inevitably 
suffered by comparison with those of his 
predecessor, Matthew Arnold. In the first 
series the most remarkable feature is his 
appreciation of the Dorsetshire poet, William 
Barnes [q. v. Suppl.] His second series was 
more elaborate, consisting of studies of 
Wordsworth, Scott, and Shakespeare. The 
lecture in the first series on Newman's 
* Dream of Gerontius ' was translated into 
French in 1869, together with the poem 
itself, and published at Caen. 

In 1869 Doyle exchanged his post of re- 
ceiver-general of customs for that of com- 
missioner of customs, an appointment which 
he retained until 1883. He died in London 
on 8 June 1888 at 46 Davies Street, Berkeley 
Square. On 12 Dec. 1844 he married at 
St. George's, Hanover Square, Sidney 
(d. 23 Nov. 1867), youngest daughter of 
Charles Watkin Williams Wynn [q. v.] By 
her he had three surviving children — two 
sons and a daughter. His eldest son, Francis 
Grenville Doyle, a captain in the 2nd dra- 
goon guards, died from the effects of the 
Eg}'ptian campaign on 2 Dec. 1882. His 
second son, Everard Hastings, succeeded as 
third and present baronet. 

Sprung from a family many of whom had 
been famous as men of action, Doyle che- 
rished a supreme admiration of heroism as 
well as a strong love of country. His 
poetic work is chiefly remarkable for his 
treatment of the ballad, a form of ex- 
pression used by many English poets, and 
particularly by his favourite author, Sir 
Walter Scott. While these, however, 
had made the ballad archaic both in sub- 
ject and expression, Doyle employed it 
for the treatment of contemporary events, 
and showed that modern deeds of national 
bravery were * as susceptible as any in the 
far past of free ballad treatment, with all 
the old freshness, directness, and simplicity.' 
His method has been successfully followed 
by subsequent writers. Among his notable 
ballads may be mentioned ' The Red Thread 



Doyle 



Tt54 



Doyle 



of Honour,' which was translated into 
Pushtoo and became a favourite among the 
villagers on the north-western frontier of 
India, * The Private of the Buffs,' * The 
Fusilier's Dog,' ' The Loss of the Birken- 
head,' and * Mehrab Khan.' While Doyle s 
poetic fame rests chiefly on his ballads, he 
showed in such poems as ' The Platonist, 
' The Catholic,' and • The Death of Hector, 
that his powers were not confined to a single 
mode. At the same t^ime it would convey 
a false impression not to observe that most 
of his work was commonplace and pedestrian, 
and that though he often showed genuine 
poetic feeling he seldom found for it ade- 
quate expression. His verse is generally 
mechanical, rarely instinct with life or trans- 
fused with emotion. 

Besides the works already mentioned, 
Doyle published in 1878 ' Robin Hood's Bay : 
an Ode addressed to the English People' 
(London, 8vo), and in 1886 his ' Remini- 
scences and Opinions.' 

[Doyle's Reminiscences and Opinions; Me- 
moir by Mr. A. H. Japp, prefixed to the selec- 
tion of Doyle's poems in Miles's Poets and 
Poetry of the Century ; M^cmillan's Magazine, 
August 1888; Saturday Review, 16 June 1888 ; 
National Review, November 1886 ; Oxford 
Magazine, 13 June 1888 ; Foster's Men at the 
Bar; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; W. E. 
Oladstone's Personal Recollections of A. H. 
Hallamin the Daily Telegraph, 5 Jan. 1898 ; 
Omsby's Memoirs of J. R. Hope-Scott, 1884, i. 
72-4.] E. L C. 

DOYLE, HENRY EDWARD (1827- 
1892), director of the National Gallery of 
Ireland, born in 1827, was third son of John 
Doyle [q. v.], * H. B.' the well-known politi- 
cal cartoonist, and brother of Richard, better 
known as * Dick,' Doyle [q. v.], and of James 
"William Edmund Doyle [q. v. Suppl.] A 
Roman catholic by religion, Henry Doyle 
was appointed, through the influence of Car- 
dinal Wiseman, commissioner for the Papal 
States to the London International Exhibi- 
tion of 1862, when he received the order of 
* Pio Nono ' in recognition of his services. 
He was art superintendent for the Dublin 
exhibition three years later ; between 1865 
and 1869 he was honorary secretary to the 
National Portrait Gallery and one of the 
committee for the three special portrait ex- 
hibitions held at South Kensington in 
1866-8. In 1869 he was appointed direc- 
tor of the National Gallery of Ireland, in 
succession to George Mulvany. Early in 
life Doyle had studied art practically, but 
never attained any great proficiency. For 
some time, however, he was political car- 
toonist to * Fun,' and never entirely aban- 



doned his pencil. A good many portraits by 
him are in existence, including two—' Car- 
dinal Wiseman' and 'Richard Doyle'— in 
the Irish National Gallery. Most of these 
are in a mixture of pencil and water-colour. 

Doyle was created a C.B. in 1880, and a 
J.P. for Wicklow in 1884. He married in 
1866 Jane, daughter of Nicholas Ball [q. v.] 

He died suddenly on 17 Feb. 1892. Dur- 
ing his twenty-three years' incumbency of 
the directorship of the Irish National Gal- 
lery, he raised that collection from insignifi- 
cance to a more than respectable place among 
the minor galleries of Europe, and that in 
spite of extreme parsimony on the part of 
the treasury. 

[Times, 20 Feb. 1892 ; Men of the Time, ed. 
1891 ; private information.] W. A. 

DOYLE, JAMES WILLIAM ED- 
MUND (1822-1892), author of the * Official 
Baronage of England/ born in London on 
22 Oct. 1822, was the eldest son of John 
Doyle [q. v.] Richard Doyle [q. v.] and 
Henry Edward Doyle [q. v. Suppl.] were 
younger brothers. James was educated as 
a Roman catholic. He inherited a portion 
of his father's artistic ability, and in early 
life studied drawing and painting. Among 
other works he executed a painting of Dr. 
Johnson reading the manuscript of the 
' Vicar of Wakefield,' which was engraved 
and attained considerable popularity. The 
copyright of the picture realised 100/. While 
comparatively young, however, Doyle aban- 
doned the profession of an artist and de- 
voted himself to historical studies. For his 
own edification he compiled a ' Chronicle 
of England ' from B.C. 55 to a.d. 1485, 
which he adorned with numerous illustra- 
tions in colours. It received considerable 
praise from various persons to whom it was 
afterwards submitted, among others from the 
prince consort, and was well received by 
the public when published in 1864 (London, 
12mo). Doyle's illustrations were engraved 
and printed in colours by Edmund Evans. 

The great undertaking of Doyle's life, 
however, was his * Official Baronage of Eng- 
land,' which included every rank of nobility 
except barons. The epithet ' official ' in the 
title means not that Doyle's * Baronage ' 
was published 'by authority,' but that it 
gave an exhaustive list of the offices held by 
the peers of whom it treated. This com- 
pilation was at first designed especially to 
cover the period between the Norman Con- 
quest and the Revolution of 1688, but it 
was afterwards brought down to 1885. It 
gave particulars, as complete as possible, of 
the succession, titles, offices, heraldic bear- 



Doyley 



^55 



Drane 



ings, and personal appearance of each peer. 
This work was published in three quarto 
volumes in 1H8(?, a Inrge-paporedit ion, limited 
to two hundred copies, ap])earing somewhat 
earlier in 1885. It is a ])ainRtakinfic but un- 
equal work. For the earlier portion, espe- 
cially the Norman and Anr^evin period, Doyle 
relied too much on secondary authorities, and 
was not sulViciently critical. Greatly to his 
disappointment the book was not a financial 
success, and inflicted a heavy loss on the 
publishers. In 188G he wrote the explana- 
tory text for Richard Doyle's coloured car- 
toons, entitled 'Scenes from English His- 
tory.' He died in London on 3 Dec. 1892 at 
his residence, 38 Dorset Square, and was 
buried in Kensal Green cemetery on 9 Dec. 

[Athenseum, 31 Dec. 1892; Times, 16 Dec. 
1892; Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit. (Supple- 
ment).] E. I. C. 

DOYLEY or DOYLY, EDWARD 

(1017-1675), governor of Jamaica, born in 
1617, was the second son of John Doyley 
of Albourne, Wiltshire, by his wife Lucy, 
daughter of Robert Nicholas. His family 
was an oft'shoot of the Doylys of Chisel- 
hampton (Bayly, House of Doyly, pp. 46, 47). 
In one of his letters Doyley describes him- 
self as educated at one of the Inns of Court, 
and ' of no inconsiderable family, but perse- 
cuted these many years on account of reli- 
gion ' (Thurloe Papers, v. 138). He fought 
for the parliament during the civil w^ar, first 
in Wiltshire, and afterwards in Ireland, ob- 
taining a grant of Irish lands as a reward 
for his services (ib. ; LuDLOW, Memoirs, i. 
117, ed. 1894 ; Lansdoicne MSS. 821, f. 84). 
Li December 1654 Doyley sailed with the 
expedition to tlie West Indies, holding the 
rank of lieutenant-colonel in the regiment 
of General Robert Venables [q. v.] At Bar- 
bados, in March 1655, Venables gave him the 
colonelcy of a regiment raised in that island. 
On the death of Major-general Richard For- 
tescue{q.v. Suppl.] in November 1655 Doyley 
was chosen by the Protector's commissioners 
at Jamaica commander-in-chief of the forces 
there (Thurloe, iv. 153, 390). In May 1656 
he was superseded by Robert Sedgwick [q.v. 
Suppl.], but Sedgwick died almost imme- 
diately, and Doyley then petitioned the 
Protector to be permanently appointed (I'b. 
V. 12, 138). Cromwell, however, appointed 
William Brayne [q. v. Suppl.], who arrived 
in Jamaica in December 1656; thus Doyley 
was a second time superseded. Brayne died 
in September 1657, and then the command 
permanently devolved upon Doyley (ib. v. 
668, 770, VI. 512). 

He made a very efficient governor, and 



though he has been accused of neglecting or 

discouraging planting, the charge appeant to 
bo unjust. In one of his letters he boasts 
that by 1657 the English settlers had a 
larger part of the island under cultivation 
than ever the Spaniards had {Mercuriua 
Politicus, 10-17 Sept. 1657). But his claim 
to distinction mainly rests on his succepsful 
defence of Jamaica against all Spanish at- 
tempts to reconq^uer it. During 1657 and 
1658 several bodies of Spaniards landed from 
Cuba. The largest, consisting of about twelve 
hundred men under Don Christopher Sasi 
Arnoldo, was defeated by Doyley in June 
1658, their fort stormed, three hundred 
killed, and about one hundred more, with 
many officers and flags, captured ( Thurloe, 
vi. 540, 833, vii. 260; Present State of 
Jamaica, 1683, pp. 35, 38). Doyley also 
carried the war into the enemy's quarters, 
and sent expeditions, which burnt several 
Spanish towns on the mainland, and brought 
much plunder back to Jamaica {ib. p. 35 ; 
Cal. State Papers, Colonial, Addenda, pp. 
125, 127). At the restoration of Charles II 
Doyley was confirmed in his post as go- 
vernor, but in August 1661 he was super- 
seded by Thomas, lord Windsor, afterwards 
first earl of Plymouth [q. v.] (Cal. State 
Papers, Colonial, 1661-8, pp. 6, 50). He re- 
turned to England, lived chiefly in London 
at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, and died about 
March 1075 (Bayley, p. 47). 

[Cal. State Papers, ColoniHl ; Thurloe State 
Papers ; Firth's Narrative of General Venables, 
1900; Bayly's House of Do3'ly ; Doyley's Order- 
book and other papers, Addit. MSS. 12410, 
12411.12423.] C.H. F. 

DRANE, AUGUSTA THEODOSIA 
(1823-1894), historian, biographer, and poet, 
born at Bromley St. Leonard's, Middlesex, on 
28 Dec. 1823, was the youngest daughter of 
Thomas Drane, managing partner in an East 
India mercantile house, by his wife Cecilia 
{d. 19 April 1848), daughter of John Hard- 
ing.. When she was fourteen years old the 
family removed to Babbicombe, Devonshire. 
Brought up in the established church, she 
came early under the influence of tractarian 
teaching at Torquay, and in June 1850 she 
was received into the Roman catholic church 
at Tiverton. At this period she published 
anonymously an essay, the authorship of 
which has been often attributed to Newman, 
questioning the morality of the tractarian 
position. In the autumn of 1851 she went 
to Rome and passed six months there. 
Mother Margaret Hallahan received her as 
a postulant in the Dominican convent at 
Clifton on 4 Oct. 1852, and she was clothed 
in the habit of religion on 7 Dec. in the same 



Drane 



156 



Drew 



year, taking the name of Sister Francis 
Raphael. In 1853 all the novices were 
transferred to the new convent of Stone, 
Staflbrdshire, which since that time has 
been the mother house of the whole con- 
irregation. There she pronounced the solemn 
vows on 8 Dec. 1^56. She was prioress of 
Stone from 1872 till 18S1, and mother pro- 
vincial of the order from 25 Nov. 1881 till 
II April 1894. She died in the convent at 
Stone on 29 April 1894. 

Miss Drane was well known as an authoress 
both in prose and verse. Her works are : 
1. « The Morality of Tractarianism: a Letter 
from one of the People to one of the Clergy ' 
(anonymous), London, 1850. 2. ' Catholic 
Legends and Stories,' 1855. 3. 'The Life 
of St. Dominic, with a Sketch of the Do- 
minican Order,' London, 1857, 8vo ; reprinted 
1867 ; translated into French by the Abbe 
A. H. Chirat (Tournai), and into German 
by Monsignor Matthias Count Spee (Diissel- 
dorf), 1890. 4. 'The Knights of S. John: 
with the Battle of Lepanto and Siege of 
Vienna,' London, 1858, 8vo; reprinted 1881; 
translated into German by Baron von Wan- 
genheim, Aix-la-Chapelle, 1888. 5. 'The 
Three Chancellors, or Sketches of the Lives 
of William of Wykeham, AVilliam of Wayn- 
flete, and Sir Thomas More,' London, 1859, 
8vo. 6. ' Memoir of Sister Mary Philomena 
Berkeley, Religious of the Third Order of 
S. Dominic,' 1860, printed for private cir- 
culation. 7. 'Historical Tales,' 1862. 8. 
* Tales and Traditions,' 1862. 9. * A His- 
tory of England for Family Use,' London, 
1864, 8vo; 5th edit. 1881; 6th edit. 1887, 
written up to the jubilee of Queen Victoria. 
10. ' Christian Schools and Scholars, or 
Sketches of Education from the Christian 
Era to the Council of Trent,' London, 1867, 
8vo; 2nd edit. 1881. 11. 'Biographical 
Memoir of the Hon. Henry E. Dormer,' 
London, 1808. 12. ' The Inner Life of Pere 
Lacordaire,' London [1868], 8vo ; reprinted 
1878 and 1892 ; a translation from the 
French of Pere Chocarne. 13. 'Life of 
Mother Margaret Hallahan,' London, 1869, 
Svo ; translated into German (Mainz, 1874) 
and into French by Sister Dominique du 
Rosaire de Graverol (Tournai, 1875). 14. 
* Songs in the Night, and other Poems ' 
(anonymous), London, 1876 and 1887, Svo. 
15. 'The New Utopia,' a tale published in 
the ' Irish Monthly, 1876, and reprinted by 
the Catholic Truth Societv, London, 1898, 
Svo. 16. ' The History of 'St. Catherine of 
Siena and her Companions. . . . Compiled 
from original sources,' London, 1880, 8vo ; 
2nd edit., 2 vols., London [1887], 8vo; 3rd 
edit., 2 vols., London, 1899, Svo ; translated 



into German by Baron von Wangenheim 
(Diilmen, 1884), and into French by the 
Abb6 Cardon (Paris, 1893). 17. 'Lady 
Glastonbury's Boudoir, or the History of 
Two Weeks' (anonymous), London, 1883, 
Svo. 18. 'Uriel, or the Chapel of the 
Angels,' London, 1884, Svo. 19. 'Aroer: 
the Story of a Vocation,' a novel, London, 
1888, Svo. 20. ' Dalmeny Brothers,' written 
for the ' Lamp,' 1890. 21. ' The History of 
S. Dominic, Founder of the Friar Preachers,' 
London, 1891, Svo; translated into French 
by the Abb6 Cardon (Paris, 1893), into 
Italian by Emilia Stocchi (in the ' Rosario '). 

22. 'Catholic Readers,' 5 vols., London, 1891. 

23. 'The Autobiography of Archbishop 
Ullathorne, edited with Notes,' London, 1891. 

24. ' Letters of Archbishop Ullathorne, 
edited with Notes,' London, 1892. 25. ' The 
Imagination : its Nature, Uses, and Abuses,' 
privately printed 1893, and reprinted in the 
' Month.' This was written for the literary 
department of theWorld's Congress Auxiliary , 
Chicago. 26. ' The Spirit of the Dominican 
Order, illustrated from the Lives of its 
Saints,' London and Leamington, 1896, Svo. 

[Memoir of Mother Francis Raphael, O.S.D., 
by the Rev. Bertrand Wilberforce, London, 1895, 
8vo (with portrait), 2nd ^dit. 1897; Times, 10. 
May 1894, p. 6, col. 5 ; Tablet, May 1894, pp. 
691, 751.] T. C. 

DREW, FREDERICK (1836-1891), 
geologist, born at Southampton on 11 Aug. 
1836, was youngest son of John Drew [q. v.], 
astronomer, by CJlara, daughter of Nicholas 
Peter Phene, solicitor, of Melksham, Wilt- 
shire. He entered the Royal School of 
Mines in 1853, passed through it with dis- 
tinction, and joined the geological survey in 
1855. He was employed for seven years in 
the south-east of England, and did much for 
the geology of the weald, especially in tra- 
cing out and describing the subdivisions of 
the Hastings sands. He contributed papers 
to the ' Journal ' of the Geological Society 
in 1861 and 1864, and he wrote a memoir 
describing the Romney marsh district. His 
notes were used by William Topley in his 
' Geology of the Weald ' {Memoirs of the 
Geological Survey, 1875). 

In 1862 he entered the service of the 
Maharajah of Kashmir, with whom he re- 
mained ten years. He was at first engaged 
in looking for minerals, was then charged 
with the management of the forest depart- 
ment, and was finally governor of the pro- 
vince of Ladakh. He acquired an intimate 
knowledge of the country and the people, 
and after his return to England he wrote 
' The Jummoo and Kashmir Territories : a 



Druid 



'57 



Drummond 



Geographical Account' (London, 1876, 8vo). 
it wns provided with excellent maps, show- 
ing not only the physical features, but the 
distribution of races, languages, and faiths. 
A translation by Baron Ernouf was pub- 
lished at Paris in 1877; and in the same 
year Drew published a more popular ac- 
count under the title ' The Northern Barrier 
of India/ 

He had been elected a fellow of the Geo- 
logical Society in 1858, and served on the 
council from 1874 to 1876. In 187o he was 
appointed one of the science masters at 
Eton, and he remained there till his death 
on 28 Oct. 1891. He married Sara Con- 
stance, daughter of Alfred Waylen, one of 
the first settlers in AVest Australia, and he 
left two sons and two daughters. Sir Archi- 
bald Geikie has made mention of ' his gen- 
tleness, helpfulness, and entire unselfishness, 
and his quiet enthusiasm for that domain of 
natural science to which he had given the 
labours of his life.' 

[Proceedings of the Geological Society : Anni- 
versary Address, p. 50 ; private information.] 

E. M. L. 

DRUID, THE, pseudonym. [See Dixox, 
Henry Hall, 1822-1870.] 

DRUIMMOND, HENRY (1851-1897), 
theological writer, bom at Park Place, 
Stirling, on 17 Aug. 1851, was the second 
son of Henry Drummond (d. January 1888) 
by his wife Jane (Blackwood) of Kilmar- 
nock, and grandson of William Drummond, 
a land surveyor, and afterwards a nursery- 
man at Coney park, near Stirling. His 
father, who became head of the firm of 
William Drummond & Sons, seedsmen of 
StirlingandDublin,wasastrict disciplinarian, 
a powerful speaker, and a pillar of the Free 
North church ; his uncle, Peter Drummond, 
was the founder of the Agricultural Mu- 
seum in Stirling and of the Stirling Tract 
Enterprise. He was educated at Stirling 
High School (1856-63), and at Morison's, 
Crieff*, before matriculating in 1866 at 
Edinburgh University, where he took 
classics under Sellar and English under 
Professor Masson, but he left the university 
without a degree. In 1868 he started a 
manuscript magazine, * The Philomathic,' in 
which he expatiated upon animal magne- 
tism and other topics. In 1870 he entered 
the divinity course of the Free church at 
New College, Edinburgh. In the summer 
of 1873 he spent a semester at Tiibingen. 
In the autumn of the same year he was 
drawn into the evangelical reviVal initiated 
by Dwight L. Moody and Ira D. Sankey. 
From April 1874 to July 1875 he followed 



up the work of the evangelists in the cities of 
Ireland and England, and he laboured by their 
side in London. The bulk of his work w«» 
in the preparation and delivery of addresses. 
He grew to be very expert in the manage- 
ment of huge meetings, while in Moody's 
' inquiry room ' he had experience of all 
sorts and conditions of men. 

The discourses in the volume called * Tlie 
Ideal Life' (published posthumously in 1897) 
were prepared about this time, as were all 
his widely known published addresses, * The 
Greatest Thing in the World ' and ' Seek 
ye first the Kingdom of God.' In spite of 
many invitations to conduct missions, and 
a pressing appeal for aid from Moody at 
Philadelphia, Drummond returned to New 
College, Edinburgli, in the autumn of 1875. 
Two years later he was appointed lecturer 
in natural science at the Free Church Col- 
lege, Glasgow. In 1879 he went to America 
with Professor (Sir) Archibald Geikie upon 
a geological expedition to the Rocky Moun- 
tains. After a flying visit to Moody at 
Cleveland, he returned to his Glasgow lec- 
turing and to work in the Possilparts Work- 
man's Mission, Glasgow, which he abandoned 
only in 1882 in order to assist Moody as an 
evangelist upon the occasion of his second 
visit to Britain. 

In 1883 he published the book which con- 
tributed so largely to his contemporary 
fame, 'Natural Law in the Spiritual 
W^orld.' In this he contended that the 
scientific principle of continuity extended 
from the physical universe to the spiritual 
world. The thesis was based upon a series 
of brilliant figures of speech rather than upon 
a chain of reasoning, and the fallacies in Drum- 
mond's argument were pointed out with 
clearness and acumen by Professor Denney 
and others. The book, however, proved 
amazingly successful ; its popularity, due in 
the first instance to the beautyof the writing, 
was strengthened by a most enthusiastic re- 
view in the 'Spectator,' and within five 
years of the date of publication some seventy 
thousand copies were sold. 

Within a few days of the publication he 
set out on a visit to the southern equatorial 
region of Africa. His commission was to 
make a scientific, and especially geological, 
exploration of the Lake Nyasa and Tan- 
ganyika district for the African Lakes Cor- 
poration. He sailed in June 1883 and went 
by way of Zanzibar and Mozambique. He 
brought back a valuable report on the great 
region which the corporation were adminis- 
tering, and he also kept a full journal, from 
which he extracted the materials for his ad- 
mirably written sketch of ' Tropical Africa * 



Drummond 



158 Drummond-Hay 



(1888; 4th edit. 1891), describinpf the gene- 
ral character of the country and the condi- 
tion of the natives, with one or two chapters 
upon the natural history and the economic 
problems that presented themselves to his 
mind. lie returned by way of Cape Town 
in April 1884, and shortly after his return 
was promoted by the New Church to the 
status of a professor of theology. In No- 
vember 1884 he was ordained in College 
Free Church, and delivered his inaugural 
address on * The Contribution of Science to 
Christianity.' In May 1885, during the 
height of the London season, be gave three 
addresses in the ball-room of Grosvenor 
House on the subject of conversion, and 
then with undamped ardour he conducted 
a short mission at Oxford. While there he 
had a * very sad ' tete-i-tete dinner with 
Jowett. * We were entirely alone and had 
a good talk, also occasional silences. He 
asked me if in Scotland we were now gene- 
rally giving up belief in miracles — he meant 
as a sign of progress.' He was strongly 
but vainly urged by Gladstone to contest 
the Partick division of Lanarkshire in 1886; 
he had before this thrown himself heart 
and soul into a students' mission, mainly in 
connection with the large medical classes at 
Edinburgh and Glasgow. In 1887 he made 
a tour of the American colleges with similar 
aims in view, and there is a strong testimony 
to the substantial good that he wrought by 
his influence over young men. In 1890 he 
made a round of the Australian colleges, and 
visited the New Hebrides, where he was 
confirmed in the high views he had formed 
in Africa as to the beneficence of mis- 
sionaries. On returning to Park Circus, 
Glasgow, he had an invitation to deliver 
the Lowell lectures for 1893 at Boston, in 
America, and he determined to work 
up his papers on ' Christian Evolu- 
tion ' for this purpose. To the new series 
Le gave the name of ' The Ascent of Man,' 
and when he delivered the lectures aroused 
the most vivid interest. The title was not 
new, having been applied to an epic by 
Mathilde Blind in 1889. The lectures were 
published in 1894 as ' The Ascent of Man,' 
and the book had all the external qualities 
of his previous work, the lucid style, the 
power and charm of illustration, and the 
happy phrases. Drummond's adroitness in 
rehandling old arguments was truly re- 
markable, but his general thesis that the 
struggle for life gradually became altruistic 
in character, or * struggle for the life of 
others,' and that * the object of evolution is 
love,' was very severely criticised by men of 
science, while some of his attempts to 



qualify the apparent harshness of the 
scheme of natural selection, by such phrases 
as * With exceptions, the fight is a fair fight. 
As a rule there is no hate in it, but only 
hunger,' or ' It is better to be eaten than 
not to be at all,' must appear to be perilously 
near the grotesque. At the same time 
Drummond was attacked by many theo- 
logians on account of his too close ad- 
herence to Darwin and Herbert Spencer. 
With the publication of ' The Ascent of 
Man ' Drummond's career as a public teacher 
virtually ended, and though he still took a 
very keen interest in evangelical work, and 
especially in the boys' brigade at Glasgow, 
founded in 1885, he was soon to be pro- 
strated by a painful and abnormal malady, 
produced by a malignant growth of the bones. 
In 1895 he travelled to Biarritz and Dax, 
and was then taken to Tunbridge Wells, 
where he died unmarried on 11 March 1897. 
He was buried in Greyfriars churchyard, 
Stirling. 

Drummond was great as a teacher, much 
less by his books, good though his Avriting 
was, than by his life and example. His 
influence upon young men was of the most 
vivid kind, and the impulse that he gave 
to the higher life among the students at 
Edinburgh University was perhaps his finest 
achievement. There are two portraits in 
the 'Life of Henry Drummond' by George 
Adam Smith. 

[Smith's Life of Drummond, 1 899 ; The Ideal 
Life, 1897, with Memorial Sketches by Dr. 
Robertson NicoU and Ian Maciaren ; Times, 
12 March 1897; Guariian, 17 March 1897; 
North American RevieAv, June 1897; R. A. 
Watson's Gospels of Yesterday : Drummond, 
Spencer, Arnold, 1898; CecH's Pseudo-Philo- 
sophy, i. An Irrationalist Trio— Kidd, Drum- 
mond, Balfour, 1897.] T. S. 

DRUMMOND-HAY, Sm JOHN HAY 
(1816-1893), diplomatist, third son of Ed- 
ward William Auriol Drummond-Hay (d. 
1845), nephew of the ninth earl of Kin- 
noul, was born on 1 June 1816 at Valen- 
ciennes, where his father was major on 
Lord Lynedoch's staff in the army of occu- 
pation in France ; afterwards he was Lord- 
Lyon clerk at Edinburgh, where he knew 
Sir Walter Scott, Cockburn, and others, and 
in 1829 he became consul-general of Mo- 
rocco. His mother was Louisa Margaret, 
daughter of John Thomason, deputy com- 
missary-general. 

He was educated at the C'aarterhouse from 
1827 to 1832, when he joined his father at 
Tangier; he entered the diplomatic service 
as attache under Ponsonby and afterwards 
Stratford Canning at Constantinople in 1840, 



Drummond-Hay 159 



Dudley 



duriiiff most part of which year he was em- 
l»loyod in Egypt. 

lint it was with Morocco tliat Drummond- 
Ilay's life was mainly identilied. After a 
visit to ICnghmd, Stockholm, and 'Copen- 
hagen, he was in 1844 sent to Morocco as 
assistant to tlie consul-general, lie became 
consul-general himself in 1845, and subse- 
quently he was charg6 d'atlaires, 1847-60, 
minister resident, 18(30-72, and finally mini- 
ster plenipotentiary, 1872-86. During his 
long residence in tlie country he did much 
to improve its relations with European 
powers. Besides acting for England, he 
was also agent in Morocco for Austria and 
Denmark. He was the first to break through 
the custom of envoys of presenting their cre- 
dentials to the sultan on their knees. In 
1S44 he vainly attempted to arrange terms 
between the French and the Moors before 
the bombardment of Mogador by the Prince 
de Joinville on 15 Aug. In the same year 
he published his * Western Barbary ; or, its 
AVild Tribes and Savage Animals ' (London, 
16mo), which reached a second edition in 
1861, and was translated into French in 
1844, and into Spanish in 1859. In 1845 
he was concerned in the negotiation of con- 
ventions between Morocco and Denmark, 
Sweden and Spain, and in December 1856 
negotiated a general treaty and convention 
of commerce between Great Britain and 
Morocco (IIertslet, Treaties, x. 903, xi. 
425). In 1848 Hay published his 'Journal 
of an Expedition to the Court of Morocco ; ' 
other parts of his 'Journals' form the basis 
of the * Memoir ' of Hay published in 1896, 
which 'not only affords valuable insight into 
local politics and character, but contains a 
number of original reflections from the diaries 
and letters of a keen and careful student' 
(Meakix. p. 479). He was created K.C.B. on 
20 May 1862,G.C.M.G. on 4 Dec. 1884, and 
was also K.G.C. of the Dauebrog. On his 
retirement he was on 3 Aug. 18S6 sworn of 
tlie privy council. For some years before 
his retirement he wielded in Morocco an 
influence commensurate with his great na- 
tural abilities, long residence in the country, 
and perfect knowledge of the people. lie 
died at his seat, Wedderburn Castle, Duns, 
N.B.,on 27 Nov. 1893; a portrait is prefixed 
to his ' Memoir.' 

He married, in 1845, Annette, daughter 
of M. Cazytensen, of Copenhagen, privy 
councillor to the king of Denmark. 

[Memoir by his two daughters, 1896 ; Burke's 
Peerage, 1893 ; Ann. Reg. 1893, ii. 203; Times, 
29 Nov. 1893; S.Lane-Poole's Life of Stratford 
Canning; Budgett Meakin's Moorish Empire, 
1899, passim] J. M. R. 



DUDLEY, Sill HENUY(r/. 156/5?), con- 
spirator, was apparently third son of John 
Sutton de Dudley, seventh baron Dudley, 
known as * lord Quondam,' and his wife 
Cecily, daughter of Thomas Grey, marquis 
of Dorset [see under Dudley, John (Sutton) 
de (1401P-1487).] His father and John 
Dudley, duke of Northumberland, were both 
great-grand.sons of John (Sutton) de Dudley 
(1401 ?-1487), and they were also related 
on their mothers' side, Northumberland's 
being Elizabeth, sister of John Grey, vis- 
count Lisle ; hence Dudley is often called 
Northumberland's cousin (cf. Harl. MS. 
80G, if. 4G-7). His brother George was a 
knight of St. John of Jerusalem (Ca/. State 
Papers,YoT. l660-\ ,ipA73 ; Notes andQuenes, 
1st ser. x. 200). The Henry Dudley referred 
to as commanding a hundred men in 1545 
(Acts P.C. 1642-7, p. 164) was probably 
Northumberland's eldest son Henry who 
was slain at Boulogne in that year, having 
married Winifred (d. 1578), daughter of 
Richard, first baron Rich [q. v.], and after- 
wards wife of Roger, second baron North 
[q. v.] ; on him Leland wrote his ' Nsen'ia. 
in Mortem ' (printed in Hearne's edition of 
Rous, pp. 235-6); but the subject of this 
article came into notice early in Edward VI's 
reign. Early in 1547 he was captain of the 
guards at Boulogne, and on 2 Dec. he 
was paid 42/. lO.s., and on 6 Dec. 5/., 
' in reward for his' Majesties secrete aftJaires.* 
Before 24 June 1550 he was appointed cap- 
tain of the guard, and on 19 July following 
was granted 300/. ' towards the payment of 
his debts and an annuity of 80/. a year till 
he be better provided ' (Acts P.C. 1547-50, 
pp. 148-9 ; 1550-2, pp. 55, 87). In Septem- 
ber 1550 he accompanied the vidame of 
Chartres to Scotland, and in the following 
January was sent in his train to France, 
receiving private instructions from Sir John 
Mason how to collect secret information 
during his visit (ib. pp. 121, 203). In May 
1551 he was made captain of Guisnes, and 
on 11 Oct. following he was knighted at 
Hampton Court on the same day that his 
cousin was created duke of Northumberland. 
On 26 March 1552 he was appointed vice- 
admiral of the narrow seas and sent to sea 
with four ships and two barques to protect 
English merchandise ; he almost immediately 
captured two Flemish pirates and brought 
them into Dover. On 10 Aug. following 
he was again sent to Guisnes to protect it 
against a threatened attack from the French 
(lb. 1552-4, p. 22 : Lit. Petri, of Edward VI, 
pp. 407, 443). He was arrested there on 
25 July 1553 and brought to the Tower on 
6 Aug., but having taken no part in 



Dudley 



i6o 



Duff 



Northumberland's conspiracy he was re- 
leased on 18 Oct. following {Acts P.C. 
1662-4, p. 316; Machtn, Diary, p. 39; 
Chron, Queen Jane, pp. 32, 175). 

Dudley does not appear to have taken 
any part in Wyatt's conspiracy, but the 
pressure of debt drove him into treason. 
Early in 1566 he seems to have been out- 
lawed on account of these debts, and about 
the same time he devised his plot for robbing 
the exchequer, marrying the princess Eliza- 
beth to Courtenay, and deposing Philip and 
Mary. His principal associates were John 
Throckmorton, Christopher Ashton, his 
brother-in-law, Sir Henry Killigrew [q. v.]. 
Sir Anthony Kingston [q. v.], and Richard 
Uvedale [q- v.] With Uvedale's help Dudley 
crossed to France to seek aid from Henry II, 
but his plot was betrayed in March, and 
on 4 April Dudley was proclaimed a traitor. 
On the 8th Nicholas Wotton [q. v.] was 
ordered to demand his extradition, but the 
French king received him well, gave him 
fifteen hundred crowns, and made him a 
gentleman of the privy chamber. Dudley 
continued his intrigues in France, tampering 
with the English garrisons at Calais, Guisnes, 
and Hammes, where his brother Edward 
(Sutton) de Dudley, baron Dudley, was cap- 
tain. He also appears to have taken to the 
sea and joined the French in plundering 
English and Spanish commerce (Coebett, 
Drake and the Tudor Navy, i. 101 n., 132). 
He remained in Henry's service after Eliza- 
beth's accession, and on 7 June 1559 was 
reported to be practising * for new credit, 
especially with the cardinal of Lorraine and 
the duke of Guise' {Cal. State Papers, For. 
1568-9, p. 305). In the same month he 
made overtures to Sir Nicholas Throckmor- 
ton [q. v.] for re-entering the English service, 
but in November 1561 he was in prison in 
the Chatelet for debt {ib. 1561-2, p. 418). 
He seems, however, to have returned to 
England before 1564 {Cal. Simancas MSS. 
i. 364) and to have died soon afterwards. 
He is said to have married a sister of his 
fellow-conspirator, Christopher Ashton, but 
is not known to have left issue. 

Dudley has been generally confused with 
his distant relative, Lord IIenrt Dudley 
(1531 P-1557), the fourth son of the duke of 
Northumberland, who was arrested in Eng- 
land on 25 July 1653 for complicity in his 
father's conspiracy and imprisoned in the 
Tower. On 13 Nov. following he was 
tried for treason with his brothers, and was 
condemned to be hanged at Tyburn (* Baga 
de Secretis ' in Dep. Keeper's Fourth Rep., 
App. ii. 237-8). He was pardoned in the 
following year, and on 5 June 1554 was per- 



mitted to hear mass in the Tower chapel. 
After his release he joined the English forces 
fighting with the Spanish against France, 
and was killed at the battle of St. Quintin 
on 10 Aug. 1557. He married Margaret, 
only daughter of lord-chancellor Audley, 
but left no issue, his widow marrying as her 
second husband Thomas Howard, fourth 
duke of Norfolk [q. v.] (Machyn, Diary, 
pp. 37, 48, 147, 150, 359 ; Chron. Queen Jane, 
pp. 27, 32; Acts P.C. 1554-6, pp. .33, 101 ; 
Bratbrooke, Audley End, pp. 27, 296). 

[Authorities cited; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1547-80, For. 1547-70, and Venetian vol. vi. ; 
William Salt, Archseol. Soc. Publ. ix. 98-104; 
Cal. Hatfield MSS. i. 112, 113, 116; Twamley's 
Hist, of Dudley Castle ; Adlard's Sutton-Dud- 
leys; Verney Papers (Camden Soc); Notes and 
Queries, 7th ser. xi. 348, 477, xii. 58.1 

A. F. P. 

DUFF, Sir ROBERT WILLIAM, 
for some time styled Robert William 
Dfff Abercrombt (1835-1895), governor 
of New South Wales, born at Fetteresso in 
Kincardineshire on 8 May 1835, was the 
only son of Arthur Duff {d. 1859) of Glas- 
saugh in Banffshire, by his wife Elizabeth 
{d. 1838), daughter of John Innes of Corvie, 
Kincardineshire. His father assumed the 
name of Abercromby on succeeding to the 
estates of his mother, Mary, wife of Robert 
William Duff {d. 1834), and only child of 
George Morrison of Haddo, by his wife Jane, 
eldest daughter of General James Abercromby 
{d. 23 April 1781) of Glassaugh. Robert 
was educated at Blackheath school, and in 
1848 entered the navy. He attained the 
rank of sub-lieutenant in May 1854, and 
that of lieutenant on 5 Jan. 1856, and re- 
tired with that of commander in 1865. The 
death of his uncle, Robert Duff, on 30 Dec. 
1870, made him owner of Fetteresso, and on 
succeeding him he discontinued the use of 
the surname Abercromby. 

On 1 May 1861 he was returned to parlia- 
ment for Banffshire in the liberal interest, 
and retained his seat until his appointment 
as governor of New South Wales. He was 
appointed junior lord of the treasury in 1882, 
acting as liberal whip, a post which he held 
until the defeat of the government in June 
1885. On Gladstone's resuming office he 
was nominated junior lord of the admiralty 
on 15 Feb. 1886, going out of office in July. 
In 1892 Duff was made a privy councillor, 
and offered a post in the household, which 
he declined. 

On 23 Feb. 1893 he was appointed go- 
vernor of New South Wales as successor to 
Victor Albert George Child-Villiers, seventh 
earl of Jersey. He arrived at Sydney in 



Duffield 



i6i 



Du Maurier 



the Paramatta on 29 May. Before leaving 
England ho was created (i.O.M.G. His term 
of otlico was chiefly marked by his permitting 
the premier, Sir George Dibbs, to obtain the 
prorogation of parliament on 8 Dec. 1893, 
after that minister had incurred a vote of 
censure. In July 1894, after his ministry 
had failed to carry the general election, Dibbs 
desired Dull' to nominate several persons to 
the legislative council on his recommenda- 
tion. Duff declined to accede to his wish 
on the ground that the ministry had been 
condemned by the colony, and in conse- 
quence Dibbs and his colleagues resigned. 

Dull* died at Sydney on 15 March 1895, 
and was temporarily buried in the Waverley 
cemetery on 17 March, his remains being 
afterwards removed to Scotland. After his 
death Sir Frederick Darley, the chief justice, 
was sworn lieutenant-governor. On 21 Feb. 
1871 Duff married Louisa, youngest daugh- 
ter of Sir William Scott, ninth bart. of An- 
crum in Roxburghshire. By her he had 
three sons, the eldest Robert William, and 
four daughters. 

[Sydney Morning Herald, 18 March 1891; 
Melbourne Argus, 16, 18 March 1895; Times, 
16, 18 March 1895 ; Official Return of Members 
of Parliament ; Foster's Scottish Members of 
Pari.] E. I. C. 

DUFFIELD, ALEXANDER JAMES 

(1821-1890), Spanish scholar and mining 
engineer, was born in 1821 at Tettenhall, 
near Wolverhampton in Staffordshire. After 
some study with a view to the clerical pro- 
fession, he married and emigrated to South 
America. He remained some years in 
Bolivia and Peru engaged as a mining che- 
mist, and acquired a knowledge of Spanish. 
During this period he interested himself in 
numerous enterprises, one of the most im- 
portant of which was an attempt, which 
proved unsuccessful, to introduce alpacas 
into Australia. He several times visited 
Brisbane, and on one occasion made a six 
months' cruise on a vessel employed in the 
trade to supply coolie labour for the sugar 
plantations, and furnished the Queensland 
government with a report on that subject. 
Subsequently he travelled in Spain and 
other countries, and for some time held an 
appointment under the government of 
"Canada. 

In 1877 Duffield produced at London, in 
•collaboration with Mr. Walter Herries Pol- 
lock, a novel entitled ' Masston : a Story of 
these Modern Days,' and in the same year ap- 
peared 'Peru in the Guano Age: being a 
short Account of a recent Visit to the 
Guano Deposits, with some Reflections on 

VOL. II.— SUP. 



the Money they have produced and the Uiet 
to which it has been applied ; ' a second 
monograph on Peru was published in 1881 
under the title * The J'rospects of Peru, the 
End of the Guano Age and a Description 
thereof, with some Account of the Guano 
Deposits and " Nitrate " Plains.* In 1880 
he issued a work advocating a scheme by 
which English parishes might purchase land 
in Canada for the profitable employment of 
paupers and workhouse children; this was 
entitled * Needless Misery at Home and 
abounding Treasure in the West under our 
own Flag ; Old Town and New Domains, or 
Birmingham and Canada revisited.' 

In the following year Duffield published 
a translation of * Don Quixote.' Nearly 
twenty years before, during his travels in 
Spain, he had conceived the idea of the 
translation, and the work was begun in con- 
junction with 3Ir. H. Watts, but differences 
arose, with the result that the translators 
finished their labours independently, and 
two versions appeared. Duffield's version, 
which he dedicated to Gladstone, bore the 
title, * The Ingenious Knight Don Quixote 
de la Mancha, a New Translation from the 
Originals of 1605 and 1608, with some Notes 
of Bowie, J. A. Pellicer, Clemencin, and 
others' (1881, 3 vols.) The rendering of 
the text was accurate and careful and was 
preceded by an elaborate introduction which 
compared the original text with previous 
translations of importance, and by a biblio- 
graphical account of the iDooks of chivalry 
connected with the story. The passages in 
verse were rendered by James Young Gibson 
[q. v.] In the same year, 1881, Duffield pub- 
lished * Don Quixote, his Critics and Com- 
mentators, with a brief Account of the 
Minor Works of Cervantes and a Statement 
of the Aim of the greatest of them all,' a 
treatise more remarkable for enthusiasm than 
for sound critical judgment. 

Duffield's other works include * The Beauty 
of the World : a Story of this Generation,' 
1886 [1885], 3 vols. ; and ' Recollections of 
Travels Abroad,' with a map, 1889. He also 
contributed a note on * The Lost Art of 
Hardening Copper ' to Dr. Heinrich Schlie- 
mann's * Ilios ; the City and Country of the 
Trojans ' (Leipzig, 1880). 

He died at the age of sixty-eight, after a 
brief illness, on 9 Oct. 1890. 

[Works as cited above; Athenseum, 1890, ii. 
514; Times, 11 and 17 Oct. 1890; Chambers's 
Biographical Diet. 189?.] C. E. H. 

DU MAURIER, GEORGE LOUIS 
PALMELLA BUSSON (1834-1896), artist 
in black and white and novelist, was bom in 



Du Maurier 



162 



Du Maurier 



Paris on 6 March 1834. His grandfather, 
descended from an old French family of no- 
bility, had an interest in some glass-works 
in Anjou. Glass-blowing was then a mono- 
poly of the gentilshommes, and no commoner 
might engage in it. He fled to England 
during the French revolution, but returned 
to France in 1810, and died holding the 
post of schoolmaster at Tours. His son, 
Louis Mathurin, George's father, derived 
some income from the glass-works, but 
never greatly prospered, owing to a talent for 
making inventions which proved unsuccessful. 
He married an Englishwoman, Miss Ellen 
Clarke, and became a naturalised Englishman. 
They had three children, two sons and a 
daughter, of whom George was the eldest. 
The children grew up equally conversant 
■with both languages, and George spoke Eng- 
lish without the slightest foreign accent. 
When he was five years old his parents 
came to England, and lived for a time in 
the house in Devonshire Terrace, Marylebone 
Road, where Dickens afterwards resided. 
But, the father's pecuniary position not im- 
proving, the family returned to France, living 
for a while in Boulogne, and afterwards in 
Paris, where George went to school, between 
1847 and 1851, in the Pension Froussard, in 
the Avenue du Bois de Boulogne. This 
Bchool-life is described in the * Martian,' as 
the earlier days of childhood are in * Peter 
Ibbetson.' In 1861 George returned to Lon- 
don to study chemistry at University Col- 
lege, under the direction of Dr. Williamson, 
where he was a fellow-student of Sir Henry 
Roscoe. Later, in 1854, his father, who 
was bent on his son becoming a man of 
science, provided him with a laboratory of 
his own in Bard's Yard, Bucklersbury. He 
had been, according to his own account, a 
most unsatisfactory student while at the 
college, his real bias being all the time for 
the art he subsequently followed. He drew 
caricatures of his teachers which amused 
them much, though, as du Maurier used 
carefully to add, ' they did not see them all' 
His work at assaying in his private labora- 
tory was to prove not more successful. 

In 1856 du Maurier lost his father, and 
his scientific career closed. For a while he 
seems to have thought of adopting the pro- 
fession of a singer, for he had inherited from 
his father a tenor voice of great beauty, and 
much charm in the use of it; but wiser 
counsels prevailed, and he returned to Paris 
and entered the studio of the eminent 
teacher Gleyre. Many of his experiences 
while there were recorded long afterwards 
with great vivacity and charm in the pages 
of ' Trilby.* In Paris he made the acquaint- 



ance of many who were to become his life- 
long friends, including the late Mr. T. R. 
Lamont, Mr. Thomas Armstrong, C.B., who 
was not, however, a pupil of Gleyre, Mr. 
Whistler, and Mr. (now Sir Edward) Poyn- 
ter. After one year of this Quartier Latin 
existence he left Paris in 1857 with his 
mother for Antwerp, where he worked in 
the class-rooms of the Antwerp Academy 
under De Keyser and Van Lerius. In 1859, 
while drawing in the studio, he was sud- 
denly deprived of the sight of one eye by 

* detachment of the retina.' The oculists 
whom he consulted — among them the famous 
experts at Malines and Diisseldorf — gave him 
no great assurance of preserving the other 
eye, but it remained, with some occasional 
intervals of trouble, sufficient for his work 
during the remainder of his life. 

In 1860 du Maurier came to England, and 
in the autumn began to do book illustrations, 
appearing for the first time in the pages of 

* Once a Week,' a periodical remarkable, in 
its first series, for its wood-engravings from 
drawings by Millais, Fred. Walker, Keene, 
Pinwell, Sandys, and other artists of emi- 
nence. Du Maurier's first contribution was 
in September 1860, illustrating an oriental 
tale in verse by Sir John Bowring. In the 
October following appeared his first contri- 
bution to ' Punch,' for which he continued 
to draw as an occasional contributor, largely 
of initial letters and the like, until he joined 
the staff four years later. Du Maurier's 
first drawing (October 1860, xxxix. 140), of 
an incident recorded to have happened to 
himself and Mr. Whistler in a photographer's 
studio, it must be admitted gave but little 
promise of the knowledge of the figure and 
the sense of beauty which he was to develop 
later. 

Meantime, his work on * Once a Week,' 
' Punch,' and other miscellaneous publications 
justifying the step, he married, in 1863, 
Emma, daughter of Mr. William Wight- 
wick. The young couple took up their abode 
in Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury (over 
' Pears's Soap '), where they resided for the 
next four years. 

In 1864 John Leech died, and du Maurier 
was at once chosen to succeed him at the 
' Punch ' table. From this time forward his 
progress in draughtsmanship was steady and 
rapid.^ The continual practice and intense 
devotion to his art soon had results which 
are traceable by all who consult the five or 
six volumes of * Punch ' following his elec- 
tion to the stafi". Mark Lemon had en- 
couraged him from the first to cultivate the 
graceful and poetical side of his talent. 
*Let others be funny ' was the editor's advice ; 



Du Maurier 



163 



Du Maurier 



t 



* make it your task to show lis the Beauti- 
ful.' Probably at that moment Mark Lemon 
hardly guessed what would prove the range 
and variety of du Maurier's humour. For a 
while, at least, ho did not seek his subjects 
mainly in the drawing-rooms of the fashion- 
able world. A sense of the grotesque, and 
of a field for caricature in the animal world, 
afforded him opportunity for all sorts of 
humorous invention, and the abundance and 
excellence of his work in 'Punch's Almanack' 
for 1865 must have been a surprise even to 
those who knew him best. Meantime a 
new talent was declaring itself. 

In January 1865 appeared in 'Punch' 
some delightful verses in Cockney French, 
' L'Onglay a Parry.' The possession of a 
talent both for verse and prose (and he was 
all his life a constant and discursive reader) 
had indeed a distinct influence from the first 
on his development as a humorous artist. 
These gifts, however, remained as yet all but 
unknown to the general reader. But his 
colleagues on * Punch ' knew them well, and 
more than one editor under whom he served 
urged him to take a writer's salary and be on 
the literary as well as on the artistic staff. 
It was known also to his friends that he 
found comfort in the knowledge that, if his 
only working eye should ever fail him, he 
had a second talent to which he might have 
recourse for a livelihood. A paper contri- 
buted by him to ' Once a AVeek,' as early as 
1860, on the subject of a so-called gold mine 
in Devonshire which he was sent down as 
analyst to report upon, and in which, to the 
dismay of the directors, he could detect no 
trace of gold, displays much of the humour 
and ease of style which he was to exhibit 
thirty years later in * Peter Ibbetson.' For 
verse, both sentimental and humorous, his 
gift was no less marked ; and very early in 
his association with * Punch ' he contributed 
an admirable parody on the ballad style of 
William Moms [q. v. Suppl.] in his * Legend 
of Camelot,' illustrated by himself in happy 
imitation of the pre-Raffaelites. And in 
the meanwhile the pains he took in compos- 
ing the * Legends ' to his drawings had no 
small share (as he told the present writer) 
in training him for the writing of dialogue 
in the prose romances of his later years. 

In 1867 du Maurier with his wife and 
youn<^ children removed to Earl's Terrace, 
Kensington; in 1870 to Church Bow, 
ilampstead ; and in 1874 to New Grove 
House, also in Hampstead, somewhat nearer 
to the Heath, which remained their home 
for twenty years. During all this time his 
work for 'Punch' was that to which his 
most constant attention was given; and by 



degrees, as his friendships multiplied, and 

with them the range of Jii.s observation of 
London society widened, he became more 
and more the satirist of the fashionable and 
artistic world, in which character he is 

Eerhaps best remembered. This was a field 
itherto all but unworked in the pages of 
* Punch.' Leech had dealt in the main with 
the classes below this — the honest bour- 
geoisie — Mr. Briggs and his like, such as had 
mainly commended itself to Dickens and his 
school. Du Maurier's master in satire was 
rather Thackeray, from whom, no doubt, he 
derived his fondness for exposing the hypo- 
crisies of society. The insincerities of fashion, 
whether in social or artistic circles, suggested 
hundreds of du ^laurier's drawings, and he 
was never happier than when he was 
exposing the unworthy struggles of the 
nouveau riche for social recognition, or the 
extravagances of the festhetic or literary 
pretender. But in taking this line he was 
never contented with the effect to be pro- 
duced by the mere pungency of his satire 
or the humour of the situation. The public 
were little aware of the amount of thought, 
pains, and work bestowed by him even upon 
some essentially trivial subject. He drew 
always from the living model — he studied 
with the utmost minuteness all changes of 
fashion in dress, and in the household ap- 
pointments of modern luxury, making his 
long career in ' Punch ' of the greatest value 
to future students of the manners and cus- 
toms of English society during the last 
quarter of the nineteenth centuiy ; and, com- 
bined with this fastidious attention to detail, 
he never forgot Mark Lemon's inj unction to 
attract and charm by his sense and love of 
the beautiful. There never were so many 
lovely women, handsome men, engaging 
children in society at any one moment as 
du Maurier's drawings would lead us to sup- 
pose. But the consciousness of this fact did 
not trouble him. If objectors had hinted 
that they did not meet such in London 
drawing-rooms, he would have replied with 
Turner on a like occasion, ' Ah ! but don't 
you wish you could ?' His love of children 
and his knowledge of all their winning 
ways and occasional foibles gave a special 
character to all his work. Nor were these 
studied merely for the purposes of his 
calling. Himself a devoted husband and 
father, and one who loved home life more 
than any other he knew outside it, he lived 
habitually among those sights and sounds 
and incidents of which he discerned the 
pathetic and humorous sides, and which he 
rejoiced to perpetuate by his art. 

In addition to his weekly work in 

If 2 



Du Maurier 



164 



Du Maurier 



* Punch ' du Maurier from the first year of 
his marriage had done a considerable 
amount of magazine illustration. In April 
1863 he made his first drawing in the 

* Cornhill Magazine ' for a story called the 

* Cilician Pirates,' and he continued to illus- 
trate stories for that periodical for more 
than twenty years. Among these were 
works by Miss Tliackeray (Mrs. Richmond 
Ritchie), Mr. George Meredith, Mr. Thomas 
Hardy, William Black, Mrs. Oliphant, Mr. 
Henry James, and other writers of distinc- 
tion — in many cases important serials ex- 
tending over many months. But there was 
none for whose writings he had a profounder 
admiration than Mrs. Gaskell. He illus- 
trated * Wives and Daughters ' and ' Cousin 
Phillis' on their first appearance in the 
magazine (1864-6), and had already done 
the same service for ' Sylvia's Lovers ' when 
published by Messrs. Smith, Elder, & Co., in' 
book form in 1863. A particular interest 
belongs to du Maurier's drawings for this 
work, the heroine of which he dearly loved, 
and after whom he named his second daugh- 
ter. As all readers of Mrs. Gaskell are 
now aware, * Monkshaven,' the scene of the 
story, is identical with the favourite water- 
ing-place, Whitby, on the Yorkshire coast. 
Whitby was to become in later years a 
special haunt of du Maurier, and its ways 
and doings to appear in delightful fashion 
in * Punch.' But in 1863 he had no personal 
knowledge of the place, or of its identity 
with Monkshaven. Happening one day to 
talk over the task before him with Mr. 
Henry Keene (brother of his friend and 
colleague on * Punch,' Charles Keene), that 
gentleman offered to lend him some sketches 
he had made the year before at Whitby, 
which seemed fairly to resemble the descrip- 
tions of scenery in the novel. Hence it 
came about that the novel was illustrated, 
though the artist was unaware of it, from 
the picturesque seaport Mrs. Gaskell had 
in view. In 1868 du Maurier illustrated 

* Esmond ' (library edition), and ten years 
later Thackeray's * Ballads ' (Edition de luxe), 
in both which will be found some of his 
most interesting work. But he was never 
quite so successful as when inventing as 
well as designing his subjects. 

As years passed on du Maurier found less 
margin of time for work outside of ' Punch.' 
Moreover, a new source of income was 
opened to him by the application of pho- 
tography to wood-engraving some thirty 
years since. In the days of John Leech, as 
afterwards with Sir John Tenniel's weekly 
cartoon, the artist made his finished drawing 
upon the block, and the original was de- 



stroyed in the cutting. By the new method 
the artist's drawing was photographed on to 
the block, and the original remained intact. 
Thus, after a certain date in his career on 
' Punch,' du Maurier retained his original 
drawings, and as his reputation and popu- 
larity grew, he found a ready sale for these, 
exhibitions of which from time to time were 
held at the Fine Art Gallery in Bond Street, 
materially improving du Maurier's financial 
position. It is not superfluous to mention 
this circumstance, seeing that some biogra- 
phical notices after his death spoke of his 
career almost as if it had been one of struggle 
and penury before the unexpected discovery 
at its close of another and more profitable 
talent. But uncertainty as to the duration 
of his visual powers had probably much to 
do with his resolve to attempt prose fiction 
before the darker day should arrive. He had 
already made an experiment in another 
direction by taking up water-colour paint- 
ing. As early as 1880 he was practising 
occasionally this, to him, novel art, and pro- 
duced a very successful portrait of his eldest 
daughter. At intervals during the years 
that followed he painted other portraits and 
five or six subject pictures, one or two of 
them being replicas of subjects already 
treated in ' Punch.' But he found that the 
practice necessary for this less familiar art 
involved too great a strain upon his solitary 
eye, and he pursued it no more after 1889. 
It was about two years later that, after dis- 
cussing his chances with his loyal friend Mr. 
Henry James, he accepted a proposal to 
write a story for Messrs. Harper, the well- 
known firm of American publishers. The 
result of this offer was the romance, ' Peter 
Ibbetson,' partly based upon recollections of 
his own early life, blended with a plot 
turning on a fantastic theory of the sym- 
pathetic relationship of dreams. The story 
at once attracted attention, principally no 
doubt from the former of the two elements 
just mentioned. The record of du Maurier's 
own childhood in ' the forties ' at Passy, the 
Paris suburb, to which, and to the kindly 
personages then surrounding him, the 
machinery of the tale enabled him con- 
tinually to recur, constituted the real charm 
of the romance, the supernatural portion of 
which was not conducted with much art. 
The ample illustrations by the writer, in his 
most attractive style, also contributed greatly 
to its success, which was sufficient to induce 
the publishers to commission a second story, 
to be published in monthly instalments in 
the pages of * Harper's Magazine.' The first 
chapters of * Trilby ' appeared in the January 
number for 1894. 



Du Maurier 



i6y 



Du Maurier 



In tho interval, however, between the 
appeftrance of the two stories, a new anxiety 
had nrisen for their author. In tho winter 
of 1891 li the sight of the remaining eye 
temporarily failed, and for some six weeks 
du Maurier was absent from 'Punch,' save 
for one clever drawing satirising French 
sentiment which had been some time * in 
stock.' During this interval his thoughts 
turned to lecturing as a possible resource in 
the event of his sight proving irrecoverable, 
and he composed a lecture on social satiric 
art, which he delivered with success many 
times in London and the provinces, and 
which was published after his death, with 
illustrations, in 1898. The lecture treated 
chiefly of John Leech and Charles Keene ; 
for both these humorists, and especially for 
Keene as a master of technique, he had the 
profoundest admiration. Du Maurier soon 
tired, however, of lecturing as an occupation, 
and on the happy recovery of sufficient eye- 
siglit he seldom had recourse to it again. 

The new serial, * Trilby,' was from the be- 
ginning a success, and indeed the first half 
of the story, which is by far the better, 
marked a great advance upon its prede- 
cessor. The picture drawn, with loving 
hand, of the young Englishmen working in 
the French painter's studio in Paris, and 
reproducing, though with obvious embel- 
lishments, the author himself and various 
old friends and associates, including Frede- 
rick "Walker (recognisable in many traits 
of temperament and physique in the cha- 
racter of Little Billee), was indeed, in its 
chief features, an actual transcript of 
du Maurier's Quartier Latin experiences 
during his year in Gleyre's studio. Hardly 
a humorous incident or detail related was 
new to the present writer, who had heard 
them from du Maurier's lips many years 
before • Trilby ' was written or imagined. 
They form a picture of la vie de Boheme 
from an Englishman's standpoint and slightly 
idealised ; and though lacking the inventive 
genius of Henri Miirger, yet drawn with 
less cynicism in the humour, and set in an 
atmosphere of genuine tenderness and 
pathos. For the real charm of the story 
lies in the character of Trilby herself— an 
absolutely original creation, the gradual 
development of whose better nature under 
the influence of her three devoted English 
friends is an achievement not unworthy of 
the greatest modem masters of fiction. It 
is to be noted that the supernatural element 
in du Maurier's romances, to which he ap- 
parently looked in the first instance for their 
attractiveness, in no case justified his ex- 
pectation. His truest success was attained 



when he trusted most simply and frankly 
to his human sympathies, and to the 
* familiar matter of to-day.' 

The melodrama of M. Svengali and the 
hyj)notic impossibilities attributed to him 
did not, even when the story was drama- 
tised, it may be safely said, form the real 
attraction of the performance. As to the 
chief personages in ' Trilby,' the Laird was 
drawn in all essential particulars from the 
late Mr. T. II. Lamont, du Maurier's fellow- 
student in Paris, and afterwards associate of 
the Koyal Water-Colour Society, who re- 
mained his intimate friend in after life, and 
survived him only a few months. The large 
drawing in 'Trilby' of the head of the 
Ijaird is an excellent likeness of Mr. La- 
mont. The character of Taffy was drawn 
from more than one original. The chief of 
these was a very splendidly built and hand- 
some athlete, the friend of Mr. Thomas 
Armstrong and (Sir) Edward Poynter, who 
shared a studio with them in Paris after du 
Maurier's removal to Antwerp. Frederick 
Walker (the original of Little Billee) was 
some six years the junior of du Maurier, 
and was never one of the Paris company. 

The success of the story, starting in Ame- 
rica, and passing speedily to England, proved 
overwhelming. When reissued in book 
form, it passed rapidly from edition to edi- 
tion; and the author's share of the profits 
soon sufficed to free him from any anxieties 
as to the future fortunes of his family. And 
these gains were to receive considerable 
additions from the successful dramatisation 
of the story, in the first instance in America, 
under the skilful hands of Mr. Paul M. Potter. 
The play was first produced in London by 
Mr. Beerbohm Tree at the Haymarket 
Theatre, of which he was then lessee, in 
the autumn of 1895, and was acted for six 
months to overflowing houses — Mr. Tree 
playing Svengali, Miss Dorothea Baird 
Trilby, and Mr. Lionel Brough and Mr. 
Charles Allan, as well as the author's son, 
Mr. Gerald du Maurier, adding materially 
to the strength of the cast. 

It was inevitable, after the immense 
popularity of ' Trilby,' that liberal offers 
should be again made to du Maurier for a 
successor to it. Tempted by these off'ers he 
at once addressed himself to the task, though 
with less appetite and more misgivings than 
before. The inordinate success of ' Trilby ' 
was no great source of gratification to him. 
Ilis artistic conscience was not quite at 
ease, and his own practised critical insight 
could not but remind him that such sudden 
triumphs had not fallen to the lot of those 
masters of fiction on whom he had chiefly 



Du Maurier 



i66 



Duncan 



based his stjrle. 'Thackeray,' he would 
sometimes grimly observe, 'never had a 
boom ! ' He persisted, however, with his 
task, and completed the whole text of * The 
Martian,' together with a portion of the 
illustrations, the first instalment of which, 
in * Harper's Magazine,' appeared a few days 
after his death ! 

Meanwhile, his work for * Punch ' remain- 
ing constant, with the addition of his novels 
and their illustrations, he had tried his 
strength to the utmost. It was not, however, 
until the autumn of 1896,whenhe was staying 
with his family at his favourite resort, Whitby, 
that serious apprehensions were felt. In Sep- 
tember he returned, by medical advice, to 
his home in London, then in Oxford Square, 
Hyde Park, whither he had removed from 
Harapstead in 1894, and he died there of 
inflammation of the heart on 6 Oct. 1896. 
His remains were cremated, and his ashes 
interred three days later beneath a small yew 
tree in the parish churchyard of Hampstead. 
No artist of du Manner's generation was 
more justly loved by his personal friends or 
had made a larger circle of unknown friends 
by the pleasure he had afforded every week 
for more than thirty years. And it is 
not unfair to du Maurier's undeniable lite- 
rary gift to predict that on his long and 
remarkable connection with satiric art in 
the pages of 'Punch' his fame will ulti- 
mately rest. A recognised lover and follower 
of Thackeray, he resembled that eminent 
master more nearly when he used the pencil 
than when he used the pen. Thackeray's 
own definition of snobbishness, ' a mean ad- 
miration of mean things,' forms in its largest 
interpretation the vice or foible which du 
Maurier loved best to illustrate. And when, 
as often happened, it took the form of insolence 
or meanness, he could visit it with a severity 
that his master never exceeded. * Cruelty,' 
he was fond of maintaining, ' is the one un- 
pardonable sin.' And whenever and wherever 
the fashionable coteries he had in view used 
their position to obtain favours for nothing — 
as, for instance, from the artistic or literary 
classes at the expense of their time and per- 
haps their feelings— du Maurier would rise 
to the height of an indignation at times 
magnificent. When, in one of his drawings, 
the Duchess hopes that the Herr Professor's 
'dear, kind wife' will spare him for one 
evening to dine and meet several charming 
ladies of rank, the Professor replies, ' Ach 
so! But these ladies — they are then not 
respectable that you do not ask my wife ?' — 
as fine and just a stroke as Thackeray ever 
dealt. But beyond this field for his satire, 
no artbt was ever more bountifully equipped 



for the work he had to do, or more versatile 
in his humorous outlook. His love of the 
beautiful was accompanied by a varied ac- 
quaintance with all the arts, notably with 
music, and with most of the current in- 
tellectual interests of his time ; and he 
possessed besides an admirable vein of 
grotesque imagination. The two pictorial 
series of ' Dreams ' or ' Nightmares ' in the 
' Punch's Almanacks ' for 1893 and 1894, as 
also his French nursery rhymes ('Vers 
Nonsensiques ' ), are delightful samples of 
droll invention. Du Maurier had indeed 
many sides to his talent, which a too exclu- 
sive devotion to the humours of society 
hindered him from cultivating. Especially 
may this be said of his real gift for poetry, 
which he wrote with equal skill in French 
and English. His ear for the harmonies of 
English verse had been trained on the best 
models, as the few specimens scattered 
through his writings abundantly prove. 
Although an imitator of no man, his 'Vers de 
Society —for he did not aim at more ambitious 
heights — show the mingled grace, humour, 
and tenderness of Oliver Wendell Holmes. 

Du Maurier left a wife and two sons and 
three daughters. His elder son is Major 
Guy du Maurier of the royal fusiliers. 

[Information from du Maurier's family and 
friends, notably among the latter from Mr. 
Thomas Armstrong, C.B.; Spielmann's History 
of Punch; McClure's Magazine, April 1895; 
personal knowledge.] A. A. 

DUNCAN, FRANCIS (1836-1888), 
colonel, born at Aberdeen on 4 April 1836, 
was the eldest son of John Duncan, advo- 
cate, by Helen Drysdale, daughter of Andrew 
Douglass of Berwick-on-Tweed. His father 
took a leading part in the Marnock secession 
of 1841, a step in the disruption of the 
church of Scotland. 

He was educated at Aberdeen grammar 
school, and graduated M.A. at Marischal 
College in March 1855, being honourably 
distinguished. He obtained a commission 
as lieutenant in the royal artillery on 
24 Sept. 1855, being third in the list of 
successful candidates at the first open ex- 
amination. He served in Nova Scotia and 
Canada from 1857 to 1862, and accompanied 
the force sent to the frontier at the time of 
the Trent affair. He was promoted captain 
on 10 Aug. 1864, and was made adjutant 
of the 7th brigade. In 1871 he was ap- 
pointed superintendent of regimental records 
at Woolwich, and this led him to undertake 
his history of the royal artillery, which he 
carried down to 1815. He had great powers 
of work, and had the faculty of writing 



Duncan 



167 



Duncan 



rapidly and without erasure, even in the 
midst of conversation. 

lie was proniotfid major on 4 Feb. 1874, 
and in May 187(> ho was sent to Jamaica, 
where ho drew up a report on the island 
and its defences. On 15 Jan. 1877 he was 
appointed an instructor in gunnery, and was 
employed for the next five years in the 
instruction of militia and volunteer artillery 
at the Repository, Woolwich. Having him- 
self entered the army direct from a uni- 
versity, without passing through the lloyal 
Military Academy, Duncan was anxious to 
give future officers the opportunity of uni- 
versity training. He had helped to write a 
pamphlet on the subject in 1872 — 'The 
Universities and the Scientific Corps' — and 
he took part in the foundation of the Oxford 
military college, which was opened in 
September 1876, and became chairman of 
the committee of management of it a year 
afterwards. He was a zealous and inde- 
fatigable member of the order of St. John, 
which he had joined in 1875, and was 
director of the ambulance department. He 
was active in other philanthropic movements. 
He became lieutenant-colonel in the army 
on 1 July 1881, and in the royal artillery 
on 1 Oct. 1882. At the end of that year 
he accepted the command of the Egyptian 
artillery, and held it from 18 Jan. 1883 till 
19 Nov. 1885. At Cairo, as the Khedive 
said, ' he did the work of two men,' and at 
Wady Haifa in 1884 he did much to forward 
the (?tordon relief expedition, of which he 
gave an account at the Artillery Institution 
on (5 Oct. 1886. He became colonel in the 
British army on 15 June 1885, and was 
made C.B. on 25 Aug. He also received 
the order of the Osmanieh (3rd class). On 
2G Nov. he was returned as M.P. in the con- 
servative interest for the Holbom division 
of Finsbury, and was re-elected in July 
1886. He had previously stood unsuccess- 
fully for Morpeth in 1874, and for Durham 
city and Finsbury in 1880. He spoke fre- 
quently on professional and other subjects 
on the conservative side. His speech in se- 
conding the address on 9 Feb. 1888 was de- 
scribed by Gladstone as one of the shortest 
and one of the very best he had heard on 
such an occasion. Duncan went to Nova 
Scotia in the autumn to obtain rest from 
overwork, but ho died shortly after his re- 
turn, on 16 Nov. 1888, at Woolwich. He 
married, on 24 Aug, 1858, Mary Kate, daugh- 
ter of Rev. William Cogswell, rector of St. 
Paul's, Halifax, Nova Scotia, who survived 
him. He was a fellow of the geological and 
other societies, LL.D. of Aberdeen, and 
D.C.L. of Durham. 



He wrote, besides lectures and pamphlet* : 
1. * Our Garrisons in the West ; or Sketches 
in British North America,' 1804. 2. ' His- 
tory of the Royal Regiment of Artillery/ 
1872-3, 2 vols.; 2nd edit. 1874. 3. ♦The 
English in Spain ; or the Story of the War 
of Succession, 1834r-40,' 1877. 4. 'The 
Royal Province of New Scotland and her 
Baronets,' 1878. 

[Life by Rev. H. B. Blogg, 1892 ; Times, 
17 Nov. 1888.] E. M. L. 

DUNCAN, JAMES MATTHEWS, 

(1826-1890), physician, fifth child of Wil- 
liam Duncan, a merchant, and his wife Isa- 
bella Matthews, was bom in April 1826 in 
Aberdeen. After education in the gram- 
mar school he entered Marischal College, 
Aberdeen, and graduated M.A, in April 1843. 
He began the study of medicine at the same 
college, continued it at Edinburgh in 1845, 
and, returning to Aberdeen, there graduated 
M.D. before he was twenty-one. He spent 
the winter of 1846-7 in Paris attending the 
lectures of Cruveilhier, Andral, Orfila, and 
Velpeau. He returned in April 1847, and 
soon after became the assistant in Edinburgh 
of Professor James Young Simpson [q. v.], 
whose friendship he had acquired in 1845. 
He assisted Simpson in his experiments in 
anaesthetics, and on 4 Nov. 1847 experi- 
mentally inhaled chloroform to the point of 
insensibility, and thus is entitled to a share 
in the discovery of its usefulness (Miller, 
Surgical Experience of Chloroform, 1848). 

At the end of 1849, after some months 
of travel in attendance on the Marquis of 
Bute, Duncan began practice in Edinburgh, 
chiefly as an obstetrician. He became a 
fellow of the Edinburgh College of Phy- 
sicians in 1851, and in May 1853 began a 
course as an extra-academical lecturer on 
midwifery. He soon attained considerable 
practice, and in 1861 was made physician to 
the ward for diseases of women in the Edin- 
burgh Royal Infirmary. He read numerous 
papers on obstetrics, and from 1873 to 1875 
was president of the Obstetrical Society of 
Edinburgh. He published in 1860 'Fecun- 
dity, Fertility, and Sterility,' the first exact 
inquiry in English into those subjects; a 
second edition appeared in 1871. The work 
is divided into ten parts — (1) On variations 
in fecundity ; (2) on the size of newborn 
children and the conditions affecting it; 
(3) on the production of twins ; (4) on the 
laws of fertility in various ages, conditions, 
and races ; (5) on the laws of sterility ; 
(6) on fertility and fecundity considered 
together; (7) on the mortality of childbed; 
(8) on the age of nubility ; (9) on the dura- 



Duncan 



i68 



Duncan 



tion of labour ; and (10) on the duration of 
pregnancy. All these are discussed in nume- 
rous chapters, and the exact method of 
treatment rather than any conclusions of 
great originality at once obtained a wide 
and deserved reputation for the book. A 
large proportion of the previous writings of 
obstetricians consisted of loosely arranged 
experiences or of advertisements of the 
wnters' skill. Duncan's was obviously a 
scientific book, and he was ever after con- 
sidered throughout Europe and America as 
an authority in obstetrics. In 1868 he pub- 
blished 'Researches in Obstetrics,' in 1869 

* Treatise on Parametritis and Perimetritis,' 
and in 1870 ♦ The Mortality of Childbed and 
Maternity Hospitals.' These books have all 
the same characteristic of precision, and so 
have his numerous papers in the 'Proceed- 
ings' of medical societies, and his subsequent 
writings — * Papers on the Female Perineum,' 
1879; 'Clinical Lectures on Diseases of 
Women,' 1879, 1883, 1886, 1889; and 

* Sterility in Women,' 1884. 

In 1870, on the death of Sir James Young 
Simpson, Duncan was a candidate for the 
professorship of midwifery at Edinburgh, 
but was not elected. His steady increase of 
practice and reputation as one of the chief 
authorities in his subject showed that his 
profession and the public valued him more 
justly than the university court. In 1877 
the staff of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, at a 
meeting at the house of Sir William Savory 
[q. v.], unanimously decided to ask him to 
accept the lectureship on midwifery, then 
vacant in their school, with the post of ob- 
stetric physician to the hospital. He was 
elected, and came to live at 71 Brook Street, 
Grosvenor Square, London. Such was his 
perfect straightforwardness and his geniality 
that in a few months he was as much a part 
of the place and of the staff as if he had been 
bred at St. Bartholomew's. He immediately 
passed the examination and became a mem- 
ber of the College of Physicians of London, 
and in 1883 was elected a fellow, and de- 
livered the Gulstonian lectures. He was 
elected F.R.S. on 7 June- 1883, and in the 
same year was nominated by the crown a 
member of the General Council of Medical 
Education and Registration. His lectures 
at St. Bartholomew's were clear and in- 
teresting and largely attended. His prac- 
tice became very large, and his standing in 
his profession was higher than that of any 
earlier obstetrician. His just indignation 
was easily aroused and clearly expressed 
when aroused ; his professional opinions 
were usually definite and stated in few 
words, and throughout life his universal 



kindness as well as his inflexible character 
was felt by all who came in contact with 
him. He was a warm admirer of William 
Harvey [q. v.], of William Hunter [q. v.], 
and of William Smellie [q. v.] In 1890 his 
health began to fail, and he did not finish 
his usual course of lectures. He went abroad 
in July, and after several attacks of angina 
pectoris he died at Baden-Baden on 1 Sept. 
1890. He married, in 1860, Miss Jane Hart 
Hotchkis, and had thirteen children. 

[Memoir by Sir William Turner in St. Bartho- 
lomew's Hospital Reports, 1890, vol. xxvi.; 
Works ; personal knowledge.] N. M. 

DUNCAN, PETER MARTIN (1821- 

1891), geologist, was born at Twickenham 
on 20 April 1821, his father, Peter King 
Duncan, a descendant of an old Scottish 
family, l3eing a leather merchant ; his mother 
was daughter of Captain R. Martin, R.N., of 
Ilford, Essex. The son received his earlier 
education first at the grammar school, 
Twickenham, next at Nyon, by the lake of 
Geneva, after which he was apprenticed in 
1840 to a medical practitioner in London. In 
1842 he entered on the medical side at King's 
College, London, passing through it with 
distinction, and being elected an associate in 
1849, after graduating as M.B. at the uni- 
versity of London in 1846. For a time he 
was assistant to Dr. Martin at Rochester, 
and in 1848 took a practice at Colchester, 
Here he was also active in municipal affairs, 
and in 1857 was elected mayor, holding the 
office for a second time. The natural his- 
tory and archaeology of the district also 
greatly attracted him, and the arrangement 
of the town museum was largely his work. 
His first scientific paper, ' Observations on 
the Pollen Tube,' was published in 1856 in 
the ' Proceedings ' of the Edinburgh Botani- 
cal Society, but it was soon followed by 
others. In 1860 he removed to Blackheath, 
thus obtaining more time for science, and 
devoting himself especially to the study of 
corals. 

More complete freedom was obtained by 
election to the professorship of geology at 
King's College in 1870, of which he became 
a fellow in the following year, and shortly 
afterwards he was appointed professor of 
geology at Cooper's Hill College. In 1877 
he settled in London near Regent's Park, 
residing there till 1883, when he removed 
to Gunnersbury. 

Duncan became F.G.S. in 1849, was secre- 
tary from 1864 to 1870, and president 1876 
to 1878, receiving the Wollaston medal in 
1881. He was president of the geological 
section of the British Association at the 



Duncan 



169 



Dunckley 



meeting in 1879; was also a fellow of the 
Zoological and the Linnean vSocieties, holding 
olfico in both, and an active member of the 
jNIicroscopical Society, being president from 
1881 to 1883. lie was elected F.R.S. on 
4 June 1868. 

Duncan's industry was so unflagging that 
he got through a great amount of" work, of 
both a popular and a scientific character, 
besides lecturing and examining. lie was 
editor of Cassell's * Natural History ' (6 
vols. 1876-82), to which he contributed 
several important articles. He wrote a 
' Primer of Physical Geography ' (1882) ; a 
small volume of biographies of botanists, 
geologists, and zoologists entitled ' Heroes 
of Science ' (1882) ; another on ' The Sea- 
shore ' (1879); and an 'Abstract of the 
Geology of India,' 1875, which reached a 
third edition in 1881; besides contributing 
to various periodicals, assisting in preparing 
the third edition of Griffith and Henfrey's 
• Micrographic Dictionary ' (2 vols. 1875), 
and revising the fourth edition of Lyell's 
'Student's Elements of Geology' (1885). 
His separate scientific papers are not less 
than a hundred in number, and his * Sup- 
plement' to the 'Tertiary and Secondary 
Corals ' forms a volume in the publications of 
the Palseontographical Society. The ' Ter- 
tiary Echinoideaof India ' (of which he was 
joint author) appeared in ' Palseontologia 
Indica,' 1882-6. 

He made a special study of the corals and 
echinids, taking also much interest in the 
ophiurids, sponges, and protozoa, regarding 
all questions from the point of view not only 
of the philosophical zoologist, but also of one 
who applied the distribution of species to 
elucidate ancient physical geography. He 
described the fossil coral fauna of Malta, 
Java, Hindustan, Australia, Tasmania, and 
the West Indies, the echinids of Sind, and 
of other countries. The results of these re- 
searches were summed up in two very 
valuable papers, ' Revision of the Madre- 
poraria,' published by the Linnean Society 
in 1885, and ' Revision of the Genera and 
Great Groups of the Echinoidea.' Other 
papers on the ' Physical Geology of Western 
Europe during Mesozoic and Cainozoic Times, 
elucidated by the Coral Fauna,' on 'The 
Formation of Land Masses ' {Proc. Geoff r. 
Soc. 1878, p. 68), and the remarkable paper 
'On Lakes and their Origin' (Froc. Geol. 
Assoc, vii. 298), were also important contri- 
butions to science. His work was that of 
' a great palaeontologist and a strong and 
original intellect.' He was also an excel- 
lent teacher, a genial companion, and a true 
friend. 



Duncan's health beffan to fail about two 
years ])rior to his death, which closed a pain- 
ful illness on 28 May 1891. Ho was buried 
in Chiswick churchyard. He was twice 
married : in 1851 to Jane Emily Cook, and 
in 1869, not long after her decease, to Mary 
Jane Emily Liddel Whitmarsh, who sur- 
vived him with one son by her. Four sons 
and seven daughters by the first marriage 
also survived him. 

[Obituary notices in Proc. Linn. Soc. 1890-2, 
p. 65; Geol. Mag. 1891, p. 332; Quart Journ. 
Geol. Soc. vol. xiviii., Proc. p. 47 ; Nature, xliv. 
387 ; and information from F. Martin Duncan, 
esq.] T. G. B. 

DUNCKLEY, HENRY (1823-1896), 
journalist, son of James Dunckley, was bom at 
'Warwick on 24 Dec. 1823. With the inten- 
tion of entering the ministry he went to the 
baptist college at Accrington, Lancashire, 
and thence in 1846 to the university of 
Glasgow, where he graduated B.A. in 1847 
and M.A. in 1848. During the latter year 
he became minister of the baptist church, 
Great George Street, Salford, and before 
long joined in the propagandist work of the 
Lancashire Public School Association. His 
investigations into the educational needs of 
the labouring population led him to consider 
closely their general condition, their habits, 
tastes, and pursuits, and when the Religious 
Tract Society invited essays on this subject 
he submitted one which was awarded a first 
prize of 100/., and was published in 1851 
under the title of * The Glory and the Shame 
of Britain: an Essay on the Condition 
and Claims of the AN'orking Classes, together 
with the means of securing elevation.' In 
1852 the Anti-Cornlaw League offered 
prizes for essays showing the results of the 
repeal of the corn-law and the free-trade 
policy, and Dunckley gained the first prize 
of 250/. by his ' Charter of the Nations, or 
Free Trade and its Results.' On its publi- 
cation in 1854 it attracted wide attention. 
A Dutch translation by P. P. van Bosso 
appeared at Hoogesand in 1856. 

In 1854 Dunckley began to write for the 
' Manchester Examiner and Times,' a leading 
liberal newspaper, and in 1855 relinquished 
his ministerial position to become editor of 
that paper, in succession to Abraham Walter 
Paulton [q. v.] He conducted the ' Examiner 
and Times' until 25 Jan. 1889, when it was 
transferred to new proprietors and its policy 
changed. His brilliant leading articles 
greatly increased the influence of the paper 
and the reputation of the writer, and he re- 
ceived several flattering invitations to join 
the London press, which, however, he de- 
clined. 



Dunckley 



170 



Durnford 



In 1877 he began a series of letters on 
current topics in the ' Manchester Weekly 
Times,' an offshoot of the ' Examiner,' under 
the pseudonym of * Verax.' Among these 
able letters were five entitled ' The Crown 
and the Cabinet,' suggested by certain doc- 
trines set forth in Sir Theodore Martin's ' Life 
of the Prince Consort' which seemed to him 
incompatible with the English constitution. 
A caustic criticism of the letters appeared 
in the * Quarterly Review ' for April 1878, 
and Dunckley replied in seven letters en- 
titled 'The Crown and the Constitution.' 
His exposition of the rights and functions 
of the responsible ministers of the crown 
gave great satisfaction to his personal and 
political friends, who, on 15 Jan. 1879, gave 
nim a complimentary banquet at the Man- 
chester Retorm Club. At the same time he 
was presented with 300 volumes of books 
and 81 pieces of silver. The ' Verax ' letters 
were continued in the ' Weekly Times ' until 
1888, and afterwards in the ' Manchester Guar- 
dian.' A selection of the earliest letters was 
reprinted in a volume in 1878. The two 
series mentioned above were also reprinted 
in the same year. Others, on * Our Here- 
ditary Legislators,' were separately issued in 
1882, and on ' Capital Punishment ' in 1884. 
In 1890 he wrote a biography of Lord Mel- 
bourne for the series called * The Queen's 
Prime Ministers,' and in 1893 edited Bam- 
ford's * Passages in the Life of a Radical and 
Early Days.' He contributed several poli- 
tical articles to the * Contemporary Review ' 
(1889 and 1891) and 'Cosmopolis' (1896), 
and six articles on the * English Constitu- 
tion,' ' The South Sea Bubble,' ' Stock Ex- 
changes,' ' Privileged Classes,' and ' Nationali- 
sation of Railways' in the Co-operative 
Wholesale Society's Annual, 1891-5. 

In 1878 he was elected a member of the 
Reform Club, in recognition of services ren- 
dered to the liberal party. In 1883 the 
university of Glasgow conferred on him the 
degree of LL.D., and in 1886 he was placed 
on the commission of the peace for Manches- 
ter. A further mark of esteem was the pre- 
sentation to his wife of his portrait, painted 
by Flmslie, in February 1889. This is now 
in the possession of Miss Dunckley. 

He died suddenly in a tramcar on 29 June 
1896 while on his way to his home in 
Egerton Road, Fallowfield, near Manches- 
ter, and his body was cremated at the 
Manchester Crematorium, Withington, on 
2 July. 

Dunckley married on 7 Oct. 1848 Eliza- 
beth Arthur, daughter of Thomas Wood of 
Coventry, and left two sons and three 
daughters. 



[Men of the Time, I4tli ed. ; Manchester Guar- 
dian, 30 June 1896 ; Manchester City News, 
4 July 1898 ; Addison's Roll of the Graduates of 
Glasgow, 1898, p. 171 ; Memoir of W. Dunckley 
(grandfather), edited by H. Dunckley, 1888; 
Verax Testimonial, 1879; information kindly 
supplied by Miss Dunckley, Fallowfield.] 

C. W. S. 

DURNFORD, RICHARD (1802-1895), 
bishop of Chichester, eldest son of the Rev. 
Richard Dui*nford and his wife Louisa, 
daughter of John Mount, was born at San- 
dleford, near Newbury, Berkshire, on 3 Nov. 
1802. His childhood was passed at Chil- 
bolton, near Andover, Hampshire, where his 
father acted as locum tenens for the rector. 
At the age of eight he was sent to the Rev. 
E. C. James's preparatory school at Epsom, 
and three years later was taken home by his 
father to be under his own instruction, with 
the view of standing for a scholarship at 
Winchester. Failing election at that school, 
he stood for a king's scholarship at Eton, 
where he was successful in 1814. There he 
became the pupil of the Rev. Charles Yonge, 
and a favourite with John Keate [q. v.], the 
head-master. At this time he showed great 
facility for Latin verse, two specimens of 
which are given in ' Musse Etonenses,' and 
he was a contributor to the ' Etonian,' edited 
by W. M. Praed and Walter Blunt. While 
yet at Eton he matriculated on 24 March 
1820 at Pembroke College, Oxford, and in 
July 1822 was elected to a demyship at 
Magdalen College. He was one of the 
founders of the Oxford Union (at first styled 
the Union Debating Society), and was pre- 
sident in the first year (1823) and again in 

1825 and 1826. He graduated B.A. on 
27 April 1826 and M.A. on 28 June 1827. 
He was elected probationer fellow of Mag- 
dalen College in 1827, and full fellow in the 
following year, and was ordained deacon at 
Oxford in 1830 and priest in 1831. From 

1826 to 1832,he was private tutor to Edward 
Harbord, eldest son of Lord Suffield, and 
spent two years in travel on the continent, 
where he acquired unusual fluency in speak- 
ing French, Italian, and German. 

In 1833 Durnford was presented to the 
living of Middleton, Lancashire, by Lord 
Suffield, but was not inducted until 1 July 
1835. His connection with the parish, which 
continued for thirty- five years, was in every 
respect a happy one. From the first he 
obtained a wonderful hold of his flock, and 
he was successful in carrying out extensive 
improvements in educational institutions, in 
church extensions, and with the concurrence 
and help of his parishioners erected a new 
national school in 1842, developed the Sun- 



Durnford 



171 



Durnford 



day schools, in which his wife as well as 
himself was a zealous worker. IIo also re- 
stored the fine old parish church, abolished 
pew rents therein, and erected new churches 
at Thornham, Rhodes, and Tarkfield. In the 
secular allairs of Middleton he was looked up 
to as leader, and he sat as chairman of the 
local board from its formation in 1861. The 
diocese of Manchester was formed in 1848, 
and soon afterwards Durnford was made 
rural dean and honorary canon. In 1867 he 
was appointed archdeacon of Manchester, and 
in 1868 canon residentiary of Manchester 
Cathedral. 

When James Prince Lee [q. v.], bishop of 
Manchester, died in December 1869, Durn- 
ford's claims to be his successor were dis- 
cussed by Gladstone, who, however, selected 
James Fraser (1818-1885) [q. v.] Two 
months later, February 1870, the see of 
Chichester became vacant, and it was offered 
to and accepted by Durnford. The conse- 
cration took place at the Chapel lloyal, 
Whitehall, on 8 May 1870. He had then 
reached the age of sixty-eight, but he soon 
proved himself in body and intellect fully 
equal to his new duties. His episcopate 
began at a time of particular difficulty, in 
consequence, among other things, of the 
judgment on appeal in the Purchas case 
[see Purchas, John] : but he steered clear 
through all dangers, and by his impartiality, 
patience, sympathy, and forbearance won 
confidence throughout his diocese. These 
qualities were clearly shown in his visita- 
tion charges of 1871 and 187o, and by the 
manner in which he conducted the Church 
Congress at Brighton in 1874, and his first 
diocesan conference in 1877. He was a 
high churchman, but no ritualist. He had 
formed his opinions before the Oxford move- 
ment had begun, and was ' convinced that 
such theologians as Hooker, Andrewes, Bar- 
row . . . are the best guides even in these 
days.' In the early days of his episcopate 
he resuscitated Bishop Otter's memorial col- 
lege at Chichester as a training college for 
schoolmistresses, and revived the theologi- 
cal college in the same city. He also reor- 
ganised the Diocesan Association. He was 
an important member of the Lambeth Con- 
ference of Bishops in 1888, and, in conjunc- 



tion with Bishops Lightfoot and StubU, 
framed the encyclical letter which was issued 
bv the bishops embodying the principal con- 
clusions of their debates. In 1888 he was 
elected an honorary fellow of Magdalen 
College, and in 1890 his portrait, painted 
by . Mr. Ouless, K.A., was subscribed^ for in 
his diocese. On 3 Nov. 1892, on the com- 
pletion of his ninetieth year, he was pre- 
sented with a Latin address by the dean 
and chapter of Chichester. In the follow- 
ing year he took part in a debate in con- 
vocation on the subject of fasting commu- 
nion, condemning the extreme length to 
which the practice was carried by some 
of his clergy. 

He was a delightful and lovable com- 
panion, full of life and vivacity to the end, 
a brilliant scholar, with a rare knowledge of 
botany and horticulture, and of natural 
history generally. Bishop St ubbs said: * He 
was, I almost think, the most wonderfully 
complete person I ever knew, and the same 
to the last.' 

Durnford died at Basle on 14 Oct. 1895, 
as he was returning from a holiday spent at 
Caddenabbia, on Lake Como. He was buried 
at Chichester Cathedral, where an alabaster 
recumbent effigy to his memory was un- 
veiled on 23 May 1898. In the chapel of 
Eton College he is commemorated by a brass, 
with a Latin inscription by his son Walter, 
one of the assistant masters. Portraits of 
Durnford are given in Stephens's * Memoir.' 
He married in 1840 Emma, daughter of 
John Keate [q. v.], his former master at 
Eton. She died on 10 Oct. 1884, leaving a 
daughter and two sons. 

His published writings are confined to 
three episcopal visitation charges and a few 
sermons, one of which was preached on the 
death of Dean W. F. Hook in 1875. 

[Stephens's Memoir of Durnford, 1899 ("vnth 
portrait), the first two chapters of which were 
written by Richard and Walrer Durnford ; Man- 
chester Guardian, 15 Oct. 1895 ; Guardian, 1895, 
pp. 1551, 1654; Bloxam's Magdalen Coll. Reg. 
vii. 287 ; Macleane's Pembroke Coll. (Oxford 
Hist. Soc.) p. 479 ; Illustrated London News, 
14 May 1870 and 19 Oct. 1895 (with portrait) ; 
Men of Mark, vol. ii. 1877 (with portrait),] 

c. w. s. 



Earwaker 



172 



Earwaker 



E 



EABWAKER, JOHN PARSONS 
(1^47-1896), antiquary, son of John Ear- 
waker, was born at Cheetham Hill, Man- 
chester, on 22 April 1847. His father, a 
Hampshire man, had settled at Manchester 
some years before that date as a merchant, 
and was an intimate friend of Richard Cob- 
den. Educated at first at a private school 
at Alderley Edge, Cheshire, he afterwards 
went to a school in Germany, and subse- 
quently studied at Owens College, Man- 
chester, where he took prizes in natural 
science. Thence he went to Pembroke Col- 
lege, Cambridge, but obtaining a scholarship 
at Merton College, Oxford, he matriculated 
there in November 1868, and graduated 
B.A. in 1872 and M.A. in 1876. He at one 
time intended to go to the bar, and in 1869 
entered at the Middle Temple. He was, 
however, never called. At Oxford he re- 
mained until 1874, having obtained a few 
pupils there. His early studies were in the 
direction of zoology and geology ; but he 
became warmly interested in historical and 
antiquarian studies, and acquired a remark- 
ably extensive acquaintance with ancient 
English manuscripts. He was elected hono- 
rary secretary of the Oxford Archaeological 
Society, and acted as deputy-keeper of the 
Ashmolean museum in 1873-4, during the 
residence of the keeper, John Henry Parker 
[q. v.], in Rome. In January 1873 he was 
elected F.S.A. After his marriage in 1875 
he resided at Withington, near Manchester, 
and in 1881 removed to Pensarn, near Aber- 
gele, North Wales, devoting himself to 
literature and archaeology as a profession. 
In the local affairs of Pensarn he took an 
active part as chairman of the local board, 
and in other ways. 

In April 1875 he began the publication 
in the * Manchester Courier ' of a series of 
' Local Gleanings relating to Lancashire and 
Cheshire,' which was continued until Janu- 
ary 1878, and then republished in two 
volumes. It was followed in 1878-80 by a 
periodical entitled * Local Gleanings : an 
Archceological and Historical Magazine,' 
of which one volume was completed. The 
first volume of his * East Cheshire, Past and 
Present; or a History of the Hundred of 
Macclesfield' was published in 1877, and 
the second in 1881. These large and impor- 
tant volumes show the author's grasp and 
lucid arrangement of facts, and his thorough- 
ness in proving every statement by reference 



to original authorities. In 1882 the cor- 
poration of Manchester resolved to print the 

* Court Leet Records of the Manor of Man- 
chester,' ranging from 1552 to 1846, and 
Earwaker was engaged as editor. The work, 
with full annotations, extended to twelve 
royal octavo volumes, the first of which was 
printed in 1884, and the last in 1890. It 
was supplemented by ' The Constables' Ac- 
counts of the Manor of Manchester, from 
1612 to 1647 and from 1743 to 1776,' 3 vols. 
1891-2. Earwaker was often occupied in 
the arrangement of public and family muni- 
ments. Thus he put the Congleton corpora- 
tion records into admirable order, and some 
of his work on family papers resulted in 
interesting printed monographs, as in his 

* Agecroft Hall, near Manchester, and the 
Old Deeds and Charters relating to it.' 
There was probably no other man who pos- 
sessed so great a knowledge of the genealogy 
of the two counties of Chester and Lancaster, 
and his stores were freely open to those 
working in similar directions. 

He was one of the founders and honorary 
secretary of the Record Society of Lanca- 
shire and Cheshire, and a member of the 
councils of the Chetham Society, the His- 
toric Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, 
the Chester Archaeological Society, and the 
Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian So- 
ciety. To the publications of these societies 
he was an industrious contributor, and he 
was an occasional writer in the 'Athenaeum,' 

* Notes and Queries,' and other journals. 

Earwaker died on 29 Jan. 1895 at Pensarn, 
and was buried in the old churchyard of 
Abergele. He married, on 1 June 1875, 
Juliet, daughter of John George Bergman of 

* Colinshays,' Bruton, Somerset, and Teign- 
mouth, and by her had three sons and three 
daughters. Mrs. Earwaker illustrated her 
husband's * East Cheshire ' and several other 
works. 

His large library of printed books and 
manuscripts, including a vast number of 
transcripts of original documents, was 
divided after his death ; the Cheshire por- 
tion being purchased by the late Duke of 
Westminster, and presented by him to the 
Chester Museum ; and the Lancashire por- 
tion being acquired by Mr. William Farrer 
of Marton, near Skipton. A catalogue of 
the library was printed in 1895. 

His works, in addition to those already 
mentioned, and besides a considerable num- 



Eastlake 



173 



Eastlake 



ber of papers written for antinuarian so- 
cieties, were as follows: 1. 'Index to the 
Wills and Inventories at Chester from 1545 
to 1760,' Record Society, 1879-92, 7 vols. 

2. • Lancashire and Cheshire Wills and In- 
ventories,' Chetham Society, 1884-93, 2 vols. 

3. ' A Lancashire Pedigree Case; or a His- 
tory of the various Trials for the Recovery 
of the Harrison Estates from 1873 to 1886,' 
1887. 4. 'The Recent Discoveries of Roman 
Remains found in repairing the North Wall 
of the City of Chester,' a series of papers by 
various writers, edited by Earwaker, 1888. 
5. ' History of the Ancient Parish of Sand- 
bach,' 1890, 4to. 6. ' The Cheshire Sheaf,' 
new series, reprinted from the 'Chester 
Courant,' 1891. 7. ' History of the Church 
and Parish of St. Mary-on-the-Ilill, Chester,' 
completed by Dr. R. H. Morris, 1898. He 
had in contemplation at the time of his 
death a history of the county of Lancaster 
upon an unusually extended scale. 

[Manchester Guardian, 3 1 Jan. 1895; Journal 
of the Chester Architectural &c. Society, new 
series, v. 317 ; Tr-insactions Lane, and Cheshire 
Antiq. Society, xiii. 143 (portrait); Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886 ; Furnivall's Child 
Marriages &c. in the Diocese of Chester, 1897 ; 
personal knowledge.] C. W. S. 

EASTLAKE, ELIZABETH, Lady 
(1809-1893), authoress, born at Norwich on 
17 Nov. 1809, was the fifth child and fourth 
daughter of Dr. Edward Rigby [q. v.] by his 
second wife, Anne (1777-1872), daughter of 
W' illiam Palgrave of Yarmouth. Edward 
Rigby [q. v.], the obstetrician, was her bro- 
ther. After her father's death in 1821 she 
went to reside with her mother at Framing- 
ham, near Norwich, until in 1827 she went 
with her family for a sojourn of over two 
years at Heidelberg, where she acquired a 
thorough knowledge of German. In 1836, 
after another visit to Germany, she wrote a 
solid but unfriendly article on ' Goethe ' for 
the ' Foreign Quarterly Review.' In October 
1838 she went to Reval in Russia upon a 
long visit to a married sister, and upon her 
return, early in 1841, the letters written 
thence to her mother were accepted for pub- 
lication by Murray, and issued anonymously 
in two volumes as ' A Residence on the 
Shores of Baltic' The book was freshlv 
written, proved attractive, and went through 
several editions under the slightly altered 
title, ' Letters from the Shores of the Baltic* 
The letters served as an introduction to 
Lockhart, and in April 1842 Miss Rigby ap- 
peared as a writer for the ' Quarterly ' upon 
* Jesse, Kohl, and Sterling on Russia.' In the 
same year she accompanied her mother to a 
new home at Edinburgh, where she had in- 



troductions from the Murrays, and was in- 
troduced to the circle of Christopher North 
(John Wilson) as one of the right sort. She 
continued to write for the ' Quarterly,' her 
articles on ' Evangelical Novels ' and * Chil- 
dren's Books,' on 'German Life,' and on 
' Lady Travellers ' being widely appreciated. 
In 1844 she went to London on a visit to 
the Murrays in Albemarle Street, met Car- 
lyle and disagreed with his calling Luther 
'a nice man,' and saw something of Miss 
Strickland and Miss Edgeworth. In May 
1844 she left London for another visit to 
Russia. ' The Jewess ' had appeared in 1843, 
and in 1846 she again drew iipon her Russian 
experiences for ' Livonian Tales.' Return- 
ing to Edinburgh she worked conscientiously 
upon ' Quarterly ' articles (including in 1846 
' German Painting ' and ' Cologne Cathe- 
dral '), and attracted in December 1848 much 
attention bv one in which she attacked 
' Jane Eyre as a vulgar though powerful 
work of ' an anti-Christian ' tendency. She 
preferred to think that the novel was by a 
man, the alternative supposition being 
that it was the work of a woman who ' for 
some sufficient reason had forfeited the 
society of her own sex.' Elsewhere she ex- 
pressed her conviction that Currer, Acton, 
and Ellis Bell were three Lancashire bro- 
thers of the weaving order. In January 
1849 she became engaged to Sir Charles 
Lock Eastlake [q. v.l, whose acquaintance 
she had made at the Murrays' ; she was then 
forty, while he was fifty-six. The marriage 
took place on 9 April 1849, when the 
wedded pair settled at 7 Fitzroy Square. 
Her handsome, regular features, and magni- 
ficent figure (she was within an inch of six 
feet high) are to be traced henceforth in 
several of Eastlake's compositions. 

In February 1850 Lady Eastlake first 
heard Macaulay ' talk all dinner ' at the 
Longmans', and among those whom she met 
at this time and deftly individualised in her 
journals were Sir Robert Peel, the Duke of 
Wellington, Samuel Rogers, Cobden, Dr. 
Waagen, Ruskin, the Miss Berrys, Mrs. 
Norton, and, a little later, Charles Dickens, 
' whose company I always enjoy.' In 1852 
she had reprinted two articles from the 
' Quarterly ' on ' Music and the Art of 
Dress ' (London, 8vo), and in the same year 
she accompanied her husband to Italy, an 
expedition repeated annually until his death, 
and varied by subsidiary excursions to 
France, the Low Countries, Germany, and 
Spain. At the close of the year, her interest 
in art having been quickened bj' her tour, 
on which she made a number of first-rate 
sketches (she avowed to Lockhart in defiance 



Eastlake 



174 



Eastlake 



of his counsel that she should continue to 
prefer the pencil to the pen), she began her 
valuable translation of Waagen's 'Treasures 
of Art in Great Britain ' (1854-7, 4 vols.) 
In November, to her sister in Ceylon, she 
•wrote a vivid account of Wellington's 
funeral. In 1854 she met Kingsley, * a pale, 
thin man, who stammers/ and Mrs. Grote, 
'the cleverest woman in London,' with 
whom she struck up an intimate and lasting 
firiendship, and whose biographer she even- 
tuallv became. 

In' October 1854 Sir Charles Eastlake 
accepted the directorship of the National 
Gallery, after an official wrangle with Lord 
Aberdeen, which his wife described with 
much humour. In the ' Quarterly ' for March 
1856, in a review of ' Modern Painters,' she 
refuted ' Ruskin's elementary errors ' about 
the principles of art. In March 1860 she 
accepted from Longmans the commission of 
completing Mrs. Jameson's ' History of our 
Lord in Works of Art,' to which she devoted 
all her energies. Her volume was published 
in March 1864, and the work was reviewed 
by Lady Eastlake herself in the ' Quarterly ' 
for July. Her diaries show that she now 
began to see more of Gladstone, at whose 
house she met Garibaldi, and of Jowett, ' a 
happy, gentle, grey-haired young man, very 
agreeable indeed, and very amiable.' 

In December 1865 her husband died at 
Pisa. She published anonymously, in March 
1868, * Fellowship : Letters addressed to my 
Sister Mourners,' a book which attracted 
Queen Victoria (to whom the secret of the 
authorship was revealed), and won the writer 
many friends and warm appreciation. Next 
year she finished the editing of ' Contribu- 
tions to the Literature of the Fine Arts by 
Sir C. L. Eastlake: with a Memoir com- 
piled by Lady Eastlake' (1870, 8vo), while 
almost simultaneously was published her 
* Life of John Gibson, R.A., Sculptor ' (Lon- 
don, 1870, 8vo). Her opinions upon the 
Franco-German war are interesting from 
their singularity in one who knew Germany 
80 well as she did. Her position in court 
circles in England gave her the entr6e at 
Wilhelmshohe, where she dined with the 
crown prince and princess and was fre- 
quently received. In 1874 she accomplished 
a work for which her * exceptional acquain- 
tance with art specially qualified her,' the 
remodelling of her husband's edition of Kug- 
ler's ' Handbook of Painting : Italian Schools,' 
for the earlier translation of which, in 1851, 
she had been mainly responsible. In January 
1876 she wrote her instructive article on 
*The Two Amperes' for the 'Edinburgh Re- 
view,' and followed it up by one on * Bastiat ' 



(April 1879). After her husband's death 
John Forster and Sir Henry Layard appear 
to have been her main literary confidants 
and advisers. 

The death of Forster distressed her only 
less than that of Mrs. Grote, the ' Sketch ' 
of whose ' Life ' she brought out in 1880. 
About the same time a perusal of her father's 
letters caused her to prepare a section of 
them for publication. They were those 
relating to the events of July 1789 in Paris, 
and Rigby's subsequent tour through the 
south of France and Germany ; these were 
issued in 1880, and were welcomed by stu- 
dents as an interesting supplement to Arthur 
Young. The study of the period induced 
an enthusiasm for De Tocqueville, and she 
was next led ' to read and think about ' 
Mme. de Stael, in whom she saw a com- 
pound of Johnson and Macaulay, and upon 
whom she wrote in the ' Quarterly ' for 
July 1881. The train of study did not stop 
here, but resulted further in the 'Jacobin 
Conquest' {Quarterly, January 1882), the 
victory of a political association, with which 
she was inclined to compare the Irish land 
league. She was full of admiration for 
Morelli's work upon the Italian masters, 
and renewed her studies of Raphael, but 
was horribly disgusted by the ' Rossetti 
Exhibition' of 1883. ' Some of the women 
look as if they were going to be hanged, 
wringing their hands and poking out their 
chins ; others look as if they had been 
hanged and were partially decomposed.' 
As a relief from these 'cadaverous bodies 
and sensual mouths ' she turned to the old 
masters, and republished in 1883 essays on 
' Five Great Painters ' (London, 2 vols. 8vo) ; 
the five being Raphael, Michelangelo, 
Titian, Leonardo, and Diirer. During 1886 
she was translating Professor Brandl's 
' Samuel Taylor Coleridge and the English 
Romantic School' (London, 8vo), which 
was published in March 1887, and was fol- 
lowed by an able article by her hand in the 
' Quarterly,' to which, during the next two 
years, she contributed her fascinating ' Remi- 
niscences of Samuel Rogers,' her ' Art in 
Venice ' and ' Russia,' and somewhat later, 
in July 1891, her last article on Morelli. 
Her 'Reminiscences of Edinburgh' in the 
forties appeared in ' Longman's Magazine ' 
as late as January 1893. 

She died at her house in Fitzroy Square, 
where she had collected round her some 
beautiful works of art, on 2 Oct. 1893, and 
was buried on 6 Oct. by her husband's side 
in Kensal Green cemetery. Deeply but not 
ostentatiously religious, showing in every 
utterance and action her dislike of the mor- 



Ebury 



175 



Edersheim 



bid and tlio peculiar, and of radicalism in 
politics, Lady Eastliiko developed into a 
typical English graude dnme, serene and 
easy in manner, intellectual and courageous, 
impervious to bores, highly esteemed and 
looKed up to in the best society in London 
for wellnigh fifty years. 

A portrait after Sir William Boxall, R.A., 
is prefixed to the 'Journals and Correspon- 
dence of Lady Eastlake,' edited by her ne- 
phew, Charles Eastlake Smith, 1895, 2 vols. 

[Journals and Correspondence, 1895; Times, 
3 Oct. 1893 ; Guardian, 7 Oct. 1893 ; Kuglor's 
Handbook (ed. Layard), 1887, Introd. ; Smilos's 
A Publisher and his Friends, 1891, ii. 4-11 ; 
Mrs. Gaskell's Life of Charlotte Bronte; Shor- 
ter's Charlotte Bronte and her Circle ; Allibone's 
Diet, of Engl. Lit. ; Lady Eastlake's Works.] 

T. S. 

EBURY, Barojt. [See Grosvbnor, 
Robert, 1801-1893.] 

EDERSHEIM, ALFRED (1825-1889), 
biblical scholar, was bom at Vienna of Jewish 
parents on 7 March 1825. His father, Mar- 
cus Edersheim, a banker and a man of cul- 
ture and wealth, had come originally from 
Holland. His mother, Stephanie Beifuss, 
was a member of a well-known Frankfort 
family. As a boy he was of precocious in- 
tellect, and his father's position gave him 
many educational advantages. His com- 
plete mastery of English, for example, was 
due largely to the fact that it was the lan- 
guage commonly used in his father's family. 
As a youth he was educated partly in the gym- 
nasium, partly in the Jewish school in connec- 
tion with the synagogue, until, in 1841, he en- 
tered as a student in the university of Vienna. 
Before, however, he had completed his course 
here, ruin overtook his father, and he was 
thrown on his own resources. He journeyed 
to Pesth, supported himself by giving lessons 
in languages, and made the acquaintance of 
Dr. John Duncan (1796-1870) [q. v.] and 
other presbyterian mmisters, who were acting 
at the time as chaplains to the Scottish 
workmen engaged in constructing the bridge 
over the Danube. Under their influence 
he embraced Christianity, accompanied Dr. 
Duncan on his return to Scotland, studied 
theology both in Edinburgh and also (under 
Hengstenberg, Neander, and others) in Ber- 
lin, and in 1840 entered the presbyterian 
ministry. Shortly afterwards be travelled 
:ibroad, and for a year preached as a mis- 
sionary to Jews and Germans at Jassy in 
Roumania. Here he made the acquaintance 
of Mary Broomfield, who, after his return 
to Scotland, became in 1848 his wife. As 
preacher at a large church in Aberdeen 



Edersheim was peculiarly Ruccessful, and 
lie was soon aopointed minister of the firee 
church. Old Aberdeen. Here ho remained 
for twelve years, during which time he 
translated into English several German theo- 
logical works, wrote his ' History of the 
Jewish Nation from the Fall of Jerusalem to 
the Reign of Constantino the Great ' (1856), 
and contributed to the * Athenaeum ' and 
other periodicals. 

In the winter of 1860-1 his health took 
him to Torquay, where he lost his first wife, 
and where also he subsequently married 
Sophia, daughter of Admiral John Hancock, 
C.B. Through his influence the presbyterian 
church of St. Andrew was built at Torquay, 
and he became its first minister. In 1872, 
his health continuing poor, he decided tore- 
tire from active work and devote himself to 
literature; accordingly he resigned his 
charge at Torquay and removed to Bourne- 
mouth. In 1874 he published ' The Temple: 
its Ministry and Services at the Time of 
Jesus Christ,' a work which, by bringing him 
the friendship of Dr. George Williams (au- 
thor of 'The Holy City'), led in 1875 to his 
taking orders in the English church. From 
1876 to 1882 he held the country living of 
Loders, near Bridport, in Dorsetshire. Here 
he wrote his opus magnum, ' The Life and 
Times of Jesus the Messiah' (1883), a work 
in two massive volumes, displaying indeed 
some lack of critical acumen, but a monu- 
ment of learning, presented in eminently 
readable form, and a storehouse of informa- 
tion on every subject which comes within 
its range. 

In 1880 Edersheim was appointed War- 
burtonian lecturer at Lincoln's Inn, an office 
which he held for the usual period of four 
years. In 1882 he removed from Loders to 
the more congenial surroundings of Oxford. 
His connection with the univ^ersity had 
begun in 1881, when he was created M.A. 
honoris causa ; he was also Ph.D. of Kiel 
and D.D. of Vienna, Berlin, Giessen, and 
New College, Edinburgh. He became now 
(1884-5) select preacher to the university, 
and (1886-8, 1888-90) Grinfield lecturer on 
the Septuagint. In 1885 appeared his War- 
burtonian lectures on ' Prophecy and History 
in relation to the Messiah.' Soon afterwards 
he ^v^ote, with the co-operation of Mr. (now 
Professor) Margoliouth, a * Commentary on 
Ecclesiasticus ' for the * Speaker's Commen- 
tary on the Apocrypha' (1888). He was 
contemplating a work on * The Life and 
Writings of St. Paul,' and had in fact 
written some of the opening chapters when, 
on 16 March 1889, he was suddenly struck 
down by death at Mentone, where he had 



Edinburgh 



176 



Edwards 



been spending the winter on account of his 

health. J . VI • 

Dr. Edersheim was gentle and amiable in 
disposition, bright and humorous in conver- 
sation, genial in manner, a ready and fluent 
writer, and effective preacher ; possessed of a 
poetical imagination, which was apt to give 
a rhetorical redundance to his style; in 
literary and theological questions conser- 
vative, but tolerant. 

Besides the works mentioned above, 
Edersheim published : 1. ' Bible History ' (of 
the Old Testament), 1876-87, 7 vols. 
2. 'Jewish Social Life in the Time of 
Christ,' 1876. Two elaborate articles on 
'Josephus' (1882) and 'Philo' (1887) in 
Smith and Wace's ' Dictionary of Christian 
Biography ; ' stories, hymns, and minor reli- 
gious writings; numerous articles in the 
' Bible Educator,' the ' Edinburgh Review,' 
and other periodicals. 

[Tohu-ra-Vohu (• -without form and void ') : a 
Collection of Fragmentary Thoughts and Criti- 
cisms by Alfred Edersheim, edited (with a 
memoir and portrait) by Ella Edersheim, 1890; 
Guardian, 27 March 1889, p. 474.] S. E. D. 

EDINBURGH, Dtjke of. [See Alfked 
Ernest Albert, 1844-1900.] 

EDWARDS, AMELIA ANN BLAN- 
FORD (1831-1892), novelist, journalist, 
and egyptologist, was born in London on 
7 June 1831. Her father was an officer 
who had served under Wellington through 
the peninsular war. Retiring from the 
army through ill-health, he ultimately ac- 
cepted a post in the London and Westmin- 
ster BanK, and lived in Pentonville. He 
was descended from an old stock of East- 
Anglian farmers, settled at Gosbeck in 
Suffolk (Miss Matilda Betham-Edwards— 
with whom Amelia was often confused — is 
the daughter of his brother). Her mother 
was the daughter of Robert Walpole, an 
Irish barrister, connected with the Norfolk 
family of that name. Both parents died 
within a week of each other in 1860. 

Miss Edwards was educated at home, 
chiefly by her mother. As a child her 
strongest bent was towards art. From the 
time she could hold a pencil she was 
always drawing illustrations of books and 
passing events. In writing she was no 
less precocious. One of her earliest recol- 
lections was of composing a story in capital 
letters, before she had properly learnt to 
write. A poem, called 'The Knights of 
Old,' which she wrote at the age of seven, 
was sent by her mother to a penny weekly 
and duly printed. 'The Story of a Clock,' 



written at the age of twelve, was republished 
in the ' New England Magazine ' for 
January 1893. Another early taste was 
for music, which for some years quite 
superseded books. When about fifteen she 
apprenticed herself for seven years to Mrs. 
Mounsey Bartholomew, from whom she 
learnt not only singing, the pianoforte, and 
the organ, but also harmony and counter- 
point. Yet another passion was for amateur 
acting ; and she always remained fond of the 
play, though she ceased to care for music. 

Straitened means compelled her to look 
about for a means of livelihood, which — ■ 
such was her versatility — she might have 
achieved by her pen, her pencil, or her 
voice. Accident decided her in favour of 
literature. She sent a story to ' Chambers's 
Journal' and received a cheque in return. 
Forthwith she forsook the drudgery of 
music, and the rest of her life was one prolonged 
round of literary toil. At this time she did 
a good deal of work for * Household Words ' 
and * All the Year Round,' usually provid- 
ing the ghost story for Dickens's Christmas 
numbers. She also served on the staff of 
the * Saturday Review ' and the * Morning 
Post,' contributing occasional leading 
articles, as well as musical, dramatic, and 
art criticism. The total of her novels is 
only eight, each of which she used to say 
took her two years' work. The first, * My 
Brother's Wife,' was published in 1855. 
Then followed ' The Ladder of Life ' in 1857 
and * Hand and Glove ' in 1859. Her earliest 
success was with ' Barbara's History ' (1864), 
which passed through three editions, besides 
reproductions by Harper (in America) and 
Tauchnitz (in Germany), as well as trans- 
lations into German, Italian, and French. 
Upon 'Debenham's Vow '(1870), which con- 
tains a description of blockade-running in 
Charleston harbour, she bestowed infinite 
pains to be accurate in local detail. So 
again with her last and most popular novel, 
'Lord Brackenbury' (1880), she made a 
special journey to Cheshire to study from 
life the scene of the story. The ruined 
manor house and the new one in the Italian 
style are both the property of Mr. Balman ; 
Langtry Grange is a glorious old place called 
' Old Morton.' This tale originally came out 
in the ' Graphic,' with illustrations by Mr. 
Luke Fildes, some of which were based upon 
the author's sketches in water-colour. It 
passed through no less than fifteen editions ; 
but by this time Miss Edwards had become 
so absorbed in egyptology that she never 
followed it up with another novel. 

Among her miscellaneous writings may 
be mentioned : ' A Summary of English 



Edwards 



J77 



Edwards 



History ' (1866); 'The History of Franco' 
(1^58); thn lottorpress for Colnnghi'a 
' Photo^Taphic Historical Portrait (iallery' 
(18(H)), comprisiiiff about thn^p hundred sliort 
biographios ; a volume of ' Pnlliids' (1805); 
and two anthologies, 'A Poetry Book of 
Klder l*oet8 ' and ' A Poetry Book of Modern 
Poets ' (both 1879). She was always fond of 
travel. As early as 18(52 slie published 
* Sights and Stories : being some Account of 
a Holiday Tour through the North of 
Belgium.* In tho summer of 1872 she 
nia<U) a tour in tho Dolomite Mountains, 
which was described in * Uti trodden Peaks 
and Unfrequented Valleys' (1873), with 
illustrations from her own sketches. 

tin tho winter of 1873-4 she paid that 
yisit to Egypt which resulted in changing 
the course of her life. She went up the 
Nile in a dahabiyah as far as the second 
cataract. On this occasion she also visited 
Syria, crossing the two Lebanon ranges to 
^ Damascus and Baalbek,and returning through 
I the Levant to Constantinople. Up to this 
time she had felt no interest in egyptology 
beyond having been attracted by Sir Gardner 
"Wilkinson's books in her girlhood. It is 
characteristic of the new spirit which seized 
her that her book on Egypt occupied two 
years in writing. She found it incumbent 
to learn the hieroglyphic characters, to 
form her own collection of antiquities, and 
to verify her personal experience from 
libraries and museums. ' A Thousand Miles 
up the Nile,' with facsimiles of inscriptions, 
plans, maps, and upwards of eighty illustra- 
tions by the author (1877, 2nd ed. 1889), 
though superseded as a guide-book, retains 
its authority as an introduction to the spirit 
of the ancient civilisation which still domi- 
nates the Nile valley. 

The wanton destruction of antiquities 
that she witnessed everywhere in Egypt 
inspired Miss Edwards with the idea that 
the only remedy was to be found in scientific 
excavation. VVith this object she drew up 
circulars and issued appeals to the press, 
which ultimately resulted in the foundation 
of the Egrypt Exploration Fund. Her first 
ally was Reginald Stuart Poole [n. v.], who 
brought with him many of the authorities of 
the British Museum. Sir William James 
Erasmus Wilson [q. v.J contributed liberally 
in money. But nothing could be done in 
Egypt by English enterprise tmtil Maspero 
succeeded Mariette as director of museums 
and antiquities in 1881. The Egypt Explora- 
tion Fund was formally founded in 1882 
with Miss Edwanls and Poole as joint hono- 
rary secretaries ; and in the following year 
M. Navillo was despatched to excavate the 
TOL. U.— 8UP. 



Store city of Pithom and determine the 

route of the exwlus. In every winter from 
that time onwards the society has sent at 
least one expedition to Egypt, usually under 
the charffe of M. Naville or ProfeMor 
Flinders Petrie, and has published annually 
a record of the results. So long as she lived 
Miss Edwards devoted herself to the work 
of tho Egypt Exploration Fund, abandoning 
all her other literary interests. As it was 
her contagious enthusiasm that originally 
brought the members together, so it was her 
genius for organisation that smoothed over 
ditticulties and insured success. With her 
own hand she wrote innumerable letters, 
acknowledged the receipt of subscriptions, 
and labelled the objects presented to mu- 
seums. During this period she regularly 
contributed articles on egyptological 8ul>- 
jects to the* Times' and the * Academy,* 
as well as to other journals at home and 
abroad. She also attended the Orientalist 
Congress at Vienna in 1885, where she 
read a paper on 'The Dispersion of An- 
tiquities.' 

During the winter of 1889-90 Miss Ed- 
wards went to the United States on a lec- 
turing tour, which was one long triumphal 
progress. She visited almost all the New 
England states, and proceeded as far west as 
St. Paul and Milwaukee. On the occasion 
of her last lecture at Boston she was pre- 
sented with a bracelet * from grateful and 
loving friends — the women of Boston.' En- 
joyable as this tour was, it was unfortunately 
marred by an accident at Columbus, Ohio, 
whereby she broke her left arm. Though 
she managed to see through the press a book 
consisting mainly of the substance of her 
American lectures — ' Pharaohs, Fellahs, and 
Explorers' (1891), the title of which was 
not of her own choosing — and even under- 
took a series of lectures in England, she never 
recovered her former robust health. Since 
1864, when she left London, her home had 
been at Westbury-on-Trym, near Bristol, 
where she shared a pretty house, called * The 
Larches,' with an aged friend. This friend 
died in January 1892, and Miss Edwards 
did not long survive her. At that time she 
was herself bedridden with influenza; but 
she was moved to Weston-super-Mare, and 
there she died on 15 April 1892. She wt« 
buried in the churchyard of Henbury. 

Miss Edwards bequeathed her egyptologi- 
cal library and her valuable collection of 
Egyptian antiauities to University College, 
London, togetner with 2,415/. to found » 
chair of egyptology (the only one in Eng- 
land), for which she destined as the first 
occupant Professor W. M. Flinders Petrie. 

ir 



Edwards 



178 



Elias 



The Edwards library and museum have since 
been largely augmented, and are now main- 
tained from her residuary estate. Most of 
her other books she left to Somerville Hall, 
Oxford. Only a few months before her death 
Mr. A. J. Balfour (through the good offices 
of Professor George John Ilomaues) con- 
ferred upon her a pension of 75/. on the 
civil list * in consideration of her services to 
literature and archaeology.' From Ameri- 
can universities she received three honorary 
degrees — that of LL.D. from Columbia Col- 
lege, New York, on the occasion of its cen- 
tenary celebration in 1887 ; that of LL.D. 
from Smith College, Northampton, Mass.; 
and that of Ph.D. from the College of the 
Sisters of Bethany, Topeka, Mass. Her 
portrait was painted in oils at Rome in 1872, 
and a marble bust, sculptured by Percival 
Ball in 1873 also at Rome, was bequeathed 
by aer to the National Portrait Gallery, 
London. The best likeness of her is a pho- 
tograph taken at New York, which has fre- 
quently been reproduced. 

4 Autobiographical notes and personal know- 
je.] J. S. C. 

EDWARDS, THOMAS CHARLES 

(1837-1900), divine, eldest son of Lewis 
Edwards, D.D. [q. v.], was born at Llanycil, 
Bala, Merionethshire, on 22 Sept. 1837. His 
mother was a granddaughter of Thomas 
Charles [q. v.], the organiser of Welsh cal- 
vinistic methodism. His early education 
was under his father at Bala, whence he 
proceeded to University College, London, 
and graduated M.A. Lond. in 1862, being 
classed next to William Stanley Jevons 
[q. v.l On 21 Oct. 1862 he matriculated at 
St. Alban Hall, Oxford ; in 1864 he obtained 
a scholarship at Lincoln College, and gradu- 
ated B.A. 1866 with a first class in classics ; 
M.A. 1872. In 1867 he was ordained to a 
chaise in Liverpool, in connection with the 
presbyterian church of Wales. This he re- 
sijped in 1872, on being appointed the first 
prmcipal of the University College of Wales 
at Aberystwyth (opened 9 Oct.) During 
his principalship the college buildings were 
burned, and by his energy restored. He 
succeeded also in obtaining from the treasury 
an endowment of 4,000/. a year for the col- 
lege. In 1887 he received the diploma of 
D.D. from Edinburgh University. In 1891 
he resigned his principalship at Aberystwyth 
in order to become principal of the Welsh 
calvinistic methodist theological college at 
Bala, founded by his father. His policy of 
opening the college to students of all de- 
nominations was not responded to by many 
outsiders, but the college flourished greatly 



under his management. In 1898 he was the 
first to receive the diploma of D.D. from 
the university of Wales (founded 1893). 
He died at Bala on 22 March 1900. 

He published, besides single sermons : 
1. ' A Commentary on the First Epistle to 
the Corinthians,' 1885, 8vo ; 2nd edit, same 
year. 2. * Commentary on Epistle to He- 
brews,' in * Expositor's Bible,' 1888, 8vo ; 
3rd edit. 1889, 8vo ; also, 'Welsh Com- 
mentary on Hebrews,' 1890. 3. ' The God- 
Man,' 1895, 12mo (Davies Lecture). A 
sermon of his is in Jones's ' Welsh Pulpit,' 
1885, 8vo. He published in Welsh a memoir 
of his father, 1887, 12mo. 

[Times, 23 March 1900; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. 1715-1886; Who's Who, 1900; Wil- 
liams's Welsh Calvinistic Methodism, 1884, p. 
208; List of Edin. Graduates, 1898.] A. G-. 

ELIAS, NEY (1844-1897), explorer and 
diplomatist, born at Widmore in Kent on 
10 Feb. 1844, was the second son of Ney 
Elias id. 1891) of Kensington. Educated in 
London, Paris, and Dresden, he became in 
1865 a fellow of the Royal Geographical 
Society and studied geography and survey- 
ing under the society's instructors. In 1866 
he went to Shanghai in the employment of 
a mercantile house ; and in 1868 volun- 
teered to lead an expedition and examine 
the old and new courses of the Hoang-ho. 
His account of this journey was published 
in the 'Royal Geographical Society's Jour- 
nal ' in a paper which gave, Sir R. Murchi- 
son said, for the first time accurate informa- 
tion about the diversion of the Yellow River. 

In July 1872, accompanied by one Chinese 
servant, Elias started on a more arduous jour- 
ney across the Gobi desert, travelling nearly 
2,500 miles from the great wall to the Rus- 
sian frontier, and thence another 2,300 miles 
to Nijni Novgorod. The geographical results 
of the journey were summed up by Elias 
in a paper for the Royal Geographical 
Society ; but he said little about its hard- 
ship. It was accomplished at a time when 
the Chinese provinces traversed were over- 
run by the Tungani rebels. For many weeks 
Elias travelled in constant apprehension of 
attack ;' he had scarcely any sleep ; and 
when he reached the Siberian frontier, the 
Russian officers stared at him as if he had 
dropped from the sky. By no means a 
robust man, his indomitable will and silent 
courage carried him through all the perils of 
the way ; while the accuracy of his observa- 
tion and the scientific value of his record 
earned the highest approval of authorities 
like Sir Henry Rawlinson [q. v.] and Sir 
Henry Yule [q. v.] Elias received the 



El'ias 



179 



Ellice 



founder's gold medal of the Hoyal Qeofpuphi- 

cal Society (26 May 1873), and, on the rc- 
ciuuni«<ndation8 of luiwlinson and Sir IJartlo 
Frore, hia services were retained by the go- 
vernment of India. 

Nominated an extra attach6 to the Cal- 
cutta foreign olUco on 20 March 1874, Elias 
was appointed in September 1874 assistant 
to the resident at Mandalay; and shortly 
afterwanls second in command of the over- 
land missioji to China, which turned back, 
owing to the murder of Augustus llaymond 
Margary [q. v.] In 1876 Klias drew up a pro- 
ject tor an expedition to Tibet ; but, owing to 
misunderstandings, tlie scheme fell through. 
In 1877 he was attached to Robert B. Shaw's 
abortive mission to Kashgar, and went in 
advance to Leh, where, on the death of 
Yakub Beg, ruler of Eastern Turkestan, and 
the abandonment of the mission, he remained 
OS IJritish joint-commissioner of Ladakh. In 
1879 he started, on his own initiative, to 
inspect the road over the Karakorura, and, 
on nearing the frontier, sent a friendly mes- 
sage to the Chinese Amban of Yarkund, who 
invited him to come on. Accompanied by 
Captain Bridges, an ex-dragoon officer, 
ond without waiting for the Indian foreign 
office to forbid the enterprise, he proceeded 
to Yarkund, where the Amban, though edu- 
ciit^xl at the IVkin Jesuit college, pretended 
t V r to have heard either of England or 
In ii;i, and the insolent attentions of some 
ilunan braves nearly led to a collision. The 
visit, however, ended without serious misad- 
venture, and the Indian government gave 
its sanction to this and subsequent journeys 
into Chinese Turkestan. Elias was thus 
gazetted as * on special duty ' at Y^'arkund 
from 14 June to 17 Aug. 1879, * on deputa- 
tion to Kashgar' from 8 March to 26 Aug. 
1 '^■<n, and ' on special duty at Kashgar from 
L''i Miiy to September 1885,* having in the 
m iiitime taken furlough to England. In a 
!• tt. r tc the * Times,' dated Kashgar, 10 July 
l>><), he gave an account of the recouquest 
of KiisttTu Turke.stan by the Chinese. 

In S.'ptftnb'T ISM,'), under orders from the 
Indian jfoverumcnt, lOlias left Yarkund for 
the rumirs and I'pper Oxus, and, in the 
course of an arduous journey, he made a 
route sun-ey of six hundred miles from the 
Chinese frontier to Ishkashim, determined 
pf>int8 and altitudes on the Pamirs, and 
\ "(l the confluence of the Murghab and 
I ' .1 rivers, solving the problem as to which 
^v;i-tliou|; • of the Oxus. After- 

guards, cr ikhshan and Ralkh, he 

join.'dthe \ ' ■ .Ion near 

Herat, an I v bvway 

of Balkh aiiu <, iim.ii, imMng^ truvorsed Nor- 



thern Afghanistan without an oacort, under 
a safe-conduct from Ameer Abdur Kahman. 
In January 1888 he was made a CLE., but 
never accepted the distinction. From No- 
vember 1888 to February 1889 ho was on 
special duty in connection with the Sikkim 
war, and in October 1889 took command of 
a mission to report on the political geo- 
graphy and condition of the Shan States on 
the Indo-Siamese frontier. On 14 Dec. 
1891 ho was appointed agent to the go- 
vernor-general at Meshed, and consul-gene- 
ral for Khorasan and Seistan. In November 

1896 he retired from the service. While on 
furlough in 1895, in collaboration with Mr. 
E. D. lloss, he brought out an English ver- 
sion of the * Tarikh-i-Rashidi,' by Mirza 
Ilaidar of Kashgar, cousin to the Emperor 
Baber, revising the translation and supply- 
ing an introduction and notes embodying 
much of his wide knowledge of the history 
and geography of Central Asia. On 31 May 

1897 he died suddenly at his rooms in 
North Audley Street, London, from the 
effects of blood poisoning. He was unmar- 
ried. 

Elias's writings are for the most part only 
accessible in the secret archives of the Indian 
l^overnment, but they also include the folio w- 
mg : 1. ' The New Bed of the Yellow Kiver ' 
(* Journal of the N. China Branch of the 
R. A. S.' 1869). 2. ' Notes of a Journey to 
the New Course of the Yellow River in 1868' 
(* R. G. S. Journal,' 1870, xl. I). 3. ' A Jour- 
ney though Western Mongolia ' (* R. G. S. 
Journal,' 1873, xliii. 108). 4. ' Visit to the 
Valley of the Shueli in Western Yunnan * 
(' R. G. S. Journal,' xlyi. 198). 5. ' Introduc- 
tory Sketch of the History of the Shans in 
Upper Burma and Western Y'unnan,' Cal- 
cutta, 1876. 6. 'The Tarikh-i-Rashidi of 
Mirza Muhammad Haidar, Dughlat,' Eng- 
lish version (by E. D. Ross), edited by N. 
Elias, London, 1895. 7. * An Apocryphal 
Inscription in Khorassan ' (* R. A. S. Journal,' 
1896, p. 767). 8. * Notice of an Inscription 
at Turbat-i-Jam * (* R. A. S. Journal,' 1897, 
p. 47). 9. 'The Khojas of E. Turkestan/ 
ed. E. Elias, Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1897, 
Supplement. 

[C. E. D. BUck's Memoir on the Indian Sor- 
voys, p. 192 ; Lorvl Curzon on the Source of the 
Oxus, Times, 14 Dec. 1893; GeographicalJour- 
nal, July 1897 (memoir, with portrait) • Times, 
2 Juno 1897.] S. W. 

ELLICE, Sib CHARLES HAY (1823- 
18SS), general, born at Florence on 10 May 
182.3, was second son of General Robert 
T " ' brother of the Right Hon. Ed- 

• [a. v.], secretary at war, by Eliza 
C )u V. ilaving passed through Sand- 

k2 



EIHce 



1 80 



Ellis 



hurst, he was commissioned as ensign and 
lieutenant in the Coldstream guards on 10 May 
1839. He served in Canada in 1840-2, and 
"^ becamelieutenant and captain on 8 Aug. 1846. 
He exchanged to the 82nd foot on 20 March 
1846, and to the 24th foot, of which his 
father was colonel, on 3 April. He went 
with that regiment to India in May, but 
was aide-de-camp to his father (commanding 
the troops in Malta) from 17 March 1848 to 
8 March 1849, and so missed the second 
Sikh war. He was promoted major on 
21 Dec. 1849, and lieutenant-colonel on 8 Aug. 
1851. On 28 Nov. 1854 he became colonel 
in the army. 

The 24th was at Peshawar when the 
Indian Mutiny broke out. On 4 July 1857 
Ellice was sent to Jehlam with three com- 
panies of it, some native cavalry, and three 
guns, to disarm the 14th Bengal native 
infantry and other troops. He arrived there 
on the' 7 th, and finding they had already 
mutinied, he attacked and routed them, 
though they numbered about a thousand 
men. He was dangerously wounded in the 
neck, right shoulder, and leg. He was 
mentioned in despatches, received the medal, 
and was made C.B. on 1 Jan. 1858. 

On 3 June I808 he was given the com- 
mand of the second battalion of the 24th, 
which he raised. He went with it to 
Mauritius in March 1860, but exchanged to 
half-pay on 8 July 1862. On 25 May 1863 
he was appointed to a brigade in the Dublin 
district ; on 8 March 1864 he was transferred 
to Dover ; and from 1 Sept. 1867 to 30 June 
1868 he commanded the south-eastern dis- 
trict. He was promoted major-general on 

23 March 1865, lieutenant-general on 28 Sept. 
1873, and general on 1 Oct. 1877. He was 
quartermaster-general at headquarters from 
1 April 1871 to 30 March 1876, and adjutant- 
general from 1 Nov. 1876 to 31 March 1882. 
In the latter capacity he carried on a corre- 
spondence in 1877-8 with the governors of 
Wellington College, in which he represented 
the view of many officers of the army that 
the college was being diverted from its 
original purpose. The correspondence was 
publishea, and a commission of inquiry 
followed. Ellice was made K.C.B. on 

24 May 1873, and G.C.B. on 15 April 1882. 
The colonelcy of the first battalion of the 
Berkshire regiment was given to him on 
7 Sept. 1874, and he was transferred to the 
South Wales Borderers (formerly 24th) on 
6 April 1884. 

He died at Brook House, Horringer, Bury 

St. Edmunds, on 12 Nov. 1888. In 1862 

he married Louisa, daughter of William 

^ Henry Lambton, brother of the first Earl 



of Durham. He left one daughter, Eliza 
{d. 1899), married to Henry Bouverie Wil- 
liam Brand, first Viscount Hampden [q. y, 
Suppl.] 

[Times, 13 Nov. 1888; Burke's Landed 
Gentry; Records of the 24th Eegiment, 1892.] 

E. M. L. 

ELLIS, ALEXANDER JOHN (1814- 
1890), philologist and mathematician, born 
at Hoxton in Middlesex on 14 June 1814, 
originally bore the surname Sharpe. He 
adopted the name of Ellis by royal license- 
in 1825 in consequence of the bequest of a 
relative, who wished to enable him to de- 
vote his life to study and research. H& 
entered Shrewsbury school in 1826, and 
Eton in 1832, and was elected a scholar of 
Trinity College in 1835, graduating B.A. 
in 1837 as sixth wrangler. He entered the 
Middle Temple as a student, but without an 
intention of following the law. In 1843 he 
first made himself known as awriter on mathe- 
matics by his translation of Martin Ohm's 
' Geist der mathematischen Analysis.' He 
afterwards continued to write, from time ta 
time, papers on mathematical subjects, 
many of them of an abstruse character^ 
which generally appeared in the * Proceed- 
ings of the Royal Society.' In 1874, by the 
publication of his * Algebra identified with 
Geometry,' he put before the public the 
theory which had existed in his own mind 
for many years, that algebra was a purely 
geometrical calculus, not an arithmetical one. 

Ellis, however, devoted his chief attention 
to phonetic reforms. A few years after 
leaving Cambridge he associated himself 
with (Sir) Isaac Pitman [q. v. Suppl.] in 
arranging a system of printing called phono- 
typy, which by the aid of several new 
letters gave the means of representing ac- 
curately the various sounds used in spoken 
language. This system he finally developed 
into two forms : the more accurate palaeotype 
and the popular glossic. In 1844 he ex- 
plained his system in a treatise entitled 
* Phonetics : a Familiar System of the Prin- 
ciples of that Science ' (Bath, 8vo), which was 
followed by several other works, pointing out 
the disadvantages of the ordinary orthography,, 
and advocating the adoption of the phonetic 
system. He transformed into the new ortho- 
graphy many standard works, including 
' Paradise Lost ' (1846), < The Pentateuch *" 
(1849), the * New Testament ' (1849), ' The 
Tempest ' (1849), ' Macbeth ' (1849), ' Ras- 
selas' (1849), the ' Pilgrim's Progress '(1850). 
He also published a weekly newspaper 
called the * Fonetic Frend,' which ap- 
peared in August 1849, and ran for a few 
months, and the * Spelling Reformer,' which 



Ellis 



i8i 



Ellis 



«|)p«»areil iu 1819 and ISoO. In 18 i9 ho was 
coinplotoly prostrated from overwork and 
remained for throe years incapable of mental 
♦•xortion. Finding, on recovery, that his 
phonetic scheme was too daring to be suc- 
cessful, he made several modifications of it, 
and in 1870 he laid before the Society of 
Arts a paper 'On a Practical Method of 
Meeting the Spelling DilHculty in School 
nnd in Life,' in which he proposed the use of 
j)honetic orthography concurrently with 
ordinary spelling. 

While pursuing his phonetic studies at 
the British Museum in 1859, Ellis came 
across William Salisbury's • Dictionary in 
Mnglysche and Welshe' (lol?), which di- 
rected his attention to thehistory of English 
pronunciation. The subject so fascinated 
him that it was his chief occupation during 
the latter part of his life. In 18(30 he pro- 
duced * Palteotype, or the Representation of 
Spoken Sounds by Ancient Types,' which 
he laid before the Philological Society. The 
first part of his great work * On Early Eng- 
lish Pronunciation, with special Keference 
to Shakspere and Chaucer. Containing an 
Investigation of the Correspondence of 
AVriting with Speech in England, from the 
Anglo-Saxon Period to the existing received 
and Dialectal Forms,' ap])eared in 1869, 
and was within five years followed by three 
others. The fifth part, however, on the ex- 
isting phonology of English dialects, in- 
volved so much labour that it was only 
finished in 1889. The whole work, through 
the good offices of Dr. Frederick James 
Furnivall, was published jointly by the 
Pliilological, the Chaucer, and the Early 
English Text societies. In this work 
spoken sounds were represented by his 
palfcotype method. An abridgment of the 
fifth ])art was published by the English 
Dialect Society, entitled * English Dialects, 
their Sounds and Homes.' In this com- 
paratively popular work glossic was sub- 
stituted for palaeotype. Asixth part, which 
«hould contain a summary of the whole and 
on elaborate index, was contemplated, but 
doath prevented the accomplishment of his 
<l--i^ai. In recognition of his great services 
to the history of the English tongue, he re- 
ceived the honorary degree of LL.D. from 
Cambridge University in June 1890. Some 
of his views were combated in 1874 by 
Richard Francis Weymouth in his treatise 
* On Early English Pronunciation, with 
special Reference toChaucer '(London, 8vo). 
Another subject in which Ellis took much 
interest was the scientific theory of music. 
He studied music at Edinburgh under John 
Donaldson [q. v.], and desiring during his 



phonetic studies to obtain an accurate physi- 
cal explanation of the production of vowel 
sounds, on the suggestion of Professor Max 
Miiller [q. v. SuppT.J, he referred to Her- 
mann Ludwig lerdinand von Helmholtz's 
* Die Lehro von den Tonempfindungen als 
physiologische Grundlagefiir die Theorie der 
Musik.' He conceived so high an opinion of 
the importance of the work that he translated 
the third edition into English in 1875 under 
the title of * The Sensations of Tone as a 
Physiological Basis for the Theory of Music * 
(London, 8vo). More than a third of this 
edition consisted of original work by Ellis 
himself, and a second edition in 188o con- 
tained fresh additions. He also wrote three 
papers for the Society of Arts, in 1877, 1880, 
and 1885, on musical pitch and the musical 
scales of various nations, for each of which 
he received a silver medal from the society ; 
that written in 1880 was reprinted in the 
same year under the title ' The History of 
Musical Pitch * (London, 8vo). 

Ellis was elected a fellow of the Cam- 
bridge Philosophical Society in 1837, of the 
Royal Society on 2 June 1864, of the Lon- 
don Mathematical Society on 19 June 1866, 
serving on the council from 1866 to 1868. 
He was also a member of the Philological 
Society in 1866, a fellow of the Society of 
Antiquaries on 10 Feb. 1870, and of the 
College of Preceptors in 1873. He was 
president of the Philological Society from 
1872 to 1874, and from 1880 to 1882. He 
also became a member of the Association 
for improving Geometric Teaching in 1872. 
He served on the council of the Royal 
Society from 1872 to 1874, and from 1880 
to 1882, and in 1886 was elected a life 
governor of University College, London. 
He died on 28 Oct. 1890 at his residence, 
21 Auriol Road, West Kensington, leaving 
two sons, of whom one is Mr. Tristram 
Ellis, the etcher. His wife died in 1889. 

Besides the works already mentioned and 
many ])amphlets and tracts, he published : 
1. * Horse-Taming: an Account of the suc- 
cessful Application in England of the 
Method practised by the lied Indians,* 
Windsor, 1842, 8vo. 2, ' A Plea for Phono- 
typy and Phonography,' Bath, 1845, 8vo; 
2nd ed. entitled *A Plea for Phonetic 
Spelling,' London, 1848, 8vo ; abridged ed. 
liath, 1896, 8vo. 3. 'Original Nursery 
Rhymes for Boys and Girls,* London, 1848, 
ldmo;new ed. 1865. 4. 'Self-proving 
Examples in the first four Rules of Arith- 
metic, London, 1855, 12mo. 5. ' Uni- 
versal Writing and Printing with ordinary 
Letters,' Edinburgh and London, 1856, 4to. 
6. 'Algebra identified with Geometry,' Lon- 



Ellis 



182 



Ellis 



don, 1874, 8vo. 7. * Practical Hints on the 
Quantitative Pronunciation of Latin,'London, 
1874, 8vo. 8. 'The English, Dionysian, 
and Hellenic Pronunciations of Greek,' 
London, 1876, 8vo. 9. 'Pronunciation for 
Singers,' London, 1877, 8vo. He also sup- 
plied an appendix * On a complete PhonO' 
graphic Alphabet ' for all languages to 
Pitman's ' Manual of Phonography' (edition 
of 1845), and ' Classified Lists of Words to 
illustrate West Somersetshire Pronunciation' 
to Frederic Thomas Elworthy's ' Dialect of 
West Somerset' (1875). He contributed 
numerous papers on such subjects as music, 
barometric hypsometry, logic, the geometric 
meaning of imaginaries, stigmatics, and the 
computation of logarithms to the * Proceed- 
ings of the Royal Society ' between 1859 
and 1884. All Ellis's works which were 
produced in palaeotype, besides others, were 

grinted by Messrs. Stephens, Austin, & 
ons, of Hertford. His last literary labour 
was the article 'Phonetics' in 'Chambers's 
Encyclopaedia.' 

[Proceedings of the Koyal Society, 1891, vol. 
xlix.; Academy, 1890, ii. 419-20;' Men of the 
Time, 1887; Athenaeum, 1890, ii. 627; Shrews- 
bury School Eeg. 1898, p. 39 ; Salopian, Decem- 
ber 1890 ; Stapylton's Eton School Lists, 1791- 
■ 1850, p. 149; Phonetic Journal, 1890, pp. 574, 
591 ; Proceedings of the London Mathematical 
Society, 1891, xxi. 457-61 (by Eobert Tucker) ; 
Ellis's Algebra identified with Geometry, Ap- 
pendix iii.] E. L C. 

ELLIS, ALFRED BURDON (1852- 
1894), soldier and writer, son of Lieutenant- 
general Sir Samuel Burdon Ellis, K.C.B., 
and his wife, Louisa Drayson, daughter of 
the governor of Waltham Abbey factory, 
was born at Bowater House, Woolwich, on 
10 Jan. 1852. He was educated at the Royal 
Naval School, New Cross, entering the army 
as sub-lieutenant in the 34th foot on 2 Nov. 
1872. He became lieutenant in the 1st West 
India regiment on 12 Nov. 1873. With them 
he was ordered to Ashanti, and first saw 
the Gold Coast in December 1873 ; he served 
through the Ashanti war, receiving the 
medal. 

This was the beginning of a long connec- 
tion with West Africa. He was temporarily 
employed as civil commandant during the 
early part of 1874 at Seccondee on the Gold 
Coast ; he was recalled to military duty in 
May^ 1874. In 1875 he paid a visit to Mon- 
rovia, the capital of the Liberian Republic 
( West African Sketches, p. 138). The fol- 
lowing year he spent mostly in the West 
Indies. In March 1877 he first visited the 
Gambia on his way to Sierra Leone, whither 
his regiment was now ordered. He came 



on leave to England this summer, and on 
27 Oct. 1877 was seconded for service with 
the Gold Coast constabulary. He was sent 
to survey the country around Markessin, the 
capital of the Fantee country. In January 
1878 he went to act as district commissioner 
at Quettah, and in October and November 
of that year conducted the operations of the 
Haussa constabulary against the Awunas, 
being wounded in the fighting. He claimed 
to have done much to check smuggling and 
spread order in that district, and spoke with 
some bitterness of his removal to Accra in 
December 1878. 

On 2 July 1879 Ellis became captain of 
the 1st West India regiment and returned to 
military duty, being sent on special service 
to Zululand, and attached to the intelligence 
department during the Zulu campaign ; but 
his absence from West Africa was not a long 
one. On 10 Oct. he left South Africa and 
towards the close of this year visited 
Whydah, the seaport of Dahomey, after 
which he strongly advocated the annexa- 
tion of that coast. Thence, in the spring of 
1880, he went to Lagos, and so on to Bonny 
and Old Calabar, returning to Sierra Leone 
in January 1881, in time to be ordered to 
the Gold Coast with his regiment on an 
alarm of war with the Ashantis : on 2 Feb. 
1881 he arrived at Cape Coast, and on 
8 Feb. was ordered to garrison Annamahoe 
with a hundred men ; the danger, however, 
passed away, and he left that position on 
20 March, though he remained for some time 
on the Gold Coast in command of the troops. 
From 1871 to 1882 Ellis had made use 
of various opportunities to visit most of the 
islands off the western coast of the African 
continent, including St. Helena and Ascen- 
sion, as well as those nearer the west coast 
colonies. From 1882 onwards most of his 
leisure was devoted to those studies of na- 
tive ethnology and language which give him 
his title to notice. 

On 13 Feb. 1884 he was promoted major ; 
in 1886 he was again in command of the 
troops on the Gold Coast. In 1889 he went 
with part of his regiment to the Bahamas, 
and remained in command of the troops in 
that colony till he became lieutenant-colonel 
on 4 Feb. 1891, when he returned to West 
Africa, and was placed in command of all 
the troops on the west coast, being stationed 
at Freetown, Sierra Leone; on 2 March 
1892 he received the local rank of colonel in 
West Africa. For a few days in May 1892 
he administered the government of Sierra 
Leone in the absence of the governor. 

In June 1892 Ellis proceeded on a punitive 
expedition to the Tambaku country in the 



Elphinstone 



183 



Elphinstone 



Sierra Leono protectorate, and captured 
Tnmbi. Almost immediately afterwards ho 
■was called to the Gambia to undertake the 
operations which ended in the taking of 
Toniataba : for the conduct of these he re- 
ceived the C.B. (9 Aug. 1892) and the West 
African medal with special clasp. At the 
end of 189.S he was called upon to conduct 
the expedition against the Sofas, in the 
course of which occurred the unfortunate 
incident at Waima, when two Ikitish ofHcers 
were sliot by- the French in error. On re- 
turning from this expedition he was struck 
down by fever, and on 16 Feb. went to 
Tenerifie to recruit, but died there on 
5 March 1894. In a gazette of 17 July 1894 
the secretary of state for war announced 
that he would, if he had lived, have been 
recommended for K.C.B. 

Ellis married, on 5 June 1871, Emma, 
daughter of Philip King, and left four chil- 
dren. 

Ellis did much literary work, and hisstudies 
of the natives have high merit. His works 
(all published in London) are: 1. 'AVest 
African Sketches,' 1881. 2. 'The Land 
of Fetish,' 1883. 3. 'A History of the 
West India Regiment,' 188"). 4. 'West 
African Islands,' 1885. 5. ' South African 
Sketches,' 1 887. 6. ' The Tshi-speaking Peo- 
ples of the Gold Coast of West Africa,' 
1887. 7. 'The Ewe-speaking Peoples of the 
Slave Coast,' 1890. 8. ' A History of the 
Gold Coast,' 1893. 9. 'The Yoruba-speaking 
People of the Slave Coast of West Africa,' 
1894. 

[Times, 8 March 1 894 ; Col. Office Records ; 
Army Lists ; Ellis's works ; Allibone's Diet. 
Lit. Suppl.] C. A. H. 

ELPHINSTONE, Sir HOWARD 
CRAWFURD (1829-1890), major-general, 
royal engineers, comptroller of the Duke of 
Connaught's household, fourth son of Cap- 
tain Alexander Francis Elphinstone, royal 
navy, a noble in Livonia, and of his wife, a 
daughter of A. Lobach of Cumenhoff, near 
Riga, was bom on 12 Dec. 1829 at Wattram 
in Livonia. His family were Scottish, and his 
great-grandfather, Captain John Elphinstone, 
royal navy, and admiral in the Russian 
navv, commanded the Russian fleet in 1770 
in the victory over the Turks at the naval 
battle of Tchesm6 Ray. He was named 
Howard after his uncle. Major-general Sir 
Howard Elphinstone [q. v.] Educated chiefly 
abroad, he passed out of tne Royal Military 
Academy at Woolwich at the head of his 
batch, and received a commission in the 
royal engineers as second lieutenant on 
18 Dec. 1847. His further commissions 



were dated: lieutenant 11 Nov. 1861, se- 
cond captain 20 April 18/56, brevet major 
26 Dec. 1856, first captain 1 April 1862, 
brevet lieutenant-colonel 9 April 1868, 
major 5 Julv 1872, lieutenant-colonel 
23 May 1873,* brevet colonel 1 Oct. 1877, 
colonel 3 May- 1884, and major-general 
29 Jan. 1887. 

After the usual course of professional 
study at Chatham, Elphinstone oflicially at- 
tended military reviews in Prussia in the 
summer of 18^3, and afterwards was em- 
ployed in the ordnance survey in Scotland 
until March 1854, when he went to Malta, 
and thence to Bulgaria and on to the Crimea. 
He arrived at Balaclava on 29 Sept., and 
was posted to the right attack under Major 
(afterwards Major-general Sir) William Gor- 
don [q. v.], where he served in the trenches, 
his record being eighty-one days and ninety- 
one nights on trench duty. In the summer of 
1855 he was attached to Sir Colin Camp- 
bell's division employed in strengthening the 
Balaclava lines, and won the confidence and 
lasting friendship of his chief (afterwards 
Lord Clyde). 

Elphinstone rendered conspicuous services 
at the assault of the quarries in front of the 
Redan on 7 June 1855, and again at the as- 
sault of the Redan on the 18th. He was 
awarded the Victoria Cross on 2 June 1858 
for fearless conduct on the night of the un- 
successful attack on the Redan. At the final 
assault on Sebastopol on 8 Sept. he was 
wounded by a splinter on the left side of the 
head and lost an eye. For his Crimean ser- 
vices he was twice mentioned in despatches 
{London Gazette, 21 June and 21 Dec. 1855), 
and received a brevet majority, the war 
medal with clasp, the French legion of 
honour (fifth class), the Turkish order of 
the Mejidie (fifth class), the Turkish war 
medal, and a pension for his wound. 

After . his return to England from the 
Crimea, Elphinstone went in March 1856 on 
a mission to The Hague, and reported on a 
public hospital at Rotterdam, and in Sep- 
tember to the Coblentz siege operations, his 
report on which was much commended. He 
was employed from 5 Sept. 1857 in the topo- 
graphical department of the war office in 
compiling part i. of the siege of Sebastopol, 
published m 1858, a large quarto volume 
of the ' Journal of the Owrations conducted 
by the Corps of Royal Engineers from the 
Invasion ot the Crimea to the Close of the 
Winter Campaign, 1854-5.' He afterwards 
did duty in the North British military dis- 
trict. 

On 24 Jan. 1859 he was selected by the 
prince consort to be governor to Prince 



Elphinstone 



184 



Elton 



Arthur (afterwards Duke of Connaught), 
then eight years old ; and when the prince 
came of age, was appointed on 1 May 1871 
treasurer and comptroller of his household, 
an office which he continued to hold until 
his death. He attended the prince at Wool- 
wich and Chatham and accompanied him to 
Canada, India, the Mediterranean, and else- 
where. 

In 1858 Elphinstone arranged for Prince 
Albert his generous gift to the officers of the 
army of ' the Prince Consort's Ijibrary ' at 
Aldershot. He was made a companion of 
the order of the Bath, civil division, on 
23 Aug. 1865, and military division on 
20 May 1871 ; a companion of the order of 
St. Michael and St. George on 28 July 1870, 
and was promoted to be a knight commander 
of the order of the Bath on 3 July 1871. 
In June 1873 he was appointed by the Prince 
of Wales vice-president of the British com- 
mission of the Vienna exhibition. He com- 
manded the royal engineer troops at Aider- 
shot from August 1873 to March 1877, and 
the troops and companies to December 1881. 
He was appointed aide-de-camp to the queen 
on 1 Oct. 1877, and was colonel on the staff 
and commanding roval engineer at Aldershot 
from 31 Dec. 1881 to 30 Dec. 1886. In 
1884-5 he acted temporarily as military 
attache at Berlin. On 1 April 1889 he was 
appointed to the command of the western 
military district. 

On 8 March 1890 Elphinstone left Ply- 
mouth for Teneriffe in the steamer Tongariro 
on a month's leave of absence for the benefit 
of his health, accompanied by his wife and 
some of his family. In the evening of that 
day, when off Ushant, he accidentally fell 
overboard and was drowned. The search 
for his body proved fruitless. The * Court 
Circular' of 14 March announced that the 
queen had received with profound grief the 
news of the death of one who enjoyed her 
entire confidence for thirty-one years. By 
the queen's command a memorial service 
was held in Exeter Cathedral on 20 March. 
In the Devonport garrison chapel Elphin- 
stone is commemorated by a brass tablet 
and a lectern, unveiled on 8 Jan. 1894 by 
the Duke of Edinburgh ; a memorial stained- 
glass window has also been placed in the 
chancel of St. George's Church, Aldershot, 
by his brother officers. A portrait of Elphin- 
stone in oils, by Hermann Schmeichen, has 
been placed in the mess-room of the royal 
engineers at Aldershot, and a replica pre- 
sented by them to Lady Elphinstone. 

Elphinstone married,on5Dec. 1876, Annie 
Frances, second daughter of W. H. Cole of 
West Woodhay, Berkshire, and afterwards 



of Portland Place, London, and GifFordsHall, 
Suffolk. She survived her husband, with 
four daughters, for the eldest of whom, Vic- 
toria Alexandrina {b. 8 Sept. 1877), the 
queen stood sponsor. 

[War Office Records ; Eoyal Engineers' Re- 
cords; Despatches; Royal Engineers Journal, 
April, May, and August 1890; Times, 14, 19, 
21, and 26 March 1890 ; Kinglake's Invasion of 
the Crimea ; Russell's Crimean War.] 

R. H. V. 
ELTON", CHARLES ISAAC (1839- 
1900), lawyer and antiquary, was the eldest 
son of Frederick Bayard Elton of Clifton, 
and Mary Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Charles 
Abraham Elton of Clevedon, sixth baronet. 
Born on 6 Dec. 1839 at Southampton, he 
was educated at Cheltenham College and at 
Balliol College, Oxford, where he matricu- 
lated as a commoner in 1857. He took a 
first class in classical moderations in 1859, 
and a second class in literce humaniores, and 
a first class in law and history in 1861. He 
graduated B. A. in 1862, and was elected to 
the Vinerian law scholarship, and to an 
open fellowship at Queen's. 

Entering at Lincoln's Inn he was called 
to the bar in 1865. Early in his career he 
was fortunate in attracting the attention of 
Sir George Jessel [q. v.] by his ready appli- 
cation of a passage of Bracton to a case 
in which Jessel was employed Elton did 
not have to wait for briefs long. He had 
been a severe student of black-letter law, 
and his great powers of application and 
tenacious memory combined to render him 
perhaps the most erudite lawyer of his 
generation. He rapidly acquired a large 
conveyancing practice, and was largely em- 
ployed in court work in real property cases, 
especially where foreshores, minerals, and 
manorial rights were concerned. In 1885 
he was made a queen's counsel, and elected 
bencher of his inn. Contrary to the general 
practice of chancery 'silks,' he did not 
attach himself to any one court, but prac- 
tised as a ' special ' whenever the matter 
was heavy enough for him to be retained. 
During the latter years of his life his appear- 
ances in court grew less and less frequent. 

This was due to no decline in the demands 
made upon him, but to his easy circum- 
stances and multifarious interests. In 1869 
he had succeeded somewhat unexpectedly 
under the will of his uncle, R. J. Elton, to 
the property of Whitestaunton, near Chard 
in Somersetshire. As lord of the manor, 
owner of a house ranging in date from Ed- 
ward IV to Elizabeth, and with the remains 
of a Roman villa in his grounds, he had 
ample opportunities of satisfying his excep- 



Elton 



«85 



Elton 



tionally varied tastes. IIo was fond of all 
field sports, and took a j)ractical interest in 
farminf^, which made him a capital parlia- 
mentary representative of West Somerset- 
shire, for which ho was returned to the 
House of Commons in 1884. He was de- 
feated by Sir Thomas Acland [q.v. Suppl.] 
for the Wellington division in 1885, but 
secured re-election in 188G, retiring in 1892. 
A conservative in politics, he seldom spoke 
in parliament except when legal subjects 
were under discussion, but he served on 
several important committees and royal com- 
missions. 

Elton spent much time in writing on his- 
torical, archajological, legal, and literary 
topics. He read omnivorously, and was in- 
deed a mine of information on all subjects 
connected not only with law and history, 
but with English and foreign literature, and 
especially with Shakespeare. lie was an ori- 
ginal member of the Selden Society (1887), 
and a F.S.A. (1883). His library, as large 
as it was catholic, contained many rare books, 
as well as fine specimens of sixteenth to eigh- 
teenth century binding. In 1891, in con- 
junction with his wife, he privately printed 
a catalogue of a portion of his library. He 
was at the same time an enthusiastic collec- 
tor and a good judge of all articles of vertu. 

Elton died at Whitestaunton of pneu- 
monia, after a short illness, on 23 April 
1900. Of a big burly exterior, his appear- 
ance suggested the west-country yeoman 
rather than the scholar or the Lincoln's Inn 
conveyancer. He was married in 1863 to 
his cousin, Mary Augusta, daughter of Ri- 
chard Strachey, esq., of Ashwick Grove, 
Somerset, who survived him; he left no 
issue. 

Elton published the following works: 

1. 'Norway, the Road and the Fell,' 1864. 

2. 'The Tenures of Kent,' 1867. 3. 'A 
Treatise on Commons and Waste Lands,* 
1868. 4. 'The Law of Copyholds,' 1874. 
6. ' Observations on the Bill tor the Regula- 
tion and Improvement of Commons,' 1876. 
6. ' Origins of English History,' 1882. 
7. ' Custom and Tenant Right,'1882. 8. ' An 
Excursus on Manorial Land Tenure,' 1883. 
9. 'The Career of Christopher Columbus,' 
1892. 10. 'Great Book Collectors,' in col- 
laboration with Mrs. Elton, 1893. 

[Timps, 24 April 1900; Solicitor's Journal, 
28 April 1900 ; J. Foster's Oxford Men and their 
Colleges; private information.] J. B. A. 

ELTON, JOHN (d. 1751), adventurer in 
Persia, was sent by the Russian government 
in 173o to assist in the Orenburg expedition 
in the rank of a sea captain. During this 



mission he was sent to explore Lake Aral, 
but was hindered by the Tartars from 
reaching the lake. He then employed 
himself in surveying the south-eastern 
frontier of Russia, particularly part of the 
basins of the Kama, Volga, and Jaik. lie- 
turning to St. Petersburg in January 1738, 
he tooK umbrage at not obtaining promo- 
tion and quitted the Russian service. In 
the same year he proposed to some of the 
British factors at St. Petersburg to carry on 
a trade through Russia into Persia and cen- 
tral Asia by way of the Caspian Sea. Asso- 
ciating himself with Mungo Graeme, a young 
Scot, ue obtained credit for a small cargo of 
goods suitable for Khiva and Bokhara. They 
left Moscow on 19 March 1738-9, and, pro- 
ceeding down the Volga from Nijni Nov- 
gorod to Astrakhan, embarked on the Caspian 
forKaragansk. At Karagansk they received 
such unpromising accounts of the state of 
the steppe that they resolved to continue 
their voyage to Resht in Persia. Elton was 
successful in finding a good market and in 
obtaining a decree from the shah granting 
them liberty to trade throughout Persia, and 
extraordinary privileges. He persuaded the 
Russia Company to take up his scheme, and 
in 1741 an act of parliament sanctioning the 
trade was passed. In 1742 two ships were 
built'on the Caspian, and Elton was placed 
in command of the first completed. These 
vessels carried the English flag, which, how- 
ever, Anthony Jenkinson [q. v.] claimed to 
have first displayed on the Caspian about 
1558. The apprehensions of the Russian 
court were, however, excited by the intelli- 
gence that Elton was building ships on the 
Caspian, after the European fashion, for the 
Persian sovereign. Nadir Shah. On receipt 
of the intelligence the Russia Company des- 
patched Jonas Hanway [q. v.] to make in- 
quiry concerning Elton's proceedings. Han- 
way arrived at Resht on 3 Dec. 1743 and 
found Elton earnestly pressing forward the 
construction of Persian vessels. The Russian 
court, indignant at Elton's action, refused 
to countenance the Caspian trade and ruined 
the expectations of the Russia Company. 

In the meanwhile Elton had constructed 
a ship of twenty guns for Nadir Shah, of 
which he was placed in command. He was 
appointed admiral of the Caspian, and re- 
ceived orders to oblige all Russian vessels 
on those waters to salute his flag. The 
Russia Company, in October 1744, vainly or- 
dered him to return to England, Elton re- 
plying by the transmission of a decree from 
Nadir Shah, dated 19 Nov. 1746, forbidding 
him to quit Persia. Otters of a pension from 
the Russia Company and a post in the navy 



Elvey 



i86 



Elvey 



from the British government were equally 
ineflfectual. Disregarding the injury which 
he was inflicting on the Russia Company, he 
maintained that a British subject may with 
loyalty take service with any foreign poten- 
tate on friendly terms with England, and 
that he was under no obligations to Russia. 
On the death of Nadir in 1747 he narrowly 
escaped assassination, but found protection 
from several of the Persian princes. Finally, 
however, in April 1751, he espoused the 
cause of Muhammad Hassan Khan, and was 
besieged in his house at Ghilan by the rival 
faction. He was driven to capitulate on 
condition that his person and goods were 
respected, but in spite of oaths was ordered 
to execution. While on the road he was 
shot dead, on a rumour that a large force in 
the city had espoused Muhammad's cause. 

A great part of Elton's diary during his 
first expedition to Persia in 1739 is printed 
in Hanway's ' Historical Account of the 
British Trade over the Caspian Sea,' 17o4. 
Lake Elton in south-eastern Russia is pro- 
bably named after him. 

[Hanway's Historical Account, vol. i. ; Tooke's 
View of the Russian Empire under Catherine II, 
1800, iii. 447-9; Buckinghamshire Papers 
(Royal Hist. Soc), 1900, i. 113.] E. I. C. 

ELVEY, Sir GEORGE JOB (1816- 
1893), organist and composer, born at Canter- 
bury on 29 March 1816, was son of John 
Elvey. For several generations his family 
had been connected with the musical life of 
the cathedral city. At an early age he was 
admitted as a chorister of Canterbury Cathe- 
dral, under Highmore Skeats, his brother, 
Stephen Elvey, being then master of the 
boys. In 1830, Stephen Elvey having been 
appointed organist of New College, Oxford, 
George went to reside with him, and com- 
pleted his musical education under his 
brother's guidance. Before he was seven- 
teen he had become a very expert organist, 
and took temporary duty at Christ Church, 
Magdalen, and New College. In 1834 he 
gained the Gresham gold medal for his 
anthem, * Bow down Thme ear, O Lord.' In 
1835 he succeeded Skeats as organist of St. 
George's Chapel, Windsor. Among his earliest 
pupils were Prince George (Duke of Cam- 
bridge) and Prince Edward of Saxe Weimar, 
for whose confirmation he composed his well- 
known anthem, * Wherewithal shall a young 
man cleanse his way ? ' He matriculated 
from New College on 17 May 1838, and 
graduated Mus. Bac. on 2 June following, 
his exercise being an oratorio, * The Resur- 
rection and Ascension,' afterwards performed 
by the Sacred Harmonic Society at Exeter 



Hall (12 Nov. 1838), and subsequently at 
Boston, United States of America, and at 
Glasgow. On 2 July 1840, by a special 
dispensation of the chancellor of the univer- 
sity, Elvey graduated Mus. Doc. two years 
earlier than was allowed by the statutes. 
His exercise on this occasion was the anthem, 
' The ways of Zion do mourn.' Two anthems, 
with orchestral accompaniments, ' The Lord 
is King,' and ' Sing, O Heavens ,' were written 
respectively for the Gloucester festival of 
1853 and the Worcester festival of 1857. 

Of his best-known works — produced chiefly 
between 1856 and 1860 — many were com- 
posed for special services at St. George's 
Chapel. By the death of the Prince Consort 
in 1861 Elvey lost one of his most sympa- 
thetic patrons. The funeral anthems, ' The 
Souls of the Righteous' and ' Blessed are the 
Dead,' were both written for anniversary ser- 
vices in memory of the prince. For the 
marriage of the Prince of Wales (1863) he 
composed a special anthem, with organ and 
orchestral accompaniment, ' Sing unto God,' 
and for the marriage of Princess Louise 
(1871) a festal march which attained con- 
siderable popularity. He was knighted on 
24 March 1871. The last important public 
event in which he took part was the marriage 
of the Duke of Albany at St. George's Chapel 
on 6 May 1882. In June of that year he re- 
signed his post as organist. After some 
years spent in retirement he died at the 
Towers, Windlesham, on 9 Sept. 1893. 

Elvey married first, on 19 June 1838, Har- 
riette,daughterofhis tutor, Highmore Skeats, 
and by her, on 30 Dec. 1851, had issue 
one son, George Highmore Elvey {d. 1875) ; 
he married secondly, on 22 Aug. 1854, Geor- 
giana, daughter of John Bowyer Nichols 
[q. v.] ; she died on 22 Dec. 1863 ; and he 
married thirdly, on 20 April 1865, Eleanora 
Grace, daughter of Richard Jarvis ; she died 
on 23 Jan. 1879. He married fourthly, on 
20 June 1882, Mary, daughter of Sir Joseph 
Savory, bart., of Buckhurst Park, lord mayor 
of London in 1890-1 ; she survives him. 
By his second wife Elvey had issue three 
sons and one daughter. 

Elvey was a prolific writer of church music. 
Besides the anthems already mentioned, his 
chants, his * Cantate Domino,' a * Deus mise- 
reatur' in D, and the tune to the harvest 
hymn, * Come, ye thankful people, come,' are 
among his most popular compositions. He 
also wrote fifteen part songs, an introduction 
and gavotte for piano and violin, and four 
pianoforte pieces. 

He was a staunch admirer of old English 
church music, and the school of the restora- 
tion was fully represented in his services at 



Elwin 



187 



Elwin 



St. George's Chapel. IIo was also famous 
for Ilia reiuloring of Ilanders music. While 
at Oxford ho is said to have learnt the tra- 
ditional tevipi of Handel's choruses from Dr. 
Crotch, who had received them from Randall 
of Cambridge, a player in Handel's orchestra. 
In the words of Mr. K. H. Thome, a former 
pupil : * Elvey's style of organ playing was 
pre-eminently a grand church style. He was 
particularly tine in the anthems of Purcell, 
Greene, Croft, and l^oyce, and knew how to 
bring out all the devotional and dramatic 
qualities of these composers.' 

[Life and Reminiscences of Sir G eorge J. Elvey, 
by Lady Elvey, 1894; Foster's Alumni Oxen. 
1715-1886 ; Burke's Peerage ; information from 
E. H. Thome, esq. ; Grove's Diet, of Music, i. 
487.] R. N. 

ELWIN, WHITWELL (1816-1900), 
prose-writer, was the third son of Marsham 
Elwin of Thurning, Norfolk, and his wife, 
Emma Louisa Whitwell. He was born at 
Thurning on 26 Feb. 1816, and, after educa- 
tion at North Walsham grammar school, 
was admitted at Caius College, Cambridge, 
on 26 June 1834, where he graduated B.A. 
in 1839. He married, on 18 June 1838, 
Frances, daughter of Lieutenant-colonel 
Fountain Elwin. He was ordained deacon 
at Wells in 1839 and priest in 1840, and 
became curate of Hardington, Somerset. He 
there wrote an article which John Gibson 
Lockhart [q. v.] accepted for the * Quarterly 
Review' on tne 'Histoire du Chien' of 
Elz6ar Blaze. It was published in Septem- 
ber 1843, and his connection with the review 
continued till 1885. He succeeded Caleb 
Elwin, his kinsman, as rector of Booton in 
1849, built a rectory, and there resided till 
his death. 

Lockhart, writing to John ^Murray [q. v.] 
on 30 June 1852, said of Elwin, ' He is our 
only valuable literary acquisition for many 
years past, and if he were nearer I should 
recommend him for, on the whole, the fittest 
editor of the " Quarterly Review," so soon 
as the old one drops down ' (original letter). 
In 1853 Elwin became editor and continued 
in that post till 1860, living at his rectory 
and coming to London each quarter to bring 
out the review. He wrote many articles of 
great excellence and took pains to obtain 
contributions from men of ability, among 
them Lord Robert Cecil (afterwards marquis 
of Salisbury), William Ewart Gladstone, 
Thackeray, John Forster, and James Fer- 
guson, flo became well known in the world 
of letters, and especially intimate with 
Thackeray, Dickens, Forster, Ijord Brougham, 
and Lord Lyndhurst. On a visit at 
•Brougham he formed a friendship with 



I'riscilla, countess of Westmorland, with 
whom he corresponded for many years and 
with whose assistance ho wrote an article in 
the * Quarterly Review ' in defence of Lord 
Raglan. 

After resigning the editorship of the 
' Quarterly/ Elwm undertook to complete 
the edition of Pope which John Wilson 
Croker [q. v.] had long projected but had 
not begun. Elwin published five volumes, 
in 1871-2, two of poetry and three of letters, 
but he then became dissatisfied with the 
work, and the edition was completed in five 
more volumes by Mr. W. J. Courthope,C.B. 
(1881-9 j. Elwin's notes contain a great store 
of information and are all interesting, and 
his introductions to the poems are admirable 
pieces of criticism, and with his ' Quarterly 
Review' articles on English literature deserve 
a high place in the English prose of the 
nineteenth century. In 1852 he prepared 
for John Murray a volume of selections 
from the poems and letters of Byron, which 
appeared without his name, and other minor 
works of interest were two amusing and 
forcible pamphlets published in 1869, in de- 
fence of an undergraduate who had been 
treated with injustice by the authorities of 
his college, entitled *A Narrative' and * A 
Reply to the Remarks of Mr. Carr.' He 
also wrote the * Life of John Forster ' pre- 
fixed to the catalogue of the Dyce & Forster 
library (London, 1888, 8vo). 

Elwin's second son, Hastings Philip Elwin, 
a man of great promise, died in 1874, and 
his only daughter in 1875, and feeling the 
need of a new occupation in these sorrows 
he began to rebuild his parish church, an 
edifice of the perpendicular period. He re- 
placed it by a noble building with two west- 
ern towers and a fine hammer-beam roof, 
which was completed just before his death. 
He was attentive to his clerical duties and 
to the care of his parishioners, to whom he 
showed unbounded generosity. His sermons 
were seldom elaborately prepared, and were 
the least perfect of his compositions; but 
they were unaffected and often forcible. His 
letters, of which a great many have been 
preserved, were full of thought and incident, 
and in a finished style. He often bestowed 
great care upon them ; yet, though always 
good, they were perhaps best when they had 
been most hastilv written. His conversa- 
tion was extraordinary in its learning and 
variety, and in the way in which it retained 
the attention and impressed the minds of 
those who talked with him. It seemed 
equally interesting to the most educated and 
to the least. His wife, whose attainments 
and character were as admirable as his own. 



Emly 



88 



Erichsen 



rarely left her house, and agreed with him 
in absolute indifference to money and to 
every kind of distinction. She died on 22 Feb. 
1898. He performed service in his church 
on 31 Dec. 1899, and died suddenly while 
dressing on the following morning. He is 
buried beside his wife in the churchyard of 
Booton. They had four sons and one 
daughter, and were survived by two sons, 
both of them clergymen. 

Elwin's portrait was painted by W eigall 
and is at Booton. A replica is in the 
possession of Mr. John Murray, the publisher. 

Elwin's articles in the ' Quarterly Review ' 
have never been collected. He worked at the 
revision of some of them, and left manu- 
script additions and alterations as well as 
the commencement of a series of recollec- 
tions of W. M. Thackeray. His best 
< Quarterly Review' articles are those on 
Gray, Sterne, Goldsmith, the Newcomes, 
Fielding, Johnson (on whom there are two), 
and Cowper. 

[Works; original letters; personal knowledge.] 

EMLY, Lord. [See Monsell, William, 
1812-1894.] 

ERICHSEN, Sir JOHN ERIC (1818- 
1896), surgeon, born at Copenhagen on 
19 July 1818, was the eldest son of Eric 
Erichsen, banker, of Copenhagen, by his 
wife, who belonged to the Govett family of 
Somerset. Erichsen received his early edu- 
cation at the Mansion House, Hammersmith. 
He obtained his medical education at Uni- 
versity College, Gower Street, and was ad- 
mitted a member of the Royal College of 
Surgeons of England on 11 Jan. 1839. He 
then visited Paris, and after serving as house 
surgeon at University College Hospital he 
was appointed, 9 July 1844, joint lecturer 
on anatomy and physiology at the West- 
minster Hospital, became joint lecturer on 
anatomy, 19 Oct. 1846, and was 'paid off' 
when the site of the Westminster school of 
medicine was purchased for the Westminster 
improvements, 22 Aug. 1848. He acted in 
1844 as secretary of the physiological sec- 
tion of the British Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, and was afterwards 
appointed a member of a small committee 
to undertake an experimental inquiry into 
the mechanism and effects of asphyxia, and 
to suggest methods for its prevention and 
cure. He drew up a report, published in 
1846 under the title ' An Essay on Asphyxia,' 
"which was rewarded with the Fothergillian 
gold medal of the Royal Humane Society. 

Erichsen was appointed in 1848 assistant 
surgeon to University College Hospital, in 



succession to John Phillips Potter [q. v.] ; 
two years later he became full surgeon to 
the hospital, and professor of surgery in Uni- 
versity College ; his rapid rise was due to 
the various quarrels and resignations which 
followed the death of Robert Liston [q.v.] 
Erichsen retained the chair of surgery until 
1866, when he was appointed Holme pro- 
fessor of clinical surgery. He resigned the 
office of surgeon in 1875, and was imme- 
diately appointed consulting surgeon. 

Becoming by examination a fellow of the 
Royal College of Surgeons of England on 
17 April 1845, Erichsen served as a member 
of the council, 1869-85 ; as a member of the 
court of examiners, 1875-9 ; vice-president, 
1878-9, and president in 1880. He was 
president of the Royal Medical and Chirur- 
gical Society, 1879-81, and in 1881 he was 
president of the surgical section at the meet- 
ing in London of the International Medical 
Congress. As a liberal he contested unsuc- 
cessfully in 1885 the parliamentary repre- 
sentation of the united universities of Edin- 
burgh and St. Andrews. He was elected 
a fellow of the Royal Society in 1876, and 
in 1884 the honorary degree of LL.D. was 
conferred upon him by the university of 
Edinburgh. In 1877 he was appointed the 
first inspector under the Vivisection Act, 39 
& 40 Vict. cap. 77, and in the same year he 
was made surgeon-extraordinary to the 
queen. He was created a baronet in Janu- 
ary 1895. But the honour which he chiefly 
prized was his election in 1887 to the impor- 
tant and dignified post of president of the 
council of IJniversity College, an office he 
occupied until his death at Folkestone on 
23 Sept. 1896 ; he is buried in Hampstead 
cemetery. A bust by Mr. Hamo Thornycroft, 
R. A., presented to Erichsen on his retirement 
from the hospital, stands in the museum of 
University College with those of Liston, 
Quain, and Sharpey. A replica was left to 
the College of Surgeons by Sir John Erich- 
sen, and stands in the hall of the college. 

He married in 1842 Mary Elizabeth, the 
eldest daughter of CaptainThomas Cole, R.N. , 
who died in 1893. They had no children. 

Erichsen's reputation rests less on his 
practice, which was sound, than on his 
authorship of a widely read text-book, which 
inculcated that surgery was a science to be 
studied rather than an art to be displayed. 
Early in his career he took up the subject of 
aneurysm, and contributed several articles 
dealing with its pathology and treatment ; 
later in life he turned his attention to the 
ill-understood subject of the effects of rail- 
way accidents upon the nervous system. 

in 1853 Erichsen published the first edi- 



Erpingham 



189 



Erpingham 



tion of the * Science and Art of Surjjery,' 
which appeared in one volume containing 
950 pages and about 250 iUustrations. The 
fifth edition was issued in \H(V.) in two 
volumes. The eighth and ninth editions 
were published with the help of Marcus 
Beck (1843-181)3), while the tenth edition 
in 1895 was edited by Raymond Johnson. 
A copy of a pirated edition was issued by 
the American government to every medical 
officer in the federalarmy during the Ameri- 
can civil war. It was translated into Ger- 
man by Dr. Thudichum of Halle ; into Italian 
by Dr. Longhi of Milan, and into Spanish 
by Drs. Benavente and Ilibera. Other 
works by Erichsen were: 2. 'A Practical 
Treatise on Diseases of the Scalp,' London, 
1842, 8vo. 3. * Observations on Aneurism,' 
London, 1844, 8vo. 4. * On Railway and 
other Injuries of the Nervous System,' Lon- 
don, 1866, 8vo. 5. * On Hospitalism, and 
the Causes of Death after Operation,' Lon- 
don, 1874, 12mo. 6. * On Concussion of the 
Spine, Nervous Shock, and other obscure 
Injuries of the Nervous System in their 
Clinical and Medico-legal Aspects.' 

[Obituary notices in the Proceedings of the 
Royal Society, 1897, vol. Ixi.; Lancet, 1896, 
ii. 962 ; Brit. Med. Journ. 1896, ii. 885 ; Times, 
Sept. 1896; personal knowledge ; additional in- 
formation kindly given by Dr. R. G. Hebb and 
Christopher Heath, esq., F.R.C.S. Engl.] 

D'A. P. 

ERPrNQHAM, Sir THOMAS (1357- 
1428), soldier, born in 1357, was son of Sir 
John Erpingham, who died on 1 Aug. 1370, 
and was buried in Erpingham church, Nor- 
folk. The family claimed to have been 
settled at Erpingham from the time of the 
Conqueror (Blomefield, Norfolk, vi. 412 - 
413), but the earliest to be lord of the manor 
of Erpingham wos Robert, who lived in the 
middle of the thirteenth century. A later 
Robert de Erpingham, probably grandfather 
of Sir Thomas, represented Norfolk in the par- 
liaments of 133.3-4, 1335, and 1341 {Ofiicial 
Betum, i. 103, 107, 134). Sir John had, like 
his son, a house in Norwich, where he mainly 
resided. 

Thomas, who was only thirteen years old 
at his father's death, was early trained in the 
profession of arms. In 1380 he was in the 
service of John of Gaunt, and by an inden- 
ture dated at York on 13 Sept. of that year 
he stipulated for 20/. a year in time of peace 
and fifty marks in war for himself and a ser- 
vant, together with the ' usual wages of the 
bachelors of his sort.' On 8 March 1381-2 
he was appointed one of the commissioners to 
suppress rebellions in Norfolk, and on 21 Dec. 
following his name occurs in a similar com- 



mission for Middlesex. In January 1384-6 

he was made commissioner of array in Nor- 
folk in view of the anticipated French in- 
vasion, and he constantly served on commis- 
sions of the peace in the same county (O//. 
Pat. Rolls, 1381-5, passim). In March l.'}80 
he obtained letters of protection on setting 
out with John of Gaunt for Spain, and saih.-d 
from Plymouth on 7 July. In 1.390 Er- 
pingham accompanied .John of Gaunt's son 
Henry, earl of Derby (afterwards Henry IV), 
on his expedition to Lithuania, sailing from 
Boston on 20 July ; and in July 1.392, when 
Henry started on his second journey to 
Lithuania, Erpingham again went with him. 
On 23 Sept. Henry sent home most of his 
followers from Danzig, but Erpingham re- 
mained with him, and accompanied him on 
his adventurous passage across Europe into 
Palestine. He received various payment* 
from the duchy of Lanca.ster for his services, 
and was also granted lands near King's 
Lynn, Norfolk. 

When Henry was banished in 1398 Er- 
pingham was once more his companion in 
his travels abroad ; he was with him at Paris 
in 1399 and witnesssed the agreement for 
mutual support and defence which Henry 
drew up with Louis, duke of Orleans, on 
17 June (DoUET d'Arcq, Pikces inSdites mr 
le rkgne de Charles VI, i. 157-60). He landed 
with Henry at Ravenspur in July 1399, and 
on 30 Sept. he was appointed constable of 
Dover Castle. By the parliament that met 
on that day Erpingham was nominated one 
of the commissioners for receiving Ri- 
chard IPs resignation of the crown {Rot. 
Pari. iii. 416, 422). On 5 Nov. he was made 
warden of the cinque ports, and soon after he 
was granted custody of the lands of Thomas, 
duke of Norfolk. In the following January 
he attended convocation to promise the king s 
help, and advocate some decided action, in 
putting down the Lollards (Ramsat, Lan- 
caster and York, i. 32). His selection for 
this task was singular, as he was himself in- 
clined to lollardy, and was a friend of Sir 
John Oldcastle (Wylie, iii. 295). In the 
same month Erpingham was associated with 
John Beaufort, first earl of Somerset [q. v. 
Suppl.], in the command against the de- 
graded lords who had revolted against 
Henry IV ; and at the end of the month he 
was one of the commissioners appointed to 
try the rebels. Before the end of 1400 he 
was elected K.G., and was made chamber- 
lain of the king's household. 

In November 1401 Erpingham was selected 
to accompany Henry's second son, Thomas, 
as one of his ' wardens,' to Ireland, landing 
at Dublin on 13 Nov. Tsee Thomas, Duke of 



Erpingfiam 



rgcx 



Erskihe 



Clarence, 1388P-1421]. He apparently 
remained in Ireland until Thomas's return in 
September 1403 ; in that year he was pub- 
licly reconciled with Henry le Despenser 
[q. v.], the warlike bishop of Norwich, who 
had loyally stood by Richard II, and he is 
said to have procured the bishop's release 
from prison (W^LIE, i. 110, 169, 177). In 
January 1403-4 he appears as a member of 
Henry's privy council, on 9 July he is styled 
steward of the royal household, and by the 
parliament which met at Coventry in that 
year he was entrusted with the duties of 
marshal of England. On 8 Aug. 1405 he 
was granted Framingham and other manors 
in Norfolk, and on 11 July 1407 he was one 
of the commissioners selected to treat with 
France. He started on 25 July, and on the 
28th an armistice was agreed upon to last 
until 8 Sept. He was also nominated to 
treat with the French envoys to England on 
1 Dec. following, and on the 7th a truce, was 
concluded to last for three months (Mon- 
STRELBT, ChroniqiLes, i. 152 ; Wtlie, iii. 95). 
On 28 Feb. 1409 Prince Henry was ap- 
pointed constable of Dover Castle and war- 
den of the cinque ports in Erpingham's stead. 

Henry V placed as much confidence in 
Erpingham as his father had done, and he 
took a prominent part in the Agincourt 
campaign. He crossed to Harfleur with 
twenty men-at-arms and sixty mounted 
archers in his retinue, and, after assisting at 
the siege and capture of Harfleur, he marched 
with Henry towards Calais. At the battle 
of Agincourt (25 Oct. 1415) Erpingham was 
put in command of the English archers. Ac- 
cording to the ^Chronique de St. R6my,' 
where he appears as * messire Thomas Her- 
pinchem,' Erpingham addressed the archers, 
riding down their ranks and exhorting them 
to fight bravely : * apres ce qu'il eult fait les 
ordonnances, [il] jecta un bastion contre- 
mont qu'il tenoit en sa main, et en apres de- 
scendi h piet et se mist en la bataille du roy 
d'Angleterre, qui estait aussi descendu k piet 
entre ses gens et sa barriere devant luy ' (St. 
R^:mt, i. 253). The precise disposition of 
the archers on the field is not clear, but it 
is agreed that they played a decisive part in 
the battle (Nicolas, Battle of Agincourt; 
Ramsay, i. 215, 219; Waubin, ii. 211, 212; 
St. DEinrs, pp. 655-65). 

In July 1416 Erpingham was sent with 
John Wakering [q. v.], bishop of Norwich, to 
Calais and Beauvais to treat with the king of 
France (Monstrelet, iii. 147) ; but he was 
now nearly sixty years old, and this seems to 
have been his last important employment. He 
died on 27 June 1428. His will, which is 
now at Lambeth (303a Chichele, p. i), is given 



in the ' Genealogist ' (vi. 24). There is a por- 
trait of him in a window of Norwich Cathe- 
dral {Antiq. Repertory, i. 342), and his arms 
are in the chapter-house at Canterbury 
(Willement, p. 155). He built the so-called 
* penal ' gate at Norwich, which still survives 
(it is figured in Britton, vol. ii. plate xxiii, 
and in English Cities, p. 82), but the word 
on it, which has been read as * pena,' is appa- 
rently Erpingham's motto, ' yenk,' i.e. Hhink ' 
(Wylie, iii. 295). He married, first, Joan, 
daughter of Sir William Clopton of Clopton, 
Suffolk; and, secondly, after 1409, Joan, 
{d. 1425), daughter of Sir Richard Walton, 
and widow of Sir John Howard. He left 
issue by neither wife, and his heir was Sir 
William Phelip, son of his sister Julian by 
her husband. Sir John Phelip. A curious 
story of Erpingham and one of his wives ap- 
pears in Hey wood's TwaLKeiov (ed. 1624, 
p. 253 ; cf. Blomefield, Norfolk, vi. 415).; 
Erpingham figures prominently in Drayton's 
' Agincourt ' and in Shakespeare's 'Henry V.' 
His nephew, Sir William Phelip, married. 
Joan, daughter of Thomas, fifth baron Bar- 
dolf [q. V. Suppl.], was himself created Baron 
Bardolf on 13 Nov. 1437, and died in 1441. 

[Cal. Patent Rolls, 1381-5; Cal. Rot. Pat. 
(Record Publ.); Rotuli Parliamentorura ; Ry- 
mer's Foedera (orig. ed.) ; Nicolas's Proc. Privy 
Council; Hardy's Rotuli Nermann ise ; Palgrave's 
Antient Kalendars and Inventories ; Devon's 
Issues of the Exchequer ; Beltz's Memorials of 
the G-arter ; Anstis's Order 6f the Garter ; Eng- 
lish Chron. ed. Davies (Camden Soc.) ; Chron. 
de St. Remy and Monstrelet (Soc, de I'Hist. de 
France) ; Chron. du Religieux de St. Denys 
(Collection de Doc. Inedits) ; Waurin's Cliron. 
(Rolls Ser.) ; Froissart, ed. Kervyn de Letten- 
hove ; Nicolas's Battle of Agincourt ; Scrope and 
Grosvenor Controversy, ed. Nicolas, 1832, ii. 
175-6; Paston Letters, ed. Gairdner, i. 13-15, 17, 
47; Archgeolo^ia, XX. 131 ; F.M.Hueffer's Cinque 
Ports, 1900 ; Blomefield's Norfolk, passim ; Ram- 
say's Lancaster and York ; Wylie's Henry IV" 
(and other authorities there cited) ; Notes and 
Queries, 2nd ser. vii. 88, 7th ser. iii. 309, 398, 
iv. 14.] A. F. P. 

ERSKINE, WILLIAM (1773-1852), his- 
torian and orientalist, born in Edinburgh on 
8 Nov. 1773, was seventh child of David 
Erskine and Jean Melvin. His father was a 
writer to the signet, and a ,son of John 
Erskine (1695-1768) [q. v.] Thomas Ers- 
kine (1788-1870) [q. v.] of Linlathen was 
his half-brother. William was educated at 
the Royal High School and the Edinburgh 
University, and was apparently a fellow- 
student of John Leyden [q. v.] They met 
again in Calcutta, and Erskine, in his dedica- 
tion of the translation of ' Babar's Memoirs ' 
to Mountstuart Elphinstone, refers to Ley- 



Erskine 



191 



Erskine 



den 08 * a friend rendered doubly dear to 
me, as the only companion of my youthful 
studies and cares, whom I have met, or can 
ever hope to meet, in this land of exile.' 
Other associates of his at this time were 
Thomas lirown (1778-1820) [q. vj the 
metaphysician, and the poet Thomas Camp- 
bell 07"77-1844) [q.v.1 lie was also a friend 
and fellow-student of Francis Horner Fq. v.] 
Ersldno's father had expressed a wish that 
he should enter the church, but the family 
trustees made him a lawyer's apprentice. 
lie served for seven years (1792-9) with 
James Dundas, writer to the signet, but the 
position was not congenial to him, and he 
left Edinburgh in the end of 1799 to become 
factor to Mr. Hay of Drummetzie at Dunse, 
and to set up as a country writer. While in 
ICdinburgh he published a poem called ' An 

Epistle from Lady Grange to Edward D .' 

It took its title from the Lady Grange who 
was shut up in St. Kilda [see Erskixe, 
James, Lord Grange]. It was supposed to 
have been written from that island, but the 
story told in the poem is entirely imaginary. 
Erskine was afraid that the fact of his having 
written poetry might injure his prospects as 
a lawyer, and so he sent the poem to Lon- 
don to be published, and did not attach 
his name to it. The secret, however, was 
revealed by a paragraph in the ' Monthly 
ine' for December 1797. 
Erskine remained at Dunse till November 
1803, but his salary was only 60/. a year 
and his prospects were bad. He therefore 
threw up his appointment and returned to 
Edinburgh with the intention of studying 
medicine. But he had not been there a 
fortnight before Sir James Mackintosh 

tq. v.] invited him to accompany him to 
ndia, promising him the first appointment 
in his gift. It seems that Erskme was in- 
troduced by James Reddie [q. v.] to Mac- 
kintosh, who was attracted by his taste for 
philosophical studies. He accepted Mac- 
kintosh's offer and left Edinburgh almost 
immediately. On 12 Dec. 1803 he reached 
London, and sailed from Ryde with Mackin- 
tosh and his family in February 1804. 
Mackintosh's estimate of Erskine is given in 
a letter dated 28 May 1807, and addressed 
to Dr. Parr, where he says, * I had the good 
fortune to bring out with me a young Scotch 
gentleman, Mr. Erskine, who is one of the 
most amiable, ingenious, and accurately 
informed men in the world ' (Mackintosh, 
Life^ i. 331). Erskine arrived in Bombay 
in May 1804, and on 26 Nov. he attended a 
meeting convened by ^lackintosh at Parel 
for the purpose of founding a literary society. 
The society became known as * The Literary 



Magazi 



Society of Bombay/ and Erskine was its first 
secretary. Soon after his arrival he was 
appointed sealer and clerk to the small cause 
court. He was also for many years one of 
the stipendiary magistrates of jtombay. 

Erskine must have begun early his Persian 
studies, for he states that he had translated 
a small portion of * Babar's Memoirs ' some 
years before 1810-11. Between 1813 and 
1821 he contributed five articles to the 'Trans- 
actions of the Literary Society of Bombay,' of 
which three volumes were published in Ix)n- 
don, 1819-23 (republished in 1877 by V. N. 
Mandlik). The second article, read in 
1813, was on the Cave Temple of Elephanta, 
and is probably the most valuable of the 
five. It is referred to by Reginald Heber 
[q. v.] in his * Journal,' and is still a standard 
treatise on the subject. In 1820 Erskine 
was made master in equity in the recorder's 
court of Bombay by SirWilliam David Evans 



[q. v.] There he enjoyed the friendship and 
confidence of Mountstuart Elphinstone[q. v.], 
and was one of the committee of three which 



drew up the celebrated Bombay code of 
regulations. With reference to this, Elphin- 
stone writes to Strachey on 3 Sept. 1820 
{Life, i. 117) : ' The great security for the 
efficiency of this committee is in the charac- 
ter of Mr. Erskine, a gentleman out of the 
service, distinguished for the solidity of his 
understanding and the extent of his know- 
ledge.' Erskine, however, did not hold his 
mastership in the court of equity long, for 
he left India under a cloud in 1823. He was 
removed from his offices in court, was accused 
of defalcations, and had to give heavy security 
before he was allowed to leave the country 
(Douglas, Glimpses of Old Bombay, London, 
1900, p. 33). On the other hand, the chief- 
justice. Sir Edward West, who had been the 
recorder of the old court, appears to have 
behaved harshly to Erskine, the honesty of 
whose intentions was undoubted, though he 
must have been neglectful of his duties. 
Probably sickness was the cause, for he left 
India in bad health, and returned to England 
via China. On his departure the residents 
of Bombay presented him with an address.. 
On his return from India Erskine at first 
settled in Edinburgh, and in 1826 he pub- 
lished the translation of * R-xbar's Memoirs/ 
which had been completed and sent home 
ten years previously. From Erskine's pre- 
face it appears that he had been working at 
a translation of the * Memoirs ' from the 
Persian version while Leyden had been 
engaged on the other side of India in trans- 
lating the same work from the Turki original. 
Leyden died in August 1811, before his 
translation was half finished, and Erskine, to 



Erskine 



192 



Erskine 



whom and to Heber Leyden left his papers, 
received the manuscript in the end of 1813. 
By this time Erskine had finished his trans- 
lation from the Persian. He at once set 
about comparing and correcting the two 
translations, and had just completed this 
when he received from Elphinstone a copy 
of the Turki original. This compelled him 
to undertake a third labour, viz. that of 
comparing his translation throughout with 
the Turki, and not merely with Leyden's 
translation, which was only a fragment. In 
his own words ' the discovery of this valu- 
able manuscript (the Elphinstone manu- 
script, and which has, unhappily, again dis- 
appeared) reduced me, though heartily sick 
of the task, to the necessity of commen- 
cing my work once more.' The title-page 
states that the translation was made partly 
by Leyden and partly by Erskine, and 
the book was published, as we learn from Sir 
Walter Scott, for the benefit of Ley den's 
father ; but the credit of the performance is 
mainly due to Erskine. Leyden translated 
only down to page 195 of the 'Memoirs,' and 
pages 246-54, and he supplied scarcely any 
notes. Erskine contributed a valuable pre- 
face and introduction, he corrected Leyden's 
version, and he translated the remainder of 
the 425 pages, which include the Indian 
campaign and the description of India and 
its productions. He also supplied the notes, 
which Lord Jefirey described as * the most 
intelligent, learned, and least pedantic notes 
we have ever seen annexed to such a per- 
formance ' {Edinburgh Review, 1827). The 
translation is indeed an admirable one, and 
will probably never be superseded. Almost 
its only defect is that it was made mainly 
from the Persian version and not from the 
Turki original. This defect has been practi- 
cally remedied by Pavet de Courteille, who 
published a French translation from the 
Turki in 1871. His translation, however, has 
few notes, and is not always perfectly accu- 
rate. It has been made, too, from a single 
imprint (Ilminsky's), and without any colla- 
tion of manuscripts. Leyden and Erskine's 
translation, which was published in London 
in 1826 in 4to, has been long out of print ; an 
abridgment by R. M. Caldecott appeared in 
1844. 

In 1827 Erskine went to Pau, where he 
resided for two or three years. In 1836 he 
became provost of St. Andrews. In 1839 he 
returned to Edinburgh, and from 1845 to 1848 
he was at Bonn. For some years also he 
rented Blackburn House in Linlithgowshire, 
but most of his later years were spent in 
Edinburgh. For the last year of his life he 
"was blind. He died at Edinburgh on 28 May 



1852, and is buried in the churchyard of St. 
John's episcopal church, Princes' Street. On 
27 Sept. 1809 he married, at Madras, Mait- 
land, second daughter of Sir James Mackin- 
tosh; she died in London on 15 Jan. 1861. 
Erskine had fourteen children, of whom one, 
Miss Louisa Erskine, still survives. Four of 
his sons, two of whom are noticed below, 
were in the Indian civil service. Erskine's 
portrait is in the rooms of the Bombay branch 
of the Royal Asiatic Society. 

Erskine's chief work, apart from his great 
edition of * Babar's Memoirs,' is his ' History 
of India under Babar and Humayun ' (1854, 
2 vols.) This was edited by his son, James 
Claudius, and was published after his death, 
th